San Diego County, California
San Diego County is a county in the southwestern corner of the state of California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,095,313, making it Californias second-most populous county and the fifth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is San Diego, the eighth-most populous city in the United States and it is the south-westernmost county in the 48 contiguous United States. San Diego County comprises the San Diego-Carlsbad Metropolitan Statistical Area, San Diego is part of the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area shared between the United States and Mexico. Greater San Diego ranks as the 38th largest metropolitan area in the Americas, San Diego County has 70 miles of coastline. Most of the county has a mild Mediterranean climate to climate, though there are mountains that receive frost. There are 16 naval and military installations of the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, and these include the Naval Base San Diego, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, and Naval Air Station North Island.
From north to south, San Diego County extends from the borders of Orange County and Riverside County to the Mexico–United States border. From west to east, San Diego County stretches from the Pacific Ocean to its boundary with Imperial County, the area which is now San Diego County has been inhabited for more than 10,000 years by Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians. In 1542, the Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for Spain, claimed San Diego Bay for the Spanish Empire, and he named the site San Miguel. In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego. European settlement in what is now San Diego County began with the founding of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spanish soldiers and this county was part of Alta California under the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the Mexican declaration of independence.
From 1821 through 1848 this area was part of Mexico, San Diego County became part of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the U. S. -Mexican War. San Diego County was one of the counties of California. At the time of its establishment in 1850, San Diego County was relatively large, as such it included areas of what are now Inyo County and San Bernardino County, as well as all of what is now Riverside County and Imperial County. During the part of the 19th century, there were changes in the boundaries of San Diego County. The most recent changes were the establishments of Riverside County in 1893, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,526 square miles, of which 4,207 square miles is land and 319 square miles is water. The county is larger in area than the states of Rhode Island
Downtown San Diego
Downtown San Diego, referred to as Centre City, is the city center of San Diego, the eighth largest city in the United States. In 2010, the Centre City area itself had a population of more than 28,000, founded in 1850, downtown San Diego serves as the cultural, financial center and central business district of San Diego County with more than 4,000 businesses and nine districts. The city of San Diego was originally focused in Old Town near the Presidio, the location was not ideal because it was several miles from navigable water. He proposed the idea to William Heath Davis, who recruited four other investors, the partners under Daviss leadership purchased 160 acres of land in what is now Downtown San Diego. They laid out a plan for New Town and built a wharf. Several people built houses there, including the still-standing William Heath Davis House, New Town did not do well due to a lack of fresh water, a financial depression in 1851, and opposition from the established settlements in Old Town and La Playa.
In 1867, Alonzo Horton purchased 800 acres of lands in the current Downtown area, and in 1869 he added Davis’s 160 acres to his holdings. Davis’s wharf had fallen to pieces by then, but Horton realized the area was ideal for a harbor. He built a new wharf at the end of Fifth Avenue in 1869 and he vigorously sold property and gave away land to promote development of the area, fueling the first of San Diego’s many real estate speculation booms. People flocked to the area, known as New Town, because of its access to shipping. In 1871 government records were moved to a new county courthouse in New Town, by the 1880s New Town had totally eclipsed Old Town as the heart of the growing city. In 1885 the transcontinental railroad reached San Diego, the Santa Fe railway station opened downtown in 1887. In 1886 the city’s first electric lights and first streetcars were established in New Town, in 1912 the Spreckels Theater opened downtown, the first modern commercial playhouse west of the Mississippi. A new commercial pier, the Broadway Pier, was built by the city in 1913 and these streetcars became a fixture of the neighborhood until their retirement in 1939.
In 1964 the multi-story City Hall and Community Concourse were dedicated on a property at 202 C Street. Recent mayors and city councils have discussed building a replacement city hall, in the 1960s, Centre City began to fall into a state of disrepair and disrepute. Major businesses and stores moved from downtown to suburban shopping malls, Downtown became known as a hangout for homeless people and sailors on liberty. Tattoo parlors and strip clubs were predominant forms of business, trash littered the Gaslamp Quarter, many 19th century Victorian houses were rundown, and there were few buildings of significant size
Founded in 1971 to take over most of the remaining U. S. passenger rail services, it is partially government funded yet operated and managed as a for-profit corporation. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains each day over 21,300 miles of track, some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2015, Amtrak served 30.8 million passengers and had $2.185 billion in revenue, nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas, 83% of passengers travel on routes shorter than 400 miles. Its headquarters is at Union Station in Washington, D. C, the name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. From the mid-19th century until about 1920, nearly all intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, historically, U. S. passenger trains were owned and operated by the same privately owned companies that operated freight trains.
About 65,000 railroad passenger cars operated in 1929, from 1920 into the 20th century, passenger rails popularity diminished and there was a series of pullbacks and tentative recoveries. Rail passenger revenues declined dramatically between 1920 and 1934 because of the rise of the automobile, in the same period, many travelers were lost to interstate bus companies such as Greyhound Lines. However, in the mid-1930s, railroads reignited popular imagination with service improvements and new, diesel-powered streamliners, such as the gleaming silver Pioneer Zephyr and Flying Yankee. Even with the improvements, on a basis, traffic continued to decline. World War II broke the malaise, passenger traffic soared sixfold thanks to troop movements, in 1946, there remained 45 percent fewer passenger trains than in 1929, and the decline quickened despite railroad optimism. Passengers disappeared and so did trains, few trains generated profits, most produced losses. Broad-based passenger rail deficits appeared as early as 1948, and by the mid-1950s, by 1965, only 10,000 rail passenger cars were in operation,85 percent fewer than in 1929.
Passenger service was provided on only 75,000 miles of track, the 1960s saw the end of railway post office revenues, which had helped some of the remaining trains break even. The causes of the decline of rail in the United States were complex. Until 1920, rail was the practical form of intercity transport. By 1930, the companies had constructed, with private funding. In 1916, the amount of track in the United States peaked at 254,251 miles, some rail routes had been built primarily to facilitate the sale of stock in the railroad companies, they were redundant from the beginning. These were the first to be abandoned as the financial positions deteriorated
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer and cut. Blacksmiths produce objects such as gates, railings, light fixtures, sculpture, agricultural implements and religious items, cooking utensils and weapons. The black in blacksmith refers to the black fire scale, a layer of oxides that forms on the surface of the metal during heating. The origin of smith is debated, it may come from the old English word smythe meaning to strike or it may have originated from the Proto-German smithaz meaning skilled worker. Blacksmiths work by heating pieces of iron or steel until the metal becomes soft enough for shaping with hand tools, such as a hammer, anvil. Heating generally takes place in a forge fueled by propane, natural gas, charcoal, some modern blacksmiths may employ an oxyacetylene or similar blowtorch for more localized heating. Induction heating methods are gaining popularity among modern blacksmiths, color is important for indicating the temperature and workability of the metal.
As iron heats to higher temperatures, it first glows red, yellow, the ideal heat for most forging is the bright yellow-orange color that indicates forging heat. Because they must be able to see the color of the metal, some blacksmiths work in dim, low-light conditions. The key is to have consistent lighting, but not too bright, the techniques of smithing can be roughly divided into forging, heat-treating, and finishing. Forging—the process smiths use to shape metal by hammering—differs from machining in that forging does not remove material, the smith hammers the iron into shape. Even punching and cutting operations by smiths usually re-arrange metal around the hole, drawing lengthens the metal by reducing one or both of the other two dimensions. As the depth is reduced, or the width narrowed, the piece is lengthened or drawn out, as an example of drawing, a smith making a chisel might flatten a square bar of steel, lengthening the metal, reducing its depth but keeping its width consistent.
Drawing does not have to be uniform, a taper can result as in making a wedge or a woodworking chisel blade. If tapered in two dimensions, a point results, drawing can be accomplished with a variety of tools and methods. Two typical methods using only hammer and anvil would be hammering on the anvil horn, another method for drawing is to use a tool called a fuller, or the peen of the hammer, to hasten the drawing out of a thick piece of metal. Fullering consists of hammering a series of indentations with corresponding ridges, the resulting effect looks somewhat like waves along the top of the piece. Then the smith turns the hammer over to use the face to hammer the tops of the ridges down level with the bottoms of the indentations
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below, The first, only, associated with an individual or group having a profound influence on the history of California. California Historical Landmarks of #770 and above are listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event that is of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California — with links to list articles by county, los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers, official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP, California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
La Playa Trail
The La Playa Trail was a historic bayside trail in San Diego, connecting the settled inland areas to the commercial anchorage at Old La Playa on San Diego Bay. The La Playa Trail has been recognized as the oldest commercial trail in the Western United States, the trail was used during the Pre-Hispanic, Spanish and American periods of San Diego history. Much of the length of the original trail corresponds to the current Rosecrans Street in the San Diego neighborhood of Point Loma. The trail was established by the time the Spanish settlers arrived in 1769. It was improved and extended during the Spanish colonization of the region, reaching Old Town San Diego, cargo which had been unloaded by ship at Ballast Point in Old La Playa was transported along the trail several miles inland to Old Town. After most port activities moved to the location, the southern portion of the trail retained its commercial character. The original six were located at Mission San Diego de Alcala, at the foot of Presidio Hill in Old Town, near the intersection of Rosecrans St. by the early 2000s, only four plaques survived.
The marker in the Roseville area, which was dedicated in 1934, the marker in the Midway area, formerly on the center median of Rosecrans Street near Midway Drive, was refurbished in 2005 and relocated to a more accessible sidewalk location in 2010. A portion of the trail was expanded into a divided highway in 1940. Rosecrans was identified as part of California State Route 209 from 1964 to 2003, the southern terminus of the trail is now located within Naval Base Point Loma. Website of the La Playa Trail Association
Whaley House (San Diego, California)
The Whaley House is an 1857 Greek Revival style residence, a California Historical Landmark, and museum located in Old Town, San Diego, California. It is currently maintained by Save Our Heritage Organisation, in the 1960s, the Whaley House was designated as an official haunted house by the United States Commerce Department. The Whaley House was the home of Thomas Whaley and his family, the house was built where a graveyard once was. At various times it housed Whaleys general store, San Diegos second county courthouse, the house has witnessed more history than any other building in the city. Thomas Whaley, of Scots-Irish origin, was born on October 5,1823 in New York City, Whaley took over his fathers successful business relations, left New York on January 1,1849. He traveled to San Francisco, during the California gold rush and he went to San Diego in September 1851. Two years later, Whaley went back to New York and married Anna Eloise Delaunay on August 14,1853, together they returned to California, arriving in San Diego on December 7,1853.
On August 22,1857 the Whaleys moved into their new home and Anna Whaley had six children, Francis Hinton, Thomas Whaley Jr. Anna Amelia, George Hay Ringgold, Violet Eloise, and Corinne Lillian. Francis Hinton was named after a business partner, Thomas Whaley, Jr. suffered from Scarlet Fever at 18 months and died on January 29,1858. After the death of baby Thomas and the loss by fire of their store, Thomas, in January 1859, Whaley turned his affairs in Old Town over to Frank Ames, a Wells Fargo agent. In the summer of 1868, Thomas invested some of his new capitol of stock in merchandise, Thomas fixed up the old Whaley House, and Anna and the rest of the family arrived back home to San Diego on December 12,1868. On January 5,1882, Violet Eloise Whaley and Anna Amelia Whaley were both married in Old San Diego, Violet married George T. Bertolacci and Anna Amelia wed her first cousin, John T. Whaley, son of Henry Hurst Whaley. Two weeks into Violets marriage, as the couple was traveling back east on their honeymoon, she awoke one morning to find her husband gone.
Bertolacci, as it turned out, was a con artist and, as Violet and Georges divorce was finalized approximately a year later, but Violet never recovered from the public humiliation and betrayal, and suffered from depression. Violet committed suicide by shooting herself in the chest with Thomass 32-calibre on August 18,1885 and she was 22 years of age. Her suicide note reads thus, Mad from lifes history, Swift to deaths mystery, Glad to be hurled, anywhere, the suicide note is a passage from Bridge of Sighs, a poem by Thomas Hood. This particular poem is offered up by Edgar Allan Poe, as an example of painting with words, corrine Lillian was engaged at the time of her sisters death, but her fiancé broke off the engagement due to the scandal it raised. Francis Whaley married Susan E. Murray in Mendocino, California on December 31,1888, on December 14,1890, Thomas Whaley died due to ill health at the State Street address
Old Town Transit Center
The Old Town Transit Center is an intermodal transportation station located in the Old Town neighborhood of San Diego, California. It is served by the San Diego Trolley, Coaster commuter rail, the Old Town Transit Center was built in the early 1990s, and San Diego Trolleys North/South Line was extended here on June 16,1996. In November 1997, the line, renamed the Blue Line, was extended into Mission Valley, the Old Town Transit Center hosts passenger trains operating on Amtraks Pacific Surfliner intercity rail route and on the San Diego Coaster commuter rail line. Amtrak ridership at Old Town Transit Center has exploded over the last two years, in Fiscal Year 2011, there were just 22,867 boardings and detrainings at Old Town. In Fiscal Year 2012, boardings and detrainings at Old Town rose to 61,118, as of Fiscal Year 2013, the Amtrak ridership figure has continued to rise, to 135,749 boardings and detrainings, a further 122% increase over FY2012. Of the 74 California stations served by Amtrak, the Old Town Transit Center was the 25th-busiest in Fiscal Year 2013, Old Town Transit Center is a light rail station on the San Diego Trolleys Green Line.
This station originally served as that lines terminus, until a realignment on September 2012 extended the Green Line though Old Town to Downtown San Diego. Old Town operates as a bus transit center for San Diego Metropolitan Transit Systems routes 8,9,10,28,30,35,44,88,105, and 150. There is a pedestrian tunnel linking bus terminals on both sides of the station with the trolley/train areas. Old Town is served by university shuttles for University of California, San Diego, the station is located at the intersection of Rosecrans Street/Taylor Street and Pacific Highway, adjacent to Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. Free parking for up to 24-hours is available in the Transit Center lots
Richard Henry Dana Jr.
For other men with the same name, Richard Henry Dana. Both as a writer and as a lawyer, he was a champion of the downtrodden, from seamen to fugitive slaves and freedmen. Dana was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on August 1,1815 into a family that had settled in colonial America in 1640 and his father was the poet and critic Richard Henry Dana Sr. As a boy, Dana studied in Cambridgeport under a schoolmaster named Samuel Barrett, alongside fellow Cambridge native. Barrett was infamous as a disciplinarian who punished his students for any infraction by flogging and he often pulled students by their ears and, on one such occasion, nearly pulled Danas ear off, causing the boys father to protest enough that the practice was abolished. In July 1831, Dana enrolled at Harvard College, where in his freshman year his support of a student protest cost him a six-month suspension, in his junior year, he contracted measles, which in his case led to ophthalmia. Fatefully, the worsening vision inspired him to take a sea voyage, but rather than going on a fashionable Grand Tour of Europe he decided, despite his high-class birth, to enlist as a merchant seaman.
On August 14,1834 he departed Boston aboard the brig Pilgrim, captained by Frank Thompson, bound for Alta California and this voyage would bring Dana to a number of settlements in California. After witnessing Thompsons sadistic practices, including a flogging on board the ship, the Pilgrim collected hides for shipment to Boston, and Dana spent much of his time in California at San Diegos Point Loma curing hides and loading them onto the ship. To return home sooner, he was reassigned by the owners to a different ship. Of the return trip around Cape Horn in the middle of the Antarctic winter and he describes terrifying storms and incredible beauty, giving vivid descriptions of icebergs, which he calls incomparable. At one point he has a tooth, and his face swells up so that he is unable to work for several days. After the Horn has been rounded he describes the scurvy that afflicts members of the crew, in White-Jacket, Herman Melville wrote, But if you want the best idea of Cape Horn, get my friend Danas unmatchable Two Years Before the Mast.
But you can read, and so you must have read it and his chapters describing Cape Horn must have been written with an icicle. On September 22,1836, Dana arrived back in Massachusetts and he thereupon enrolled at what is now Harvard Law School, called the Dane Law School. Graduated in 1837, he was admitted to the bar in 1840, the judge had sentenced the captain to ninety days in jail and the mate to thirty days. In 1841, Dana published The Seamans Friend, which became a reference on the legal rights. He defended many common seamen in court, during his voyages he had kept a diary, and in 1840 he published a memoir, Two Years Before the Mast
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county