A public hospital or government hospital is a hospital, owned by a government and receives government funding. In some countries, this type of hospital provides medical care free of charge, the cost of, covered by government reimbursement. In Australia, public hospitals are funded by each individual state's health department; the federal government contributes funding. Services in public hospitals for all Australian citizens and permanent residents are subsidized by the federal government's Medicare Universal Healthcare program. Hospitals in Australia treat all Australian citizens and permanent residents regardless of their age, income, or social status. Emergency Departments are exclusively found in public hospitals. Private hospitals operate emergency departments, patients treated at these private facilities are billed for care; some costs, however may qualify for billing under Medicare. Where patients hold private health insurance, after initial treatment by a public hospital's emergency department, the patient has the option of being transferred to a private hospital.
The Brazilian health system is a mix composed of public hospitals, non-profit philanthropic hospitals, private hospitals. The majority of the low- and medium-income population uses services provided by public hospitals run by either the state or the municipality. Since the inception of 1988 Federal Constitution, health care is a universal right for everyone living in Brazil: citizens, permanent residents, foreigners. To provide this service, the Brazilian government created a national public health insurance system called SUS in which all publicly funded hospitals receive payments based on the number of patients and procedures performed; the construction and operation of hospitals and health clinics are a responsibility of the government. The system provides universal coverage to all patients, including emergency care, preventive medicine, diagnostic procedures and medicine necessary to treat their condition. However, given budget constraints, these services are unavailable in the majority of the country with the exception of major metropolitan regions, in those cities access to complex procedures may be delayed because of long lines.
Despite this scenario, some patients were able to sue the government for full SUS coverage for procedures performed in non-public facilities. New legislation has been enacted forbidding private hospitals to refuse treatment to patients with insufficient funds in case of life-threatening emergencies; the law determines that the healthcare costs in this situation are to be paid by the SUS. In Canada all hospitals are funded through Medicare, Canada's publicly funded universal health insurance system and operated by the provincial governments. Hospitals in Canada treat all Canadian citizens and permanent residents regardless of their age, income, or social status. In India, public hospitals provide health care free at the point of use for any Indian citizen; these are individual state funded. However, hospitals funded by the central government exist. State hospitals are run by the state government and may be dispensaries, peripheral health centers, rural hospital, district hospitals or medical college hospitals.
In many states the hospital bill is funded by the state government with patient not having to pay anything for treatment. However, other hospitals will charge nominal amounts for admission to special rooms and for medical and surgical consumables; the reliability and approachability of doctors and staff in private hospitals have resulted in preference of people from the public to private health centers. However state owned. In Norway, all public hospitals are funded from the national budget and run by four Regional Health Authorities owned by the Ministry of Health and Care Services. In addition to the public hospitals, a few owned health clinics are operating; the four Regional Health Authorities are: Northern Norway Regional Health Authority, Central Norway Regional Health Authority, Western Norway Regional Health Authority, South-eastern Norway Regional Health Authority. All citizens are eligible for treatment free of charge in the public hospital system. According to The Patients' Rights Act, all citizens have the right to Free Hospital Choices.
South Africa has public hospitals. Public hospitals are funded by the Department of Health; the majority of the patients use public hospitals in which patients pay a nominal fee $3–5. The patients point of entry is through primary health care run by nurses; the next level of care would be district hospitals which have General Practitioners and basic radiographs. The next level of care would be Regional hospitals which have general practitioners, specialists and ICU's, CT SCANS; the highest level of care is Tertiary which includes super specialists, MRI scans, nuclear medicine scans. Private patients either have healthcare insurance, known as medical aid, or have to pay the full amount if uninsured. In the UK public hospitals provide health care free at the point of use for the patient. Private health care is used by less than 8 percent of the population; the UK system is known as the National Health Service and has been funded from general taxation since 1948. In the United States, two thirds of all urban hospitals are non-profit.
The remaining third is split between for-profit and public, public hospitals not necessa
UCLA College of Letters and Science
The UCLA College of Letters and Science is the arts and sciences college of the University of California, Los Angeles. It encompasses the Life and Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, Honors Program and other programs for both undergraduate and graduate students; the bulk of UCLA's student body belongs to the College, which includes 34 academic departments, 21,000 undergraduate students, 2,700 graduate students and 900 faculty members. All of the academic programs in the College are ranked highly and 11 were ranked in the top ten nationally by the National Research Council; the College originated on May 23, 1919, the day when the Governor of California signed a bill into law which established the Southern Branch of the University of California. At that time, a College of Letters and Science was established as the university's general undergraduate program and it began to hold classes the following September with only 250 students in the college. In 1925, the College awarded its first bachelor's degrees.
A milestone occurred in 1927 when the southern branch was renamed the University of California at Los Angeles, although UCLA would have to wait until 1951 to achieve de jure coequal status with UC Berkeley and 1957 to achieve true de facto equality. The college is divided into four divisions — Division of Humanities, Division of Life Sciences, Division of Physical Sciences, Division of Social Sciences. Applied Linguistics, Art History, Asian Languages & Cultures, Comparative Literature, French & Francophone Studies, Germanic Languages, Indo-European Studies and Philosophy Program, Gay and Transgender Studies, Musicology, Near Eastern Languages & Cultures, Study of Religion Major, Scandinavian Section, Slavic Languages & Literatures, Spanish & Portuguese, Writing Center and Writing Programs, Psychobiology and Systems Biology and Evolutionary Biology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, Molecular and Developmental Biology, Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Physiological Science. Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Biochemistry, Earth and Space Sciences, Mathematics and Astronomy, Statistics Afro-American Studies, Archaeology, Asian American Studies, Chicana/o Studies, Economics, History, Human Complex Systems, Political Science, Gender Studies Kay Ryan, English, 16th poet laureate of U.
S. Brad Delson, "Linkin Park" member Richard Heck, 2010 Nobel Prize in chemistry Paul Terasaki, organ transplant medicine and tissue typing Utpal Banerjee, Department chair and professor of molecular and developmental biology. For two years in a row, the scheduled commencement keynote speaker had canceled the engagement. Bill Clinton canceled in 2008 for not wanting to cross a picket line. Actor and alumnus James Franco canceled in 2009 because of his filming scheduling conflicts. Rock band Linkin Park's Brad Delson accepted the last minute invitation to speak at the 2009 commencement ceremony. June 11, 2010 – Columnist Gustavo Arellano of'¡Ask a Mexican!' Official website
University of California, Los Angeles Library
The library system of the University of California, Los Angeles is among the top 10 academic research libraries in North America and has in its collection over nine million books and 70,000 serials. The UCLA Library System is spread over 12 libraries, 12 other archives, reading rooms, research centers and the Southern Regional Library Facility, which serves as a remote storage facility for southern UC campuses, it is among the top 15 largest library systems in the United States and its annual budget allocates $10 Million for the procurement of digital and print material. It is a Federal Depository Library, California State Depository Library, United Nations Depository Library; the University Library at Los Angeles was founded in 1883, two years after the establishment of what was known as the California State Normal School. The library's first acquisition was Survey of Wyoming and Idaho by Dr. Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden In 1910, Elizabeth Fargo began her tenure as the university's first librarian and by 1919, the University Library was operated by a staff of four.
By 1931, the Library had collected 24,000 volumes and was ranked 36th in the country by the Princeton Library Survey. Upon Elizabeth Fargo's retirement in 1923, John E. Goodwin took the helm as librarian for a collection of 42,000 volumes, tended to by 12 staff members. Goodwin planned for the orderly expansion of the library by the immediate reclassification of books from the Dewey Decimal System to the Library of Congress Classification System, he opposed and defeated a proposal to make the library at Los Angeles an adjunct collection of a main research library at UC Berkeley. Starting in 1929, Goodwin oversaw the construction and development of the Main Library, built after the University settled in its present location in Westwood. Goodwin saw the bequest of the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library to UCLA in 1934. By the time Goodwin retired in 1944, the Library collection had grown to 462,000 volumes, supported by 52 staff members. Appointed to replace Goodwin in 1944, Lawrence Clark Powell began a series of systematic changes and acquisitions meant to increase the prestige of the UCLA library system.
During Powell's tenure, the Library saw a major expansion of its facilities as the central book stack was completed. During this period, a concerted effort was made to provide new or more comprehensive collections to support the academic research, being conducted on campus. In 1959, Powell was named the founding Dean of the School of Library Service, a position he would hold until 1966. Several facilities at UCLA would be named after Powell, including the Undergraduate College Library. About his work for the UCLA libraries, Powell wrote Robert Vosper was hired as University Librarian in 1961, the following year, ground was broken for the first unit of the University Research Library, now the Charles E. Young Research Library. Completed in 1964, the construction of the Research Library entailed carting 4 million index cards and 14 miles of books around campus; the newly completed six-story facility became the administrative center for the UCLA Library system. The Main Library was converted to the College Library.
By 1964, the Library ranked 11th with more than two million volumes. Having been founded only sixty years prior, the UCLA Library was on pace to becoming one of the most important libraries in the country. Vosper was succeeded by Page Ackerman in 1973, who served as librarian until her retirement in 1977, she was the first woman in the United States to head a library system of such a scale. Ackerman saw the development of the Library's administrative network, which became an innovative model for library management systems across the country. During her tenure, Ackerman oversaw an increased coordination of efforts with the libraries of all UC campuses, a necessity that came, brought about by state budget problems. Under Ackerman, the UCLA Library acquired collections on many important figures, including Ralph J. Bunche, Gertrude Stein and Anaïs Nin. Since Ackerman's retirement in 1977, UCLA has seen a steady increase in collections and staff under librarians Russell Shank, Gloria Werner, Gary E. Strong, Virginia Steel.
The library collection consists of more than 8 million volumes and more than 78,000 current serial titles and an aggressively expanding electronic resources collection. The UCLA Library is a member of the Association of Research Libraries, the Coalition of Networked Information, the Center for Research Libraries, the Council on Library and Information Resources, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition; as of 2006, "On Excess: Susan Sontag's Born-Digital Archive", LA Review of Books, October 2014 UCLA Library Home Library locations at UCLA
Los Angeles Police Department
The Los Angeles Police Department the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles, California. With 9,988 officers and 2,869 civilian staff, it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the Chicago Police Department and the New York City Police Department; the department operates in a population of 4,030,904 people. The LAPD has been fictionalized in numerous films and television shows throughout its history; the department has been associated with a number of controversies concerned with racism, police brutality, police corruption. The first specific Los Angeles police force was founded in 1853, as the Los Angeles Rangers, a volunteer force that assisted the existing County forces; the Rangers were soon succeeded by another volunteer group. Neither force was efficient and Los Angeles became known for its violence and vice; the first paid force was created in 1869, when six officers were hired to serve under City Marshal William C. Warren.
By 1900, under John M. Glass, there were one for every 1,500 people. In 1903, with the start of the Civil Service, this force was increased to 200; the CBS radio show Calling All Cars hired LAPD radio dispacher Jesse Rosenquist to be the voice of the dispatcher. Rosenquist was famous because home radios could tune in to early police radio frequencies; as the first police radio dispatcher presented to the public ear, he was the voice that actors went to when called upon for a radio dispatcher role. During World War II, under Clemence B. Horrall, the overall number of personnel was depleted by the demands of the military. Despite efforts to maintain numbers, the police could do little to control the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots. Horrall was replaced by retired United States Marine Corps general William A. Worton, who acted as interim chief until 1950, when William H. Parker succeeded him and would serve until his death in 1966. Parker advocated police autonomy from civilian administration. However, the Bloody Christmas scandal in 1951 led to calls for civilian accountability and an end to alleged police brutality.
The iconic television series Dragnet, with LAPD Detective Joe Friday as the primary character, was the first major media representation of the department. Real LAPD operations inspired Jack Webb to create the series and close cooperation with department officers let him make it as realistic as possible, including authentic police equipment and sound recording on-site at the police station. Due to Dragnet's popularity, LAPD Chief Parker "became after J. Edgar Hoover, the most well known and respected law enforcement official in the nation" at that time. In the 1960s, when the LAPD under Chief Thomas Reddin expanded its community relations division and began efforts to reach out to the African-American community, Dragnet followed suit with more emphasis on internal affairs and community policing than solving crimes, the show's previous mainstay. Under Parker, LAPD created the first SWAT team in United States law enforcement. Officer John Nelson and then-Inspector Daryl Gates created the program in 1965 to deal with threats from radical organizations such as the Black Panther Party operating during the Vietnam War era.
The old headquarters for the LAPD was Parker Center, named after former chief William H. Parker, which still stands at 150 N. Los Angeles St; the new headquarters is 300 yards west in the purpose built Police Administration Building located at 100 W. 1st St. south of Los Angeles City Hall, which opened in October 2009. The Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners known as the Police Commission, is a five-member body of appointed officials which oversees the LAPD; the board is responsible for setting policies for the department and overseeing the LAPD's overall management and operations. The Chief of Police reports to the board; the Office of the Inspector General is an independent part of the LAPD that has oversight over the department's internal disciplinary process and reviewing complaints of officer misconduct. It was created by the recommendation of the Christopher Commission and it is exempt from civil service and reports directly to the Board of Police Commissioners; the current Inspector General is Mark P. Smith, the Constitutional Policing Advisor for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.
The OIG receives copies of every complaint filed against members of the LAPD as well as tracking specific cases along with any resultant litigation. The OIG conducts audits on select investigations and conducts regular reviews of the disciplinary system in order to ensure fairness and equality; as well as overseeing the LAPD's disciplinary process, the Inspector General may undertake special investigations as directed by the Board of Police Commissioners. The Office of the Chief of Police has the responsibility for assisting the Chief of Police in the administration of the department; the Chief of Staff is responsible for coordinating the flow of information from command staff to ensure that the Chief is informed prior to making decisions and coordinating special administrative audits and investigations, assisting and submitting recommendations to the Chief of Police in matters involving employee relations. The Office of the Chief of Staff is composed of the Board of Police Commissioners Liaison, the Public Communications Group, the Media Relations Division, the Employee Relations Group.
The Director of the Office of Constitutional Policing and Policy Police Administrator III Arif Alikhan reports directl
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
The William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, one of twelve official libraries at the University of California, Los Angeles, is one of the most comprehensive rare books and manuscripts libraries in the United States, with particular strengths in English literature and history, Oscar Wilde, fine printing. It is located about ten miles from UCLA, in the West Adams district of Los Angeles, two miles west of the University of Southern California, it is administered by UCLA's Center for Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Studies, which offers several prestigious fellowships for graduate and postdoctoral scholars to use the Library's collections. However, any reader with a serious interest in the collection is welcome to study; the heart of the Clark's academic activity is its core programs, a series of interdisciplinary events developed around a common theme. Core programs may range from three or four consecutive workshops to a series spanning a year or more, with a full complement of symposia, graduate seminars, public lectures.
The core programs are organized each year by the current Clark Professor or Professors, who are encouraged to design programs that will lead to publication in the Center/Clark series. The library and its collections were built by William Andrews Clark, Jr. in memoriam of his father, U. S. Senator William Andrews Clark, Sr. who amassed a mining fortune in Montana and Nevada. Clark Jr. a prominent collector and philanthropist had a mansion at the corner of Adams Boulevard and Cimarron, but the structure was demolished. The current library, designed by architect Robert D. Farquhar, was constructed from 1924 to 1926 on the same site. After its completion, Clark Jr. announced his intent to donate the collection, the buildings, the square-block property to the Southern Branch of the University of California. The deed, along with a $1.5 million endowment, was transferred upon his death in 1934. It was UCLA's first major bequest, still one of the most generous in the university's history. In 2009, nuclear physicist Paul Chrzanowski donated his collection of 72 Shakespeare books, published between 1479 and 1731, to the Clark Library.
The early 20th century ushered in a heyday of American book collecting. William Andrews Clark, Jr. along with other moneyed bibliophiles such as J. Paul Getty, Henry E. Huntington and Henry Clay Folger, first began forming his library during this period. Clark collected a broad array of English imprints, his library included the four Shakespeare folios. In time, Clark began to concentrate his collecting on English literature of the 17th and 18th centuries in the Restoration, which defines the strengths of the Clark Library today. Clark developed a large collection of Oscar Wilde books and manuscripts. Clark took an interest in fine printing, represented by complete runs of the books printed by the Kelmscott Press and Doves Press, the two greatest influences on the revival of printing in England at the turn of the 20th century; the library has a substantial collection of American fine presses in the Arts and Crafts Movement Californian printers, as well as the library and papers of printer and sculptor Eric Gill and Los Angeles artist Paul Landacre.
The library continues to collect in this field. As of 2006, the collection contains over 110,000 rare books and 22,000 manuscripts, in addition to an extensive reference collection of modern books and microfilm; the Clark Library is one of the most extensive for British literature and history from the English Civil War through the reign of George II. Many of its collections are only rivaled by the British Library its literary collections, which include literary giants John Dryden, John Milton, Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, Henry Fielding, Aphra Behn; the Clark Library has substantial collections of music books and songs and musicology printed before 1750. Among its most valuable collections are the scientific works of Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle, Edmond Halley, John Evelyn, Sir Kenelm Digby; the Library holds theological and philosophical collections of Thomas Cartwright, Protestant theology, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume. The Library's most valuable and extensive collection is the work by and relating to Oscar Wilde.
It is considered the most comprehensive collection of its kind in the world. Clark purchased Wilde manuscripts from Wilde's son, Vyvyan Holland, among others. Today, the collection includes photographs, original portraits, caricatures and news cuttings. Most of the important Wilde studies in recent years have drawn upon the Clark's resources; the Clark has taken to collecting books and manuscripts of Wilde's literary circle and the decadent and modernist movements of the 1890s, including the most important editions of William Butler Yeats and many others. Several types of fellowships are offered for graduate and postdoctoral scholars to study at the Clark Library. Among the most prestigious are the Ahmanson-Getty Fellowship, Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship, Clark Dissertation Fellowship, Predoctoral Fe