SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Olga of Kiev

Saint Olga was a regent of Kievan Rus' for her son Svyatoslav from 945 until 960. Due to the imperfect transliteration between Old East Slavic and the English language, the name Olga is synonymous with Olha; because of her Varangian origin, she is known in Old Norse as Saint Helga. She is known for her obliteration of the Drevlians, a tribe that had killed her husband Igor of Kiev. Though it would be her grandson Vladimir that would convert the entire nation to Christianity, her efforts to spread Christianity through the Rus’ earned Olga veneration as a saint, she is venerated in the Russian Orthodox Church as an apostle-like saint. Remembrance day in Russia is the 11th of July. While Olga's birthdate is unknown, it could be as early as 890 AD and as late as 925 AD. According to the Primary Chronicle Olga was of Viking origin and born in Pskov. Little is known about her life before her marriage to Prince Igor I of Kiev and the birth of their son, Svyatoslav. Igor was the heir of Rurik, founder of Rurik dynasty.

After his father's death Igor was under guardianship of Oleg, who had consolidated power in the region, conquering neighboring tribes and establishing a capital in Kiev. This loose tribal federation became known as Kievan Rus’, a territory covering what are now parts of Russia and Belarus; the Drevlians were a neighboring tribe with which the growing Kievan Rus’ empire had a complex relationship. The Drevlians had joined Kievan Rus’ in military campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and paid tribute to Igor's predecessors, they instead gave money to a local warlord. In 945, Igor set out to the Drevlian capital, Iskorosten, to force the tribe to pay tribute to Kievan Rus’. Confronted by Igor's larger army, the Drevlians paid him; as Igor and his army rode home, however, he decided the payment was not enough and returned, with only a small envoy, seeking more tribute. Upon his arrival in their territory, the Drevlians murdered Igor. According to the Byzantine chronicler Leo the Deacon, Igor's death was caused by a gruesome act of torture in which he was “captured by them, tied to tree trunks, torn in two.”

D. Sullivan has suggested that Leo may have invented this sensationalist version of Igor's death, taking inspiration from Diodorus Siculus’ account of a similar killing method used by the robber Sinis, who lived near the Isthmus of Corinth and was killed by Theseus. After Igor's death in 945, Olga ruled Kievan Rus as regent on behalf of their son Svyatoslav. Little is known about Olga’s tenure as ruler of Kiev, but the Primary Chronicle does give an account of her accession to the throne and her bloody revenge on the Drevlians for the murder of her husband as well as some insight into her role as civil leader of the Kievan people. After Igor’s death at the hands of the Drevlians, Olga assumed the throne because her three-year-old son Svyatoslav was too young to rule; the Drevlians, emboldened by their success in ambushing and killing the king, sent a messenger to Olga proposing that she marry his murderer, Prince Mal. Twenty Drevlian negotiators boated to Kiev to pass along their king’s message and to ensure Olga’s compliance.

They arrived in her court and told the queen why they were in Kiev: “to report that they had slain her husband...and that Olga should come and marry their Prince Mal.” Olga responded:Your proposal is pleasing to me’ indeed, my husband cannot rise again from the dead. But I desire to honor you tomorrow in the presence of my people. Return now to your boat, remain there with an aspect of arrogance. I shall send for you on the morrow, you shall say, ‘We will not ride on horses nor go on foot’ carry us in our boat.’ And you shall be carried in your boat. When the Drevlians returned the next day, they waited outside Olga's court to receive the honor she had promised; when they repeated the words she had told them to say, the people of Kiev rose up, carrying the Drevlians in their boat. The ambassadors believed; the people brought them into the court where they were dropped into the trench Olga had ordered dug the day before and buried alive. It is written that Olga bent down to watch them as they were buried and “inquired whether they found the honor to their taste.”Olga sent a message to the Drevlians that they should send “their distinguished men to her in Kiev, so that she might go to their Prince with due honor.”

The Drevlians, unaware of the fate of the first diplomatic party, gathered another party of men to send “the best men who governed the land of Dereva.” When they arrived, Olga commanded her people to draw them a bath and invited the men to appear before her after they had bathed. When the Drevlians entered the bathhouse, Olga had it set on fire from the doors, so that all the Drevlians within burned to death. Olga sent another message to the Drevlians, this time ordering them to “prepare great quantities of mead in the city where you killed my husband, that I may weep over his grave and hold a funeral feast for him.” When Olga and a small group of attendants arrived at Igor's tomb, she did indeed weep and hold a funeral feast. The Drevlians began to drink heavily; when the Drevlians were drunk, she ordered her followers to kill them, “and went about herself egging on her retinue to the massacre of the Drevlians.” According to the Primary Chronicle, five thousand Drevlians were killed on this night, but Olga returned to Kiev to prepare an army to finish off the survivors.

The initial conflict between the armies of the two nations went well for the forces of Kievan Rus’, who won the battle handily and drove the surv

London Fog (company)

London Fog is an American manufacturer of coats and other apparel. The company was founded in 1923 as the Londontown clothing company by Israel Myers. During World War II the company was known for making waterproof clothing for the United States Navy. Following the war the company partnered with DuPont to make material for use in raincoats; these coats, which were the first to have a patented removable liner, were sold in Philadelphia, where they became popular. The company went public in the 1960s. By the 1970s the company had its own stores and was manufacturing not only raincoats but other types of clothes and accessories. At the time two-thirds of all raincoats sold in the United States were London Fog. London Fog expanded internationally during the 1990s selling in places like the United Kingdom and China; the original location of the London Fog Factory was in the Meadow Mill area of Maryland. The factory was moved to Eldersburg, Maryland on Londontown Boulevard in 1976. In 1994, the company left Eldersburg for Darien, but returned after less than a year.

In 2000, most of London Fog's offices moved to Seattle, although the distribution center in Eldersburg remained in operation until 2002. In 2006, London Fog was acquired by Iconix Brand Group, selling the outerwear division to Herman Kay Company, Inc. In the season 3 premiere of Mad Men, Salvatore "Sal" Romano, the Italian-American art director at the fictional advertising agency, Sterling Cooper, Don Draper, the agency's creative director and junior partner, discuss their client, London Fog. In August 2010, Mad Men star Christina Hendricks was contracted as the new celebrity model for London Fog. "London Fog". International Directory of Company Histories. 29. St. James Press. 1999. ISBN 9781558623880 – via Funding Universe. London Fog homepage

Oran

Oran is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial and cultural importance, it is 432 km from Algiers. The total population of the city was 759,645 in 2008, while the metropolitan area has a population of 1,500,000 making it the second largest city in Algeria. A legend says; the last two lions were hunted on a mountain near Oran and are elsewhere referred to as "mountain lions". The word derives from the Berber root hr; the name is attested for instance as uharu and ahra. A locally popular legend tells that in the period around AD 900, there were sightings of lions in the area; the two last lions were killed on a mountain near Oran, it became known as La montagne des lions. Two giant lion statues stand in front of Oran's city hall. See also: Timeline of Oran and History of Oran During the Roman empire, a small settlement called Unica Colonia existed in the area of current Oran, but this settlement disappeared after the Arab conquest of the Maghreb.

Present-day Oran was founded in 903 by Moorish Andalusi traders. It was captured by the Castilians under Cardinal Cisneros in 1509, Spanish sovereignty lasted until 1708, when the city was conquered by the Ottomans. Spain recaptured the city in 1732. However, its value as a trading post had decreased so King Charles IV sold the city to the Turks in 1792. Ottoman rule lasted until 1831. Under French rule during the 19th and 20th centuries, Oran was the capital of a département of the same name. In July 1940, the British navy shelled French warships in the port after they refused a British ultimatum to surrender; the action increased the hatred of the Vichy regime for Britain but convinced the world that the British would fight on alone against Nazi Germany and its allies. The Vichy government held Oran during World War II until its capture by the Allies in late 1942, during Operation Torch. During French rule, Jews were encouraged to modernize and take on jobs they had not before including agriculture.

Jews In the city were allowed to join the French Army starting October 24, 1870 when Algerian Jews were granted citizenship. French Jews would soon be targeted after not choosing to side with the Algerian Muslims who fought for independence against France. Before the Algerian War, 1954–1962, Oran had one of the highest proportions of Europeans of any city in North Africa. In July 1962, after a ceasefire and accords with France, the FLN entered Oran and were shot at by a European. A mob attacked pied-noir neighborhoods in response to the attack and massacred thousands of Europeans in Oran; this triggered a larger exodus of Europeans to France, underway. Shortly after the end of the war, most of the Europeans and Algerian Jews living in Oran fled to France. In less than three months, Oran lost about half its population; this population lost is similar to the Jews as many fled after siding with France in the Algerian War for Independence. As the war progressed, those who supported independence in Algeria threatened those who sided with Europe causing these people to flee and thus defeating European Imperialism.

With its location as the closest port to Spain and its prominence on the Mediterranean, Jewish refugees first immigrated to Oran to flee persecution and conversion to Christianity in Spain in 1391. This refuge brought other religious refugees that included both Jews again and Muslims in both 1492 and 1502. On October 24, 1870, with the French dominance, Algerian Jews were given French citizenship with the Cremieux Decree. Despite a World War II sentiment that favored acceptance, Oran still had a history marked by intolerance. There was a decrease in the Jewish population as Muslims were the only group granted citizenship protection in 1963, one year after Algerian independence. Before the Spaniards, the Portuguese launched a failed expedition to capture the city in July 1501. Four years the Spanish took Mers-el-Kébir, located just four miles to the west of the Oran, thus began the first organized incursions against the city which, at the time, numbered 25,000 inhabitants and counted 6,000 fueros.

Count Pedro Navarro, on the orders of Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros captured the city on May 17, 1509. The occupying forces set fire to the archives of the town. By 1554, the Turks had reached Algiers; the governor of Oran, Count Alcaudete, allied himself with Moroccan Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh against them. Nine years in 1563, Álvaro de Bazán, Marquis de Santa Cruz, built the fort of Santa-Cruz, strategically placed at the top of a mountain, l'Aïdour, more than 1,000 ft above the sea, directly to the west of the city. Pedro Garcerán de Borja, Grand Master of the Order of Montesa, was captain of Oran when, on July 14, 1568, John of Austria, led a flotilla of 33 galleys against the Algerians. In April 1669 the Spanish governor, the Marquis of Los Vélez, expelled all the Jews who lived in Oran and Mers El Kébir sending them to be resettled in either Nice, or Livorno; the Spanish rebuilt Santa Cruz Fort to accommodate their city governors. "The fortifications of the place were composed of thick and continuous walls of over two and a half km in circumferen