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Oliver! is a British musical, with music and lyrics by Lionel Bart. The musical is based upon the novel Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens, it premiered in the West End in 1960, enjoying a long run, successful long runs on Broadway and revivals, after being brought to the US by producer David Merrick in 1963. Major London revivals played from 1977–80, 1994–98, 2008–11 and on tour in the UK from 2011–13. Additionally, its 1968 film adaptation, directed by Carol Reed, was successful, winning six Academy Awards including Best Picture. Oliver! received thousands of performances in British schools, becoming one of the most popular school musicals. In 1963 Lionel Bart received the Tony Award for Best Original Score. Many songs are well known to the public. Oliver! was one of eight UK musicals featured on Royal Mail stamps, issued in February 2011. Oliver! was the first musical adaptation of a famous Charles Dickens work to become a stage hit. There had been two previous Dickens musicals in the 1950s, both of them television adaptations of A Christmas Carol.

The plot of Dickens' original novel is simplified for the purposes of the musical, with Fagin being represented more as a comic character than as a villain, large portions of the latter part of the story being left out. Although Dickens' novel has been called antisemitic in its portrayal of the Jew Fagin as evil, the production by Bart was more sympathetic and featured many Jewish actors in leading roles: Ron Moody, Georgia Brown, Martin Horsey; the musical opens in the workhouse, as the half-starved orphan boys are entering the enormous dining room for dinner. They find some solace by imagining a richer menu. Oliver gathers up the courage to ask for more, he is apprehended and is told to gather his belongings by Mr. Bumble and the Widow Corney, the heartless and greedy caretakers of the workhouse. Mr. Bumble and Widow Corney are left alone, Mr. Bumble begins to make amorous advances. Mrs. Corney pretends to resent his attentions, but ends up on Mr. Bumble's lap, as he proposes to her. Mr. Bumble takes Oliver and sells him as an apprentice to an undertaker, Mr. Sowerberry.

He and his wife taunt Mr. Bumble, causing Mr. Bumble to become angry and storm out. Oliver is sent to sleep in the basement with the coffins; the next morning Noah Claypole, another employee of Sowerberry, insults Oliver's dead mother, whereupon Oliver begins pummeling him. Mrs. Sowerberry and her daughter, Charlotte Noah's girlfriend, run in, Mr. Bumble is sent for, he and the Sowerberrys lock Oliver in a coffin. After a week on the run, he ends up in the city of London and meets a boy about his age known as the Artful Dodger. Dodger seems a kindly boy, invites Oliver to join him and his friends. Dodger is, unknown to Oliver, a pickpocket, he invites Oliver to come and live in Fagin's lair. Fagin is an elderly criminal, now too old to thieve himself, who now teaches young boys to pick pockets. Oliver is unaware of any criminality, believes that the boys make handkerchiefs rather than steal them. Oliver is introduced to Fagin and his boys, is taught their ways; the next day, Oliver meets Nancy, an older member of Fagin's gang, the live-in wife of Fagin's terrifying associate Bill Sikes, a brutal house-burglar whose abuse she endures because she loves him.

Nancy, along with her younger sister Bet and the boys, sing about how they don't mind a bit of danger. Oliver bows to Nancy and Bet, trying to be polite. All the boys mimic Oliver. Nancy singles out Dodger to demonstrate the way. Nancy and Bet leave and Oliver is sent out with the other boys on his first pickpocketing job. Dodger, another boy named Charley Bates, Oliver decide to stick together, when Dodger and Charley rob Mr. Brownlow, a wealthy old man, they run off, leaving the horrified Oliver to be arrested for the crime. In the Three Cripples pub, to help take her mind off of Sikes's neglect towards her, Nancy strikes up an old tavern song with the low-life ruffians. Bill Sikes makes his first appearance, disperses the crowd. Dodger tells Fagin about Oliver's capture and removal to the Brownlow household. Scared he will betray the gang's whereabouts and Bill decide to abduct Oliver and bring him back to the den, with Nancy's help. Nancy, who has come to care for Oliver, at first refuses to help, but Bill physically abuses her and forces her into obedience.

In spite of this, Nancy still loves Bill, believes he loves her too. The next morning, at Mr. Brownlow's house in Bloomsbury, Mrs. Bedwin the housekeeper sings to Oliver, Oliver wakes up. Mr. Brownlow and Dr. Grimwig decide that Oliver is well enough to go outside, so Brownlow sends Oliver to return some books to the library. Oliver joins them in song; as the vendors leave and Bill appear and grab Oliver. They bring him back to Fagin's den, where Nancy saves Oliver from a beating from Sikes after the boy tries to flee. Nancy remorsefully reviews their dreadful life, but Bill maintains that any living is better than none. Fagin tries to act as an intermediary. Left alone, Fagin wonders what his life might be like if he began an honest life.

Xzavie Jackson

Xzavie Lee HeBron Jackson is a professional gridiron football defensive end, a free agent. He most played for the Cedar Rapids Titans of the Indoor Football League, he was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals as an undrafted free agent in 2007. He played college football at Missouri, he played in the CFL with the Edmonton Eskimos in 2009. Jackson has been a member of the Philadelphia Eagles, RiverCity Rage, La Crosse Spartans and Cedar Rapids Titans. Jackson attended Will C. Wood high school and Wichita Heights High School in Wichita, where he was a standout tight end. Jackson played for the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League in 2009, he recorded 9 tackles, one sack, one forced fumble that season, but was most infamous for attacking teammate Aaron Fiacconi with a shovel during practice. Jackson signed with the Cedar Rapids Titans in 2012. On November 14, 2016, Jackson signed with the Nebraska Danger. Jackson signed on for the 2018 IFL season. Prior to the season's start, Jackson had accumulated 77 sacks in his IFL career, the most in the league.

Jackson finished the season injured, but in 11 games, Jackson accumulated 24 tackles, an interception, 3 forced fumbles, 3 fumble recoveries, most humorously, a kickoff return for 6 yards. Jackson racked up 4.5 more sacks, adding to his league record for most career sacks with a new total of 81.5. For his statistics during this final season of play, Jackson was named to the 2nd team, All-IFL roster. During the games Jackson spent injured, he transitioned into a coaching role for younger players, assumed coaching duties full-time for the 2019 season. Missouri Tigers bio Philadelphia Eagles bio RiverCity Rage bio

Income elasticity of demand

In economics, income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded for a good or service to a change in income. It is calculated as the ratio of the percentage change in quantity demanded to the percentage change in income. For example, if in response to a 10% increase in income, the quantity demanded for a good increased by 20%, the income elasticity of demand would be 20%/10% = 2.0. A negative income elasticity of demand is associated with inferior goods. A positive income elasticity of demand is associated with normal goods. If income elasticity of demand of a commodity is less than 1, it is a necessity good. If the elasticity of demand is greater than 1, it is a superior good. A zero income elasticity of demand occurs when an increase in income is not associated with a change in the demand of a good. Income elasticity of demand can be used as an indicator of future consumption patterns and as a guide to firms’ investment decisions. For example, the "selected income elasticities" below suggest that an increasing portion of consumers' budgets will be devoted to purchasing automobiles and restaurant meals and a smaller share to tobacco and margarine.

Income elasticities are related to the population income distribution and the fraction of the product's sales attributable to buyers from different income brackets. When a buyer in a certain income bracket experiences an income increase, their purchase of a product changes to match that of individuals in their new income bracket. If the income share elasticity is defined as the negative percentage change in individuals given a percentage increase in income bracken the income-elasticity, after some computation, becomes the expected value of the income-share elasticity with respect to the income distribution of purchasers of the product; when the income distribution is described by a gamma distribution, the income elasticity is proportional to the percentage difference between the average income of the product's buyers and the average income of the population. Ε d = % change in quantity demanded % change in income More formally, the income elasticity of demand, ϵ d, for a given Marshallian demand function Q, with arguments income and a vector of prices of all goods, for arbitrarily small changes in price and quantity of a good is ϵ d = ∂ Q ∂ I I Q This can be rewritten in the form ϵ d = d ln ⁡ Q d ln ⁡ I For discrete changes the elasticity is ϵ d = Δ Q Δ I × / 2 / 2 = Δ Q Δ I × I 1 + I 2 Q 1 + Q 2, where subscripts 1 and 2 refer to values before and after the change.

Necessity goods have an income elasticity of demand between zero and one: expenditure on these goods increases with income, but not as fast as income does, so the proportion of expenditure on these goods falls as income rises. This observation for food is known as Engel's law. There are five possible income demand curves: High income elasticity of demand:In this case, increase in income is accompanied by larger increase in quantity demanded. Unitary income elasticity of demand:In this case, increase in income is accompanied by same proportionate increase in quantity demanded. Low income elasticity of demand:In this case, increase in income is accompanied by less than proportionate increase in quantity demanded. Zero income elasticity of demand:This shows that quantity bought is constant regardless of changes in income. Negative income elasticity of demand:In this case, increase in income is accompanied by decrease in quantity demanded. Automobiles 2.98 Books 1.44 A person's own life 0.50 to 0.60 Restaurant meals 1.40 Tobacco 0.42 Margarine −0.20 Public transportation −0.36 Water demand 0.15 Income elasticities are notably stable over time and across countries due to the law of one price.

Cross elasticity of demand price elasticity of demand price elasticity of supply

Nectar robbing

Nectar robbing is a foraging behavior utilized by some organisms that feed on floral nectar. "Nectar robbers" feed from holes bitten in flowers, rather than by entering through the flowers' natural openings. Nectar robbers avoid contact with the floral reproductive structures, therefore do not facilitate plant reproduction via pollination; because many species that act as pollinators act as nectar robbers, nectar robbing is considered to be a form of exploitation of plant-pollinator mutualism. Nectar robbers vary in species diversity and include species of carpenter bees, stingless Trigona bees, solitary bees, ants, passerine birds, flowerpiercer birds. Nectar robbing mammals include a squirrel which robs nectar from the ginger plant. Records of nectar robbing in nature date back at least to 1793 when German naturalist Christian Konrad Sprengel observed bumblebees perforating flowers. Charles Darwin observed bumblebees stealing nectar from flowers in 1859. Nectar robbing is the behavior of consuming nectar from a perforation in the floral tissue rather than from the floral opening.

There are two main types of nectar robbing: primary robbing, which requires that the nectar forager perforates the floral tissues itself, secondary robbing, foraging from a robbing hole created by a primary robber. The term "floral larceny" has been proposed to include the entire suite of foraging behaviors for floral rewards that can disrupt pollination, they include "nectar theft", "base working". Pollination systems are mutualistic, meaning that the plant benefits from the pollinator's transport of male gametes and the pollinator benefits from a reward, such as pollen or nectar; as nectar robbers receive the rewards without direct contact with the reproductive parts of the flower, their behaviour is assumed to be cheating. However, the effect of robbery on the plant is sometimes neutral or positive. For example, the proboscis of E. elvina does not come in contact with the reproductive parts of the flower in C. ovandensis, but this does not lead to significant reduction in fruit-set of the plant.

In another example, when 80 percent of the flowers in a study site were robbed and the robbers did not pollinate, neither the seed nor fruit set were negatively affected. The effect of floral-nectar robbing on plant fitness depends on several issues. Firstly, nectar robbers such as carpenter bees, bumble bees and some birds can pollinate flowers. Pollination may take place when the body of the robber contacts the reproductive parts of the plant while it robs, or during pollen collection which some bees practice in concert with nectar robbing; the impact of Trigona bees on a plant is always negative because their aggressive territorial behaviour evicts legitimate pollinators. Nectar robbers may change the behaviour of legitimate pollinators in other ways, such as by reducing the amount of nectar available; this may force pollinators to visit more flowers in their nectar foraging. The increased number of flowers visited and longer flight distances increase pollen flow and outcrossing, beneficial for the plant because it lessens inbreeding depression.

This requires a robber's not consuming all of a flower's nectar. When a robber consumes all of a flower's nectar, legitimate pollinators may avoid the flower, resulting in a negative effect on plant fitness; the response of different species of legitimate pollinators varies. Some species, like the bumble bees Bombus appositus or B. occidentalis and many species of nectar-feeding birds can distinguish between robbed and unrobbed plants and minimize their energy cost of foraging by avoiding robbed flowers. Pollinating birds may be better at this than insects, because of their higher sensory capability; the ways that bees distinguish between robbed and unrobbed flowers have not been studied, but they have been thought to be related to the damage on petal tissue after robbery or changes in nectar quality. Xylocopa varipuncta steals nectar through a slit. If nectar robbing reduces the success of legitimate pollinators they may be able to switch to other nectar sources. Nectar robbing by birds, can damage the reproductive parts of a flower and thus diminish the fitness of a plant.

In this case, the effect of robbery on a plant is direct. A good example of an indirect effect is the change in the behaviour of a legitimate pollinator, which either increases or decreases the fitness of a plant. There are both secondary nectar robbers. Secondary robbers are those. While most flies and bees are secondary robbers, some species, such as Bombylius major, act as primary robbers; the effect of robbing is positive if the robber pollinates or increases the pollination by the legitimate pollinator, negative if the robber damages the reproductive parts of a plant or reduces pollination success, either by competing with the legitimate pollinator or by lessening the attractiveness of the flower. Distinguishing between a legitimate pollinator and a nectar robber can be difficult. Pollination systems cause coevolution, as in the close relationships between figs and fig wasps as well as yuccas and yucca moths. If nectar robbers have an effect on a plant or pollinator fitness, they are part of the coevolution process.

Where nectar robbing is detrimental to the plant, a plant species might evolve to minimize the traits t


Paraspur is a Nagar Panchayat and block headquarter in Gonda district, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the biggest Block Panchayat in Gonda district, with 64 Village Panchayats and 91 villages, it comes under Colonelganj legislative assembly. The total population of Paraspur block Panchayat is 203,937, which consists of 105,736 males and 98,201 females, with a population density of 687 per square kilometer. Paraspur is a rural township around 100 km from Lucknow. Colonelganj, a historical town associated with the mutiny of 1857, lies 14 km to the north. About 22 km west lies Tikaitnagar, a town in Bara-Banki District. Colonelganj Railway Station, on the Bara-Banki—Gonda route, is the nearest railway station, the nearest airport is Amausi Airport; the male literacy rate is 57.06% and the female literacy rate is 26.61%. Rajapur, the birthplace of Shri Goswami Tulsidas, is just 8 km from the Block headquarter. Sukhar Khet, one of the famous places in Hindu mythology, lies 10 km to the south of Paraspur Block Panchayat.

Tulsi Smarak Inter College & Beni Madhav Jang Bahdur Inter college is a prominent college here of Pure Raghunath, other educational institutes are there in the town. Mahakavi Tulsidas Post Graduate College is the only college in the town for Higher Education. Teorasi village is the biggest Gram Panchayat; this Gram Panchayat has a local market where people can get the basic necessities as per their need

Frank Marshall Davis

Frank Marshall Davis was an American journalist, poet and labor movement activist, businessman. Davis began his career writing for African-American newspapers in Chicago, he moved to Atlanta. He returned to Chicago. During this time, he was outspoken about political and social issues, while covering topics that ranged from sports to music, his poetry was sponsored by the Works Progress Administration under President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs, he played a role in the South Side Writers Group in Chicago, is considered among the writers of the Black Chicago Renaissance. In the late 1940s, Davis moved to Honolulu, where he ran a small business, he became involved in local labor issues. The Federal Bureau of Investigation tracked his activities as they had investigated union activists since the early 20th century. Davis died in 1987 in Hawaii. Davis was born in Arkansas City, Kansas, in 1905, his parents divorced, Davis grew up living with his mother and stepfather, with his maternal grandparents.

He graduated from Arkansas City High School. In 1923, at age 17, he attended Friends University. From 1924 to 1927, again in 1929, he attended Kansas State Agricultural College, now Kansas State University; when Davis entered Kansas State, twenty-five other African-American students were enrolled. Kansas was segregated by custom, if not by law. Davis studied industrial journalism, he began to write poems as the result of a class assignment, was encouraged by an English literature instructor to continue his poetry writing. Davis pledged Phi Beta Sigma fraternity in 1925, he left college before getting a degree. In 1927, Davis moved to Chicago, a destination of tens of thousands of African Americans in the Great Migration of the first half of the 20th century, he worked variously for the Chicago Evening Bulletin, the Chicago Whip, the Gary American, all African-American newspapers. He wrote free-lance articles and short stories for African-American magazines. During this time Davis began to write poetry including his first long poem, entitled Chicago's Congo, Sonata for an Orchestra.

In 1931 Davis moved to Atlanta to become an editor of a twice-weekly paper. That year he became the paper's managing editor. In 1932 the paper, renamed as the Atlanta Daily World became the nation's first successful black daily newspaper. Davis continued to write and publish poems, which came to the attention of Chicago socialite Frances Norton Manning, she introduced him to the publisher of Black Cat Press. In the summer of 1935, Forgue published Black Man's Verse. In 1935, Davis returned to Chicago to take the position of managing editor of the Associated Negro Press, a news service founded in 1919 for black newspapers. Davis became executive editor of the ANP, he held the position until 1947. While in Chicago, Davis started a photography club, worked for numerous political parties, participated in the League of American Writers. Davis was an avid photographer, inspired writer Richard Wright's interest in the field. Davis wrote that his photography consisted in large part of nudes because "the female body fascinates me, both aesthetically and emotionally."

He said that when photographing, he focused on "contours" and the "wide range of tones". Davis, Richard Wright, Margaret Walker, others were part of the South Side Writers Group, which met beginning in 1936 to critique each other's work, they were part of. Davis worked as a sports reporter, in particular covering the rivalry between African-American boxer Joe Louis and the German Max Schmeling, he and other writers portrayed their confrontation as equality vs. fascism. Davis believed that sports was a field in which men could break the color bar, was a way to reach out to a working class. During the Great Depression, Davis participated in the federal Federal Writers' Project, under the Works Progress Administration and part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal. In 1937 he received a Julius Rosenwald Fellowship, funded by the president of Sears Roebuck, who became a major philanthropist. Davis used his newspaper platform to call for integration of the sports world, he began to work on community organizing, starting a Chicago labor newspaper, The Star, toward the end of World War II.

The paper's goal was to "promote a policy of cooperation and unity between Russia and the United States" seeking to " the red-baiting tendencies of the mainstream press." In 1947, the Spokane Daily Chronicle of Washington state described the paper as "a red weekly", saying that it "has most of the markings of a Communist front publication." After World War II, Americans became suspicious of the Soviet Union, a former ally, after it extended its control over Eastern Europe, fears were raised about the influence of Communism in the US. In 1945, Davis taught one of the first jazz history courses in the United States, at the Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago. In 1948, with the encouragement of authors such as Richard Wright and Margaret Walker, Davis published a collection of poems, entitled 47th Street: Poems; the collection chronicled the varied life of African Americans on Chicago's South Side. Davis had been a strong supporter of the work of Richard Wright, describing his Uncle Tom's Children as "the most absorbing fiction penned by a Negro since George Schuyler's Black No More.

After Wright's break with the Left, the two writers fell out. Davis described Wright's essays as "an act of treason in the fight for our rights and aided only the racists who were seeking any means