Ludmilla Ivanovna Tourischeva, born October 7, 1952, is a former Russian gymnast and a nine-time Olympic medalist for the Soviet Union. Tourischeva began gymnastics in 1965, at age 13, began competing for the Soviet team in 1967. Coached by Vladislav Rastorotsky, she represented the Soviet Union at the 1968 Summer Olympics, just after her 16th birthday, she placed 24th in the all-around. Two years Tourischeva became the leader of the Soviet team. From 1970 to 1974, she dominated every major international competition, winning the World Championships all-around gold in 1970 and 1974, the European Championships in 1971 and 1973, the World Cup in 1975, she was considered to embody the classic Soviet style: grace, impeccable form, strong technique. At the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Tourischeva won the all-around gold medal but was overshadowed by the sudden popularity of her younger compatriot Olga Korbut, she qualified for all four event finals, won a silver and a bronze. Tourischeva was one of the first female gymnasts to use two separate pieces of music for her floor routines at an international competition.
For the team competition, she used "March" from the film Circus by Isaak Dunaevsky, while for the all around, she used the music to the film Die Frau meiner Träume by Franz Grothe. At the 1975 European Championships, Tourischeva placed fourth in the all-around behind 13-year-old Nadia Comăneci of Romania, her own teammate Nellie Kim and Annelore zinke; this marked the first time in 5 years. After struggling with a back injury, Tourischeva competed in her third Olympics, the 1976 Summer Games in Montreal, where she won her third team gold with the Soviet squad. In the all-around, she finished third behind Kim, she won silver medals on vault and floor exercise in the event finals, losing to Kim but overcoming Comăneci, bringing her total Olympic medal count to four gold, three silver, two bronze. Tourischeva was known for her calm demeanor in competition. In 1980, British journalist David Hunn wrote that she "never had the cheek of some of her rivals, but for serenity she was supreme"; this was famously illustrated during the 1975 World Cup at Wembley Stadium in London, when a broken hook holding support cables of the uneven bars caused the apparatus to fall apart and crash to the ground just as Tourischeva landed her dismount.
Saluting the judges, she walked off the podium without turning around to look at the remains of the apparatus. She went on to win all four event finals. Years she said of the incident that, at that moment, she had thought only one thing: she must complete her routine and "stick it". Rastorotsky, her coach, said, "Ljudmila would fight to death in any situation."She was known for her gracious manner. At the 1976 Olympics, she walked around the podium to congratulate champion Comăneci and shake her hand before accepting her own medal. Tourischeva is one of only two women, the other being Yelena Shushunova, who have won the "grand slam" of all-around titles: Olympics, World Championships, World Cup, European Championships, she is one of only two women to win four gold medals at a single World Championships. The other is Simone Biles of the United States, who won four in 2014, 2015, 2018. In 1977, Tourischeva married the sprinter Valeriy Borzov, a two-time Olympic champion in 1972, she was elected to the Women's Artistic Gymnastics Technical Committee of the International Gymnastics Federation in 1981, has remained involved in gymnastics as a coach, an international judge, an official with the Ukrainian gymnastics federation.
One of her protégés was Lilia Podkopayeva of Ukraine, the all-around gold medalist at the 1996 Olympics. Tourischeva has received various honors for her gymnastics career, including the Women in Sport trophy from the International Olympic Committee. In 1998, she was inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. List of multiple Olympic medalists List of top Olympic gymnastics medalists List of top medalists at the World Artistic Gymnastics Championships List of Olympic female gymnasts for the Soviet Union Ludmila TURICHEVA at the International Federation of Gymnastics Article from "Soviet Life" Full list of competitive results
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno
Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno а higher education institution, located in Grodno. It is the largest regional higher education institution in the Republic of Belarus, university complex integrating all levels of education. In 2011 it was the first university, among higher education institutions of the country, which became the winner of the national contest "Prize of the Government of the Republic of Belarus for achievements in quality". In 2011 the Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno received the status of scientific organization. In 2010 the Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno was the first university, among the regional universities of Belarus, which received national and international certificates of quality management system meeting the requirements of STB ISO 9001-2009 and ISO 9001:2008 According to the international Webometrics ranking, YKSUG ranks second among Belarusian universities and 3103 among 12 000 world universities, it is the second education institution in the Republic of Belarus where the system of electronic student identification card was introduced.
Samuil Raskin Dementy Kardash Nikolai Vlasovets Josef Malyukevich Dmitry Markovsky Alexander Bodakov Leonid Kivach Sergey Maskevich Yauheni Rouba Andrei Korol On February 22, 1940 by the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the BSSR Teachers' Training Institute was founded in Grodno. It ceased its development because of the Great Patriotic War. In 1944 the studies continued, the Teachers' Institute was reorganized into a pedagogical. In 1957 the Institute was honored with the name of Yanka Kupala. In 1967 the first defence of doctoral thesis took place in the Institute, in 1969 postgraduate studies were introduced. On May 1, 1978 Pedagogical Institute was reorganized into the Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno. September 1, 2010 - introduction of the electronic student identification cards system. At present there are: 17 098 students, 284 master students, 162 post-graduate students, 40 professors, 261 associate professors and 316 candidates of sciences; the university comprises 79 departments.
The university research library has more than 700 000 books. Faculty of Biology and Ecology Military Faculty Faculty of Arts and Design Faculty of History and Sociology Faculty of Mathematics and Information Science Faculty of Pedagogy Faculty of Psychology Faculty of Tourism and Service Faculty of Physics and Engineering Faculty of Physical Training Faculty of Philology Faculty of Economics and Management Faculty of Law Faculty of Engineering and Construction Faculty of Innovative Mechanic Engineering Association of Socio-Humanitarian Departments Faculty of Professional skills upgrading and retraining «School of Tourism and Hospitality»In addition, the University comprises the Regional Centre for Testing and Youth Career Orientation, the Institute for Professional Skills Upgrading and Retraining and colleges: Volkovysk College Humanitarian College Technological college Lida College The logotype of the university and faculties is a stylized letter “У” of the Cyrillic alphabet with certain symbols in the centre.
Olga Korbut – sportsman Alaksandar Milinkievič – politician. Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno, Grodno http://www.grsu.by/
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds. They are known as true sparrows, or Old World sparrows, names used for a particular genus of the family, Passer, they are distinct from both the American sparrows, in the family Passerellidae, from a few other birds sharing their name, such as the Java sparrow of the family Estrildidae. Many species nest on buildings and the house and Eurasian tree sparrows, in particular, inhabit cities in large numbers, so sparrows are among the most familiar of all wild birds, they are seed-eaters, though they consume small insects. Some species scavenge for food around cities and, like gulls or rock doves will eat anything in small quantities. Sparrows are small, plump and grey birds with short tails and stubby, powerful beaks; the differences between sparrow species can be subtle. Members of this family range in size from the chestnut sparrow, at 11.4 centimetres and 13.4 grams, to the parrot-billed sparrow, at 18 centimetres and 42 grams. Sparrows are physically similar to other seed-eating birds, such as finches, but have a vestigial dorsal outer primary feather and an extra bone in the tongue.
This bone, the preglossale, helps stiffen the tongue. Other adaptations towards eating seeds are specialised bills and elongated and specialised alimentary canals; the family Passeridae was introduced by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. Under the classification used in the Handbook of the Birds of the World main groupings of the sparrows are the true sparrows, the snowfinches, the rock sparrows; these groups are similar to each other, are each homogeneous Passer. Some classifications include the sparrow-weavers and several other African genera which are morphologically similar to Passer. According to a study of molecular and skeletal evidence by Jon Fjeldså and colleagues, the cinnamon ibon of the Philippines considered to be a white-eye, is a sister taxon to the sparrows as defined by the HBW, they therefore classify it as its own subfamily within Passeridae. Many early classifications of the sparrows placed them as close relatives of the weavers among the various families of small seed-eating birds, based on the similarity of their breeding behaviour, bill structure, moult, among other characters.
Some, starting with P. P. Suskin in the 1920s, placed the sparrows in the weaver family as the subfamily Passerinae, tied them to Plocepasser. Another family sparrows were classed; some authorities classified the related estrildid finches of the Old World tropics and Australasia as members of the Passeridae. Like sparrows, the estrildid finches are small and colonial seed-eaters with short, but pointed bills, they are broadly similar in structure and habits, but tend to be colourful and vary in their plumage. The 2008 Christidis and Boles taxonomic scheme lists the estrildid finches as the separate family Estrildidae, leaving just the true sparrows in Passeridae. Despite some resemblance such as the seed-eater's bill and well-marked heads, American sparrows, or New World sparrows, are members of a different family, with 22 genera recognised. Several species in this family are notable singers. American sparrows are related to Old World buntings, until 2017, were included in the Old World bunting family Emberizidae.
The hedge sparrow or dunnock is unrelated. It is a sparrow in name only, a relict of the old practice of calling more types of small birds "sparrows". A few further bird species are called sparrows, such as the Java sparrow, an estrildid finch; the family contains 43 species divided into 8 genera: The sparrows are indigenous to Europe and Asia. In the Americas and other parts of the world, settlers imported some species which naturalised in urban and degraded areas. House sparrows, for example, are now found throughout North America, parts of southern and eastern Africa, over much of the populated parts of South America; the sparrows are birds of open habitats, including grasslands and scrubland. The snowfinches and ground-sparrows are all species of high latitudes. A few species, like the Eurasian tree sparrow, inhabit open woodland; the aberrant cinnamon ibon has the most unusual habitat of the family, inhabiting the canopy of cloud forest in the Philippines. Sparrows are social birds, with many species breeding in loose colonies and most species occurring in flocks during the non-breeding season.
The great sparrow is an exception, breeding in solitary pairs and remaining only in small family groups in the non-breeding season. Most sparrows form large roosting aggregations in the non-breeding seasons that contain only a single species. Sites include trees, thick bushes and reed beds; the assemblages can be quite large with up to 10,000 house sparrows counted in one roost in Egypt. The sparrows are some of the few passerine birds. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings, they will bathe in water, or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing, with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with
Gymnastics is a sport that includes exercises requiring balance, flexibility, agility and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, shoulders, back and abdominal muscle groups. Alertness, daring, self-confidence and self-discipline are mental traits that can be developed through gymnastics. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, from circus performance skills The most common form of competitive gymnastics is artistic gymnastics which consists of floor, vault and uneven bars. For boys they have floor, rings, parallel bars and horizontal bar. Other FIG disciplines include rhythmic gymnastics and tumbling, acrobatic gymnastics, aerobic gymnastics and parkour. Disciplines not recognized by FIG include wheel gymnastics, aesthetic group gymnastics, men's rhythmic gymnastics, TeamGym and mallakhamba. Participants can include children as young as 1 years old doing kindergym and children's gymnastics, recreational gymnasts of ages 2 and up, competitive gymnasts at varying levels of skill, world-class athletes.
The word "gymnastics" derives from the common Greek adjective γυμνός, by way of the related verb γυμνάζω, whose meaning is to "train naked", "train in gymnastic exercise" "to train, to exercise". The verb had this meaning, because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed without clothing, it came into use in the 1570s, from Latin gymnasticus, from Greek gymnastikos "fond of or skilled in bodily exercise," from gymnazein "to exercise or train". Gymnastics developed in ancient Greece, in Sparta and Athens, was used as a method to prepare men for warfare. In Sparta, among the activities introduced into the training program was the Agoge or exhibition gymnastics made up of gymnastic elements in the form of the Pyrrhic-a dance in a military style-performed for state dignitaries in the final year of a student's training; the maneuvers were performed naked except for the tools of war. Athens combined this more physical training with the education of the mind. At the Palestra, a physical education training center, the discipline of educating the body and educating the mind were combined allowing for a form of gymnastics, more aesthetic and individual and which left behind the form that focused on strictness, the emphasis on defeating records, focus on strength.
Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano, was born on February 19, 1770, in Valencia and died on August 8, 1848, in Paris. He was a Spanish colonel, the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. John promoted the use of parallel bars and high bars in international competition; the Federation of International Gymnastics was founded in Liege in 1881. By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. From on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric, that included, for example, synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping and horizontal ladder. During the 1920s, women participated in gymnastics events; the first women's Olympic competition was limited, only involving synchronized calisthenics and track and field. These games were held in Amsterdam. By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, uniform grading structures had been agreed upon.
At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues. Television has helped initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine; the B Score, is the score for execution, is given for how well the skills are performed. The following disciplines are governed by FIG. Artistic Gymnastics is divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics. Men compete on six events: Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Parallel Bars, Horizontal Bar, while women compete on four: Vault, Uneven Bars, Balance Beam, Floor Exercise. In some countries, women at one time competed on the rings, high bar, parallel bars. In 2006, FIG introduced a new points system for Artistic gymnastics in which scores are no longer limited to 10 points.
The system is used in the US for elite level competition. Unlike the old code of points, there are two separate scores, an execution score and a difficulty score. In the previous system, the "execution score" was the only score, it was and still is out except for short exercises. During the gymnast's performance, the judges deduct this score only. A fall, on or off the event, is a 1.00 deduction, in elite level gymnastics. The introduction of the difficulty score is a significant change; the gymnast's difficulty score is based on what elements they perform and is subject to change if they do not perform or complete all the skills, or they do not connect a skill meant to be connected to another. Connection bonuses are where deviation happens most common between the intended and actual difficulty scores, as it can be difficult to connect multiple flight elements, it is ha
1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972. The sporting nature of the event was overshadowed by the Munich massacre in the second week, in which eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and a West German police officer at Olympic village were killed by Black September terrorists; the 1972 Summer Olympics were the second Summer Olympics to be held in Germany, after the 1936 Games in Berlin, which had taken place under the Nazi regime. The West German Government had been eager to have the Munich Olympics present a democratic and optimistic Germany to the world, as shown by the Games' official motto, "Die Heiteren Spiele", or "the cheerful Games"; the logo of the Games was a blue solar logo by Otl Aicher, the designer and director of the visual conception commission. The Olympic mascot, the dachshund "Waldi", was the first named Olympic mascot; the Olympic Fanfare was composed by Herbert Rehbein.
The Olympic Park is based on Frei Otto's plans. The competition sites, designed by architect Günther Behnisch, included the Olympic swimming hall, the Olympics Hall and the Olympic Stadium, an Olympic village close to the park; the design of the stadium was considered revolutionary, with sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized by metal ropes, used on such a large scale for the first time. Munich won its Olympic bid on April 26, 1966, at the 64th IOC Session at Rome, over bids presented by Detroit and Montréal. Montréal would host the following Olympic games in 1976; the Games were overshadowed by what has come to be known as the "Munich massacre". Just before dawn on September 5, a group of eight members of the Black September terrorist organization broke into the Olympic Village and took eleven Israeli athletes and officials hostage in their apartments. Two of the hostages who resisted were killed in the first moments of the break-in. Late in the evening of September 5 that same day, the terrorists and their nine remaining hostages were transferred by helicopter to the military airport of Fürstenfeldbruck, ostensibly to board a plane bound for an undetermined Arab country.
The German authorities planned to ambush them there, but underestimated the numbers of their opposition and were thus undermanned. During a botched rescue attempt, all of the Israeli hostages were killed. Four of them were shot incinerated when one of the terrorists detonated a grenade inside the helicopter in which the hostages were sitting; the 5 remaining hostages were machine-gunned to death. All but three of the terrorists were killed as well. Although arrested and imprisoned pending trial, they were released by the West German government on October 29, 1972, in exchange for a hijacked Lufthansa jet. Two of those three were hunted down and assassinated by the Mossad. Jamal Al-Gashey, believed to be the sole survivor, is still living today in hiding in an unspecified African country with his wife and two children; the Olympic events were suspended several hours after the initial attack, but once the incident was concluded, Avery Brundage, the International Olympic Committee president, declared that "the Games must go on".
A memorial ceremony was held in the Olympic stadium, the competitions resumed after a stoppage of 24 hours. The attack prompted heightened security at subsequent Olympics beginning with the 1976 Winter Olympics. Security at Olympics was heightened further beginning with the 2002 Winter Olympics, as they were the first to take place after the 2001 September 11 attacks; the massacre led the German federal government to re-examine its anti-terrorism policies, which at the time were dominated by a pacifist approach adopted after World War II. This led to the creation of the elite counter-terrorist unit GSG 9, similar to the British SAS, it led Israel to launch a campaign known as Operation Wrath of God, in which those suspected of involvement were systematically tracked down and assassinated. The events of the Munich massacre were chronicled in the Oscar-winning documentary, One Day in September. An account of the aftermath is dramatized in three films: the 1976 made-for-TV movie 21 Hours at Munich, the 1986 made-for-TV movie Sword of Gideon and Steven Spielberg's 2005 film Munich.
In her film 1972, Artist Sarah Morris interviews Dr. Georg Sieber, a former police psychiatrist who advised the Olympics' security team, about the events and aftermath of Black September; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Avery Brundage. Mark Spitz set a world record when he won seven gold medals in a single Olympics, bringing his lifetime total to nine. Being Jewish, Spitz was asked to leave Munich before the closing ceremonies for his own protection, after fears arose that he would be an additional target of those responsible for the Munich massacre. Spitz's record stood until 2008, when it was beaten by Michael Phelps who won eight gold medals in the pool. Olga Korbut, a Soviet gymnast, became a media star after winning a gold medal in the team competition event, failing to win in the individual all-around after a fall, winning two gold medals in the Balance Beam and the floor exercise events. In the final of the men's basketball, the United States lost to the Soviet Union in what is widely