1998 FIFA World Cup
The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It was held in France from 10 June to 12 July 1998; the country was chosen as the host nation by FIFA for the second time in the history of the tournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process. It was the second time that France staged the competition and the ninth time that it was held in Europe. Qualification for the finals began in March 1996 and concluded in November 1997. For the first time in the competition, the group stage was expanded from 24 teams to 32, with eight groups of four. 64 matches were played in 10 stadiums in 10 host cities, with the opening match and final staged at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis. The tournament was won by host country France. France won their first title, becoming the seventh nation to win a World Cup, the sixth to win the tournament on home soil. Croatia, Jamaica and South Africa made their first appearances in the finals. France was awarded the 1998 World Cup on 2 July 1992 by the executive committee of FIFA during a general meeting in Zürich, Switzerland.
They defeated Morocco by 12 votes to 7. Switzerland withdrew; this made France the third country to host two World Cups, after Mexico and Italy in 1986 and 1990 respectively. France hosted the third edition of the World Cup in 1938. England, who hosted the competition in 1966 and won it, were among the original applicants, but withdrew their application in favour of an successful bid to host UEFA Euro 1996. On 4 June 2015, while co-operating with the FBI and the Swiss authorities, Chuck Blazer confirmed that he and other members of FIFA's executive committee were bribed during the 1998 and 2010 World Cups host selection process. Blazer stated that "we facilitated bribes in conjunction with the selection of the host nation for the 1998 World Cup". Since France won the selection process it was thought the bribery came from its bid committee, it transpired that the bribe payment was from the failed Moroccan bid. The qualification draw for the 1998 World Cup finals took place in the Musée du Louvre, Paris on 12 December 1995.
As tournament hosts, France was exempt from the draw. 174 teams from six confederations participated, 24 more than in the previous round. Fourteen countries qualified from the European zone. Ten were determined after group play - the best second-placed team. CONMEBOL and CAF were each given five spots in the final tournament, while three spots were contested between 30 CONCACAF members in the North and Central America and the Caribbean zone; the winner of the Oceanian zone advanced to an intercontinental play-off against the runner-up of the Asian play-off, determined by the two best second placed teams. Four nations qualified for the first time: Croatia, Jamaica and South Africa; the last team to qualify was Iran by virtue of beating Australia in a two-legged tie on 29 November 1997. This was Team Melli's first appearance in the finals since 1978, the last time Tunisia qualified for the tournament. Chile qualified for the first time since 1982, after serving a ban that saw them miss out on the two previous tournaments.
Paraguay and Denmark returned for the first time since 1986. Austria, England and Yugoslavia returned after missing out on the 1994 tournament, with the Balkan team now appearing under the name of FR Yugoslavia. Among the teams who failed to qualify were two-time winners Uruguay; as of 2018, this is the most recent time Austria, Norway, Bulgaria and Jamaica have qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time Portugal missed out. The highest ranked team not to qualify was Czech Republic, while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was Nigeria; the following 32 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournament. France's bid to host the World Cup centered on a national stadium with 80,000 seats and nine other stadiums located across the country; when the finals were awarded in July 1992, none of the regional club grounds were of a capacity meeting FIFA's requirements – namely being able to safely seat 40,000. The proposed national stadium, colloquially referred to as the'Grand stade' met with controversy at every stage of planning.
As Mayor of Paris, Jacques Chirac negotiated a deal with Prime Minister Édouard Balladur to bring the Stade de France – as it was named now, to the commune of Saint-Denis just north of the capital city. Construction on the stadium started in December 1995 and was completed after 26 months of work in November 1997 at a cost of ₣2.67 billion. The choice of stadium locations was drafted from an original list of 14 cities. FIFA and CFO monitored the progress and quality of preparations, culminating in the former providing final checks of the grounds weeks before the tournament commenced. Montpellier was the surprise inclusion from the final list of cities because of its low urban hierarchy in comparison to Strasbourg, who boasted a better hierarchy an
Hamburger Sport-Verein e. V. known as Hamburger SV, Hamburg or HSV, is a German sport club based in Hamburg, its largest branch being its football department. Although the current HSV was founded in June 1919 from a merger of three earlier clubs, it traces its origin to 29 September 1887 when the first of the predecessors, SC Germania, was founded. HSV's football team had the distinction of being the only team that had played continuously in the top tier of the German football league system since the founding of the club at the end of World War I, it was the only team that played in every season of the Bundesliga since its foundation in 1963, until 2018 when the team were relegated for the first time in history. HSV has won the German national championship six times, the DFB-Pokal three times and the League Cup twice; the team's most successful period was from the mid-1970s until the mid-1980s when, in addition to several domestic honours, they won the 1976–77 European Cup Winners' Cup and the 1982–83 European Cup.
The outstanding players of this period were Horst Hrubesch, Manfred Kaltz, Felix Magath, all of whom were regulars in the German National Team. To date, HSV's last major trophy was the 1986–87 DFB-Pokal. HSV play their home games at the Volksparkstadion in a western district of Hamburg; the club colours are blue and black but the home kit of the team is white jerseys and red shorts. The team's most common nickname is "die Rothosen"; as it is one of Germany's oldest clubs, it is known as der Dinosaurier. HSV have rivalries with Werder Bremen, with whom they contest the Nordderby, Hamburg-based FC St. Pauli, whom they contest the Hamburg derby. HSV is notable in football as a grassroots organisation with youth development a strong theme; the club had a team in the Women's Bundesliga from 2003 to 2012 but it was demoted to Regionalliga level because of financial problems. Other club departments include badminton, basketball, boxing, darts, golf, gymnastics and cardiopulmonary rehabilitation exercises.
These departments represent about 10% of the club membership. HSV is one of the biggest sports clubs in Germany with over 84,000 members in all its departments and stated by Forbes to be among the 20-largest football clubs in the world. Hamburger Sport-Verein traces its origin to the merger of Der Hohenfelder Sportclub and Wandsbek-Marienthaler Sportclub on 29 September 1887 to form Sport-Club Germania Hamburg referred to as SC Germania; this was the first of three clubs. HSV in its club statute recognises the founding of SC Germania as its own date of origin; the other two clubs in the June 1919 merger were Hamburger FC founded in 1888 and FC Falke Eppendorf dating back to 1906. The merger came about because the three clubs had been weakened by the impact of the First World War on manpower and finance and they could not continue as separate entities. SC Germania was formed as an athletics club and did not begin to play football until 1891, when some Englishmen joined the club and introduced it.
SC Germania had its first success in 1896, winning the Hamburg-Altona championship for the first of five times. Germania player Hans Nobiling emigrated to Brazil at the end of the 19th century, where he became an important pioneer of the game, instrumental in the foundation of SC Internacional, the third oldest club of the country which became part of São Paulo FC, one of the major sports clubs of Brazil, in 1938 and SC Germânia of São Paulo, which became EC Pinheiros. Hamburger SC 1888 was founded by students on 1 June 1888, it had links with a youth team called FC Viktoria 95 and, during World War I, was temporarily known as Viktoria Hamburg 88. SC Germania and Hamburger SC 1888 were among 86 clubs who founded the Deutscher Fußball-Bund in Leipzig on 28 January 1900. FC Falke was founded by students in Eppendorf on 5 March 1906 but it was never a successful team and played in lower leagues; the newly formed Hamburger SV became competitive and contested the 1922 national final against 1. FC Nürnberg, who were playing for their third consecutive title.
The game was called off on account of darkness after three hours and ten minutes of play, drawn at 2–2. The re-match went into extra time, in an era that did not allow for substitutions, that game was called off at 2–2 when Nuremberg were reduced to just seven players and the referee ruled they could not continue. Considerable wrangling ensued over the decision; the DFB urged them to refuse the title in the name of good sportsmanship. The Viktoria trophy was not presented that year. HSV's first unqualified success was achieved in the 1923 German football championship when they won the national title against Union Oberschöneweide, they failed to defend the title in 1924, losing the final to Nuremberg, but lifted the Viktoria again in 1928 when they defeated Hertha BSC 5–2 at the Altonaer Stadion in the final. During the Third Reich, HSV enjoyed local success in the Gauliga Nordmark known as the Gauliga Hamburg, winning the league championship in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1941 and 1945. At national level the club was unsuccessful with semi-final losses in 1938 and 1939 their best performances in this period.
Its main rival in the Gauliga in those years was Eimsbütteler TV. HSV's first post-war season was in the newly formed Stadtliga Hamburg and they won its championship in 1946; the club won the championship of the British occupation zone in 1947 and 1948, the only two seasons this com
2002 FIFA World Cup
The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organized by FIFA. It was held from 31 May to 30 June 2002 at sites in South Korea and Japan, with its final match hosted by Japan at International Stadium in Yokohama. A field of 32 teams qualified for this World Cup, the first to be held in Asia, the first to be held outside of the Americas or Europe, as well as the first to be jointly-hosted by more than one nation. China, Ecuador and Slovenia made their World Cup debuts; the tournament had several upsets and surprise results, which included the defending champions France being eliminated in the group stage after earning a single point and second favourites Argentina being eliminated in the group stage. South Korea managed to reach the semi-finals, beating Spain and Portugal en route. However, the most potent team at the tournament, prevailed, winning the final against Germany 2–0, making them the first and only country to have won the World Cup five times.
The victory qualified Brazil for the 2003 and subsequently 2005 FIFA Confederations Cups, its fourth and fifth Confederations Cup appearance in a row. In the third place play-off match against South Korea, Turkey won 3–2, taking third place in only their second FIFA World Cup; the 2002 World Cup was the last one to use the golden goal rule. South Korea and Japan were selected as hosts by FIFA on 31 May 1996. South Korea and Mexico presented three rival bids. FIFA officials brokered a united bid between the two Asian countries shortly before the decision was made, they were chosen unanimously in preference to Mexico; this was the first World Cup to be hosted by more than one country, the second being the 2026 World Cup, which will be hosted by the United States and Canada. The general secretary of South Korea's bidding committee, Song Young-shik, stated that FIFA was interested in staging some matches in North Korea in order to aid Korean reunification, but it was ruled out. At the time the decision was made, Japan had never qualified for a World Cup finals.
The only other countries to have been awarded a World Cup without having competed in a final tournament are Italy in 1934 and Qatar in 2022. The unusual choice of host proved an issue for football fans in Europe, used to watching international matches on or close to their time zone. With games taking place in the European morning, some schools and businesses chose to open late on match days or set up communal watching events before the start of work. 199 teams attempted to qualify for the 2002 World Cup. The qualification process began with the preliminary draw held in Tokyo on 7 December 1999. Defending champions France and co-hosts South Korea and Japan qualified automatically and did not have to play any qualification matches; this was the final World Cup in which the defending champions qualified automatically.14 places were contested by UEFA teams, five by CAF teams, four by CONMEBOL teams, four by AFC teams and three by CONCACAF teams. The remaining two places were decided by playoffs between AFC and UEFA and between CONMEBOL and OFC.
Four nations qualified for the finals for the first time: China, Ecuador and Slovenia. As of 2018, this was the last time the Republic of Ireland and China qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time Australia and Switzerland failed to qualify. Turkey qualified for the first time since 1954, Poland and Portugal both qualified for the first time since 1986 and Costa Rica and Uruguay qualified for the first time since 1990. Sweden and the Republic of Ireland returned after missing the 1998 World Cup. 1998 semi-finalists the Netherlands, three times 1990s participants Romania and Colombia and Norway and Morocco, which had participated in the previous 2 finals, failed to qualify, while South Korea set a record by appearing in a fifth successive finals tournament, the first nation from outside Europe or the Americas to achieve this feat. All seven previous World Cup-winning nations qualified, which broke the record of most previous champions at a tournament before the record was broken again in 2014.
The highest ranked team not to qualify was Colombia, while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was China PR. The following 32 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournament: South Korea and Japan each provided 10 venues, the vast majority of them newly built for the tournament. Groups A–D played all their matches in South Korea and Groups E–H played all their matches in Japan; the stadiums in Daegu, Suwon and Saitama all hosted 4 matches each, while the other 16 stadiums hosted 3 matches each. Notably, no matches were played in Tokyo, making it the second capital of a host country not to have a World Cup venue. A cross denotes an indoor stadium. There was much controversy over the refereeing in the tournament. Questionable decisions in the match between Italy and South Korea resulted in 400,000 complaints, featured in ESPN's 10 most fabled World Cup controversies; the match between Spain and South Korea featured two controversially disallowed Spanish goals, which Iván Helguera referred to as "a robbery" and led to Spanish press brandishing the officials "thieves of dreams", though FIFA
Thomas Jürgen "Icke" Häßler is a German former professional football player. He played as a midfielder throughout his career. Häßler appeared over 100 times for the German national team, he was a member of the teams which won the 1990 FIFA World Cup and UEFA Euro 1996. He appeared at the 1994 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 1992 and 2000 UEFA European Championships, the 1988 Olympic Games. Häßler spent his early playing days in the youth team of Reinickendorfer Füchse, he began his professional career in 1984 with 1. FC Köln of the Bundesliga, for whom he played six successful years, helping the club to become Bundesliga Runners-up in 1989 and 1990. Soon after winning the 1990 World Cup with the German national team in Italy, Häßler transferred to Juventus for a sum of DM15 million, he spent only one year in Turin before he decided to join another Italian club, A. S. Roma, for a fee of DM14 million; this time he stayed for three years, scoring 11 goals. In 1994, however, Häßler wanted to return to the Bundesliga.
Despite offers from some of the biggest German clubs, he decided to sign with Karlsruher SC in a DM7 million deal, the highest transfer sum the club has spent. In the following three years and its new key player achieved positions in the upper third of the table which resulted in UEFA Cup participations in 1996–97 and 1997–98. By winning the UEFA Intertoto Cup in 1996, Karlsruhe not only qualified for the UEFA Cup but accomplished to throw out Häßler's former club AS Roma in the second round of the tournament. In the first leg of the third round, Häßler scored twice in his team's 3–1 win over Brøndby IF in Copenhagen. However, shortly after this win Häßler received the first big injury in his career when he broke his leg in a league match against Fortuna Düsseldorf. Without its captain, Karlsruhe played a catastrophic second leg and was eliminated from the tournament after a 0–5 home defeat. Following his recovery, Häßler returned for the last two games of the season and helped his team to finish in sixth place in the 1996–97 season, securing another year of international football competition.
In the end, once again the club failed to survive the third round. At the end of the 1997–98 season, the club's situation had worsened significantly. For the first time in his career, Häßler was confronted with a possible relegation. Feeling the pressure he once more showed his extraordinary skills and scored four goals in the last three games of the season. Despite Häßler's performances, Karlsruhe lost its last match in a dramatic season final and was relegated from the Bundesliga. Due to a contract clause, Häßler could leave Karlsruhe on a free transfer, he decided to join Borussia Dortmund, which had won the UEFA Champions League in 1997. There he met the assistant of the German national team, Michael Skibbe with 32 years the youngest head coach in the history of the Bundesliga. In the course of the season, there were some serious disputes between Häßler and Skibbe because the latter entrusted the midfield leadership to Andreas Möller. In the end, Häßler never played over the full 90 minutes.
Disappointed about his season in Dortmund, Häßler left the club towards Bavaria and signed a contract with 1860 München. He spent four successful years in Munich and became an important part of the team. In his first season the club reached a sensational fourth place in the Bundesliga. After they failed to win against Leeds United in the qualification for the UEFA Champions League, Häßler and his team participated in the UEFA Cup, but with 1860 Munich he failed to overcome the competition's third round. In the following two years, the club took part in the UEFA Intertoto Cup but didn't manage to succeed. After the 2002–03 season, Häßler left Munich to finish his career in Austria. In 2003, Häßler signed a one-year contract with the Austrian club SV Salzburg, he made 19 appearances and reached a seventh place in the 2003–04 season before he announced his retirement. Overall, Häßler chalked up an entertaining 539 games and a total of 81 goals throughout a football career in which he was voted Germany's footballer of the year in 1989 and 1992.
Although he is considered as one of the best German footballers of all time, he didn't win a single major club title, having lost the UEFA Cup final with 1. FC Köln in 1986, the Coppa Italia final with AS Roma in 1993 and the DFB-Pokal final with Karlsruhe in 1996. For Germany, Häßler was capped 101 times, scoring 11 goals. Other than the two major tournament wins at the 1990 FIFA World Cup and the 1996 UEFA European Championship, he played for his country at the 1994 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, Euro 92, Euro 2000, he won a bronze medal for West Germany at the 1988 Summer Olympics. He was the dominant figure of the Euro 92, displaying performances that were reminiscent of Diego Maradona's 1986 World Cup exploits, he displayed a specialty for scoring spectacular free kicks, tireless stamina and dazzling dribbling sprees, as Germany went on to reach the final of the tournament. Häßler is an assistant coach at Köln, he served as an assistant coach to Berti Vogts when he was head coach of Nigeria but both were sacked by the Nigerian FA.
Häßler interviewed for the managerial position at Scottish Premier League club Kilmarnock in June 2010. On 24 May 2014, he was named as the assistant coach of newly Iran Pro League promoted Padideh, he will work with Alireza Marzban. In February 2016 Häßler joined eighth division Bezirksliga side Club Italia Berlin as their new coach with the self-declared aim of eventual promotion to the 3. Liga. Note: Häßler appeared in the following European club competitions - UEFA Intertoto C
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War; the current champion is France. The current format of the competition involves a qualification phase, which takes place over the preceding three years, to determine which teams qualify for the tournament phase, called the World Cup Finals. After this, 32 teams, including the automatically qualifying host nation, compete in the tournament phase for the title at venues within the host nation over a period of about a month; the 21 World Cup tournaments have been won by eight national teams. Brazil have won five times, they are the only team to have played in every tournament; the other World Cup winners are Italy, with four titles each.
The World Cup is the most prestigious association football tournament in the world, as well as the most viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding the Olympic Games. Brazil, Italy and Mexico have each hosted twice, while Uruguay, Sweden, England, Spain, the United States and South Korea, South Africa and Russia have each hosted once. Qatar are planned as hosts of the 2022 finals, 2026 will be jointly hosted by Canada, the United States and Mexico, which will give Mexico the distinction of being the first country to have hosted games in three finals; the world's first international football match was a challenge match played in Glasgow in 1872 between Scotland and England, which ended in a 0–0 draw. The first international tournament, the inaugural British Home Championship, took place in 1884; as football grew in popularity in other parts of the world at the start of the 20th century, it was held as a demonstration sport with no medals awarded at the 1900 and 1904 Summer Olympics, at the 1906 Intercalated Games.
After FIFA was founded in 1904, it tried to arrange an international football tournament between nations outside the Olympic framework in Switzerland in 1906. These were early days for international football, the official history of FIFA describes the competition as having been a failure. At the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, football became an official competition. Planned by The Football Association, England's football governing body, the event was for amateur players only and was regarded suspiciously as a show rather than a competition. Great Britain won the gold medals, they repeated the feat at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm. With the Olympic event continuing to be contested only between amateur teams, Sir Thomas Lipton organised the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy tournament in Turin in 1909; the Lipton tournament was a championship between individual clubs from different nations, each one of which represented an entire nation. The competition is sometimes described as The First World Cup, featured the most prestigious professional club sides from Italy and Switzerland, but the FA of England refused to be associated with the competition and declined the offer to send a professional team.
Lipton invited an amateur side from County Durham, to represent England instead. West Auckland won the tournament and returned in 1911 to defend their title. In 1914, FIFA agreed to recognise the Olympic tournament as a "world football championship for amateurs", took responsibility for managing the event; this paved the way for the world's first intercontinental football competition, at the 1920 Summer Olympics, contested by Egypt and 13 European teams, won by Belgium. Uruguay won the next two Olympic football tournaments in 1924 and 1928; those were the first two open world championships, as 1924 was the start of FIFA's professional era. Due to the success of the Olympic football tournaments, FIFA, with President Jules Rimet as the driving force, again started looking at staging its own international tournament outside of the Olympics. On 28 May 1928, the FIFA Congress in Amsterdam decided to stage a world championship itself. With Uruguay now two-time official football world champions and to celebrate their centenary of independence in 1930, FIFA named Uruguay as the host country of the inaugural World Cup tournament.
The national associations of selected nations were invited to send a team, but the choice of Uruguay as a venue for the competition meant a long and costly trip across the Atlantic Ocean for European sides. Indeed, no European country pledged to send a team until two months before the start of the competition. Rimet persuaded teams from Belgium, France and Yugoslavia to make the trip. In total, 13 nations took part: seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America; the first two World Cup matches took place on 13 July 1930, were won by France and the USA, who defeated Mexico 4–1 and Belgium 3–0 respectively. The first goal in World Cup history was scored by Lucien Laurent o
In sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a player's appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in an international match of association football. In the early days of football, the concept of each team wearing a set of matching shirts had not been universally adopted, so each side would distinguish itself from the other by wearing a specific sort of cap. An early illustration of the first international football match between Scotland and England in 1872 shows the Scottish players wearing cowls, the English wearing a variety of school caps; the practice was first approved on 10 May 1886 for association football after a proposal made by N. Lane Jackson, founder of the Corinthians: That all players taking part for England in future international matches be presented with a white silk cap with red rose embroidered on the front; these to be termed International Caps. The act of awarding a cap is applied to other sports.
Although in some sports physical caps may not now always be given the term "cap" for an international or other appearance has been retained as an indicator of the number of occasions on which a sportsperson has represented a team in a particular sport. Thus, a "cap" is awarded for each game played and so a player who has played x games, for the team, is said to have been capped x times or have won x caps; the practice of awarding a physical cap varies from sport to sport. It may be awarded prior to a player's debut or for national teams, a commemorative cap may be awarded after a player reaches the 100th cap; as an example, the England men's association football teams still awards physical caps. Players are awarded one cap for every match they play — unless they play in a World Cup or European Championship finals tournament, they are given a single cap for the competition — with the names of all their opponents stitched into the fabric of the cap itself. For example, when David Beckham made his one hundredth appearance for England, because a number of his appearances had been at World Cup and European Championship final tournaments for which he received only one cap, he received only his 85th physical cap.
The world record holder for the highest number of international caps as of 5 November 2010 is retired American player Kristine Lilly, who has 354 caps. In men's association football, the record belongs to former player Ahmed Hassan of Egypt; the first footballer to win 100 international caps was Billy Wright of England's Wolverhampton Wanderers. Wright went on to appear 105 times for England, 90 of them. FIFA rules state that any club that refuses to release a player for national team duty is barred from using the player for two matches, a rule, intended to discourage clubs from pretending that the player is injured. However, it is a player's choice to refuse to retire from his or her national team; some current leading holders of association football caps are: 184 – Ahmed Hassan, Egypt 178 – Hossam Hassan, Egypt 178 – Mohamed Al-Deayea, Saudi Arabia 177 – Claudio Suárez, Mexico 178 in Mexican records 169 – Gianluigi Buffon, Italy 168 – Iván Hurtado, Ecuador 167 – Iker Casillas, Spain 166 – Vitālijs Astafjevs, Latvia 164 – Cobi Jones, United States 163 - Sergio Ramos, Spain 163 – Mohammed Al-Khilaiwi, Saudi Arabia 161 – Adnan Al-Talyani, United Arab Emirates 158 – Bader Al-Mutawa, Kuwait 157 – Landon Donovan, United States 354 – Kristine Lilly, United States World record holder 311 – Christie Rampone, United States 275 – Mia Hamm, United States 272 – Julie Foudy, United States 259 - Christine Sinclair, Canada 256 – Abby Wambach, United States 239 – Joy Fawcett, United States 231 – Heather O'Reilly, United States 214 – Birgit Prinz, Germany 214 – Therese Sjögran, SwedenBold denotes players active in international football.
In cricket, there are two types of caps. Firstly, there is the international type; some countries award a domestic type known as a "county cap". The latter system is most applied in English county cricket. Most counties do not automatically award caps to players on their first appearance. Indeed, one can play at the highest domestic level for several years, have a quite significant career in first-class cricket, without winning a cap; the world record for the number of caps in Test cricket is held by Sachin Tendulkar of India, who has, over the course of a 22-year career, collected 200. Tendulkar holds the record for One Day Internationals, with 463 caps. In rugby union, 35 players have reached 100 international caps as of 5 June 2012. Players from England, Scotland and Ireland are eligible for selection to the British and Irish Lions touring squad. Lions matches are classed as full international tests, caps are awarded; the Pacific Islanders team, composed of players from Fiji, Tonga and Cook Islands have a similar arrangement, although no players involved have so far reached 100 caps.
Players still active at Test level are in bold type. Richie McCaw, New Zealand — 148 Brian O'Driscoll, Ireland — 141 George Gregan, Australia — 139 Gethin Jenkins, Wales, 131 — Ronan O'Gara, Ireland — 130 Keven Mealamu, New Zealand — 125 Victor
SV Austria Salzburg
SV Austria Salzburg is an Austrian association football club, based in the city of Salzburg. The club was formed in 2005 by some supporters of the original SV Salzburg after it was renamed FC Red Bull Salzburg by its new owners, who changed the club's colours from its traditional violet and white to red and white; the club commenced participation in the seventh tier of Austria's national league system in 2006 rose through four successive championships to the third tier, Regionalliga West, in 2010. In 2015, the club gained promotion to the Erste Liga, one tier below the Austrian Bundesliga, only to be relegated a year later; the original club was formed in 1933. It was subject to a takeover by the Red Bull company in 2005, they renamed the club FC Red Bull Salzburg, changed the team colours and claimed that it was a new team. As a concession to pleas to keep the old colours, Red Bull offered to allow the goalkeeper's socks to be purple for away matches; this was viewed as an insult by fans caused a group of supporters, known as the "Violet-Whites", to want to preserve the 72-year-old traditions of their club which they felt had been ignored by Red Bull.
On 7 October 2005, the Violet-Whites registered the old club's original name "SV Austria Salzburg" and the old club emblem. For the second half of the 2005–06 season SV Austria fielded a unified team with the football section of the PSV Schwarz-Weiß Salzburg, which played in the 1. Salzburg Landesliga, the fourth tier of Austrian football, but at the end of the season the PSV members voted against continuing the link. Thus, the Violet-Whites formed a new team, which entered 2. Klasse Nord, the seventh tier of Austrian football, for the 2006–07 season; the first match of the relaunched SV Austria Salzburg was played on 29 July 2006 against Lieferinger SV, another Salzburg football club. SV Austria Salzburg won 6–0, went on to win the championship and promotion to 1. Klasse Nord; this was promotions for SV Austria Salzburg. They won the 1. Klasse Nord in 2007–08, the 2. Salzburg Landesliga in 2008–09 and the 1. Landesliga in 2009–10; the latter secured the club's promotion to Austria's third tier of football, the Regionalliga West for the 2010–11 season.
The club finished fifth in the 2010–2011 season, eighth in the 2011–2012 season. In the 2014–15 season, the club was promoted to the First League, the second tier of Austrian football, by winning the Regionalliga West, after a change in the rules that see an automatic promotion place for one of the Regionalligas being rotated each season; the promotion to the First League forced the club into debt of €900,000 by November 2015, caused by an increased budget for the players as well as a security requirement to holding certain home games without spectators. The club indicated it was willing to sell up to 51 percent of its ownership of the team to an investor, as long as the its name and crest would not be altered, but the Austrian Bundesliga announced that the sale of a majority of the team would be violating the league's rules. Due to breach of league licence, in November 2015 they had 6 points deducted; this was due to their failure to adhere to the league's stadium requirements. As of 22 July, 2016.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Regionalliga West: Champions 2014, 2015 Landescup: Winners 2012, 2013, 2014 1. Landesliga: Champions 2010 2. Landesliga: Champions 2009 1. Klasse Nord: Champions 2008 2. Klasse Nord A: Champions 2007 List of fan-owned sports teams Phoenix club SV Austria Salzburg: Official website SV Austria Salzburg: Official website Initiative Violett Weiß Initiative Violett Weiß