Oliver Heaviside FRS was an English self-taught electrical engineer and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations, reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, independently co-formulated vector analysis. Although at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life, Heaviside changed the face of telecommunications and science. Heaviside was born in London, at 55 Kings Street, he was a short and red-headed child, suffered from scarlet fever when young, which left him with a hearing impairment. A small legacy enabled the family to move to a better part of Camden when he was thirteen and he was sent to Camden House Grammar School, he was a good student, placed fifth out of five hundred students in 1865, but his parents could not keep him at school after he was 16, so he continued studying for a year by himself and had no further formal education.
Heaviside's uncle by marriage was Sir Charles Wheatstone, an internationally celebrated expert in telegraphy and electromagnetism, the original co-inventor of the first commercially successful telegraph in the mid-1830s. Wheatstone took a strong interest in his nephew's education and in 1867 sent him north to work with his own, older brother Arthur, managing one of Wheatstone's telegraph companies in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Two years he took a job as a telegraph operator with the Danish Great Northern Telegraph Company laying a cable from Newcastle to Denmark using British contractors, he soon became an electrician. Heaviside continued to study while working, by the age of 22 he published an article in the prestigious Philosophical Magazine on'The Best Arrangement of Wheatstone's Bridge for measuring a Given Resistance with a Given Galvanometer and Battery' which received positive comments from physicists who had unsuccessfully tried to solve this algebraic problem, including Sir William Thomson, to whom he gave a copy of the paper, James Clerk Maxwell.
When he published an article on the duplex method of using a telegraph cable, he poked fun at R. S. Culley, the engineer in chief of the Post Office telegraph system, dismissing duplex as impractical. In 1873 his application to join the Society of Telegraph Engineers was turned down with the comment that "they didn't want telegraph clerks"; this riled Heaviside, who asked Thomson to sponsor him, along with support of the society's president he was admitted "despite the P. O. snobs". In 1873 Heaviside had encountered Maxwell's newly published, famous, two-volume Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. In his old age Heaviside recalled: I remember my first look at the great treatise of Maxwell's when I was a young man… I saw that it was great and greatest, with prodigious possibilities in its power… I was determined to master the book and set to work. I was ignorant. I had no knowledge of mathematical analysis and thus my work was laid out for me, it took me several years before I could understand as much as I could.
I set Maxwell aside and followed my own course. And I progressed much more quickly… It will be understood that I preach the gospel according to my interpretation of Maxwell. Undertaking research from home, he helped develop transmission line theory. Heaviside showed mathematically that uniformly distributed inductance in a telegraph line would diminish both attenuation and distortion, that, if the inductance were great enough and the insulation resistance not too high, the circuit would be distortionless in that currents of all frequencies would have equal speeds of propagation. Heaviside's equations helped further the implementation of the telegraph. From 1882 to 1902, except for three years, he contributed regular articles to the trade paper The Electrician, which wished to improve its standing, for which he was paid £40 per year; this was hardly enough to live on, but his demands were small and he was doing what he most wanted to. Between 1883 and 1887 these averaged 2–3 articles per month and these articles formed the bulk of his Electromagnetic Theory and Electrical Papers.
In 1880, Heaviside researched the skin effect in telegraph transmission lines. That same year he patented, in the coaxial cable. In 1884 he recast Maxwell's mathematical analysis from its original cumbersome form to its modern vector terminology, thereby reducing twelve of the original twenty equations in twenty unknowns down to the four differential equations in two unknowns we now know as Maxwell's equations; the four re-formulated Maxwell's equations describe the nature of electric charges, magnetic fields, the relationship between the two, namely electromagnetic fields. Between 1880 and 1887, Heaviside developed the operational calculus using p for the differential operator, giving a method of solving differential equations by direct solution as algebraic equations; this caused a great deal of controversy, owing to its lack of rigour. He famously said, "Mathematics is an experimental science, definitions do not come first, but on, they make themselves, when the nature of the subject has developed itself."
On another occasion he asked somewhat more defensively, "Shall I refuse my dinner because I do not understand the process of digestion?"In 1887, Heaviside worked with his brother Arthur on a paper entitled "The Bridge Syste
Bridge No. L1409 known as the Garvin Brook Bridge, was a historic stone arch bridge in Hillsdale Township, United States, built in 1895; however it was destroyed during the 2007 Midwest flooding, when runoff carried away everything except the arch substructure. It had been listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990 for having state-level significance in the theme of engineering, it was nominated for being Minnesota's "most impressive" rural stone arch bridge, owing to its fine ashlar masonry and sizeable 45-foot span. The bridge has been replaced by a modern structure, it was delisted from the National Register in 2016. Residents of Hillsdale Township petitioned Winona County for a bridge at this location in September 1894. Tabled, the request was approved and plans were drafted by county surveyor Fred H. Pickles; the project went out for contract in October 1895 and local stonemason Charles Butler—with the lowest bid at $1,340—was selected. The bridge was completed by December of that year.
Bridge No. L1409 was among a concentration of rural stone arch bridges in Southeast Minnesota built in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. Most of these were built by local governments in response to the Good Roads Movement. Few, spanned more than 15 feet. L1409 was three times that length, with the fine masonry produced by Butler, it was comparable to the larger and more sophisticated bridges of Minnesota's urban areas. In the summer of 2007, extreme flooding in Southeast Minnesota sent torrents of water sweeping down Garvin Brook. L1409's spandrel walls and earth fill were torn away, though the stone arch was so sturdily built it held in place; however the bridge was destroyed, it has since been replaced with a modern structure. List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Winona County, Minnesota
This is a list of recordings by Will Oldham. The nature of Oldham's work, with constant changes in backing musicians and the names under which he records, can make for a confusing discography. Below are his releases in as simplified a form as possible. A few of these albums are credited to another artist alongside Will Oldham but with Oldham providing vocals throughout each of the tracks they belong on a list of Oldham albums. Get the Fuck on Jolly Live – Bonny Billy and Marquis de Tren featuring the Monkey Boys limited edition tour CD Summer in the Southeast – Bonnie'Prince' Billy Wilding in the West – Bonnie'Prince' Billy Is It The Sea? – Bonnie'Prince' Billy with Harem Scarem & Alex Neilson UK #172 Funtown Comedown – Bonny Billy & The Picket Line The Bonnie Bells of Oxford – Trembling Bells & Bonnie'Prince' Billy Pond Scum – Bonnie "Prince" Billy BBC sessions Lost Blues and Other Songs – Palace Music Guarapero/Lost Blues 2 – Will Oldham Little Lost Blues – Bonny Billy This section again contains several releases which are credited to Oldham alongside another artist or which are credited to a group other than Palace/Palace Brothers/Palace Music/Palace Songs.
In these cases Oldham's contribution is such that they merit mention in his own discography rather than in the collaborations section. Goat Songs – The Sundowners An Arrow Through the Bitch – Palace Brothers Hope – Palace Songs The Mountain – Palace Songs Put Together For – Palace Soundtrack Western Music – Will Oldham Black/Rich Music – Will Oldham Blue Lotus Feet – Bonnie'Prince' Billy Dream of a Drunk Black Southern Eagle – Bonnie'Prince' Billy More Revery – Bonny Billy Ode Music – Will Oldham All Most Heaven – Will Oldham and Rian Murphy Get on Jolly – Bonnie Billy and the Marquis de Tren More Revery – Bonny Billy Amalgamated Sons of Rest – Amalgamated Sons of Rest Slitch Music – The Continental OP Seafarers Music – Will Oldham Pebbles and Ripples – Bonny Billy and Brightblack / I Gave You - Bonny/Sweeney Strange Form of Life – Bonnie'Prince' Billy Ask Forgiveness – Bonnie'Prince' Billy with Meg Baird & Greg Weeks Chijimi EP – Bonnie'Prince' Billy / Among The Gold – Bonnie'Prince' Billy & Cheyenne Marie Mize The Mindeater – Bonnie'Prince' Billy & The Phantom Family Halo / Bonnie & Mariee EP – Bonnie'Prince' Billy & Mariee Sioux The Duchess – Trembling Bells & Bonnie'Prince' Billy Hummingbird EP – Bonnie'Prince' Billy Now Here’s My Plan – Bonnie'Prince' Billy Solemns – Bonnie'Prince' Billy & Marquis de Tren Tip The Glass & Feel The Bottom – Bonnie'Prince' Billy & The Cairo Gang / The Happy Song / At The Corner Of The Stairs – Bonnie'Prince' Billy & Oscar Parsons Wallins Creek Girls – Bonnie'Prince' Billy & Nathan Salsburg The Best Of Folks/Harbour Men, 7″ - Bonnie Prince Billy/Naked Shortsellers This section lists Will Oldham songs which have appeared on multi-artist compilations.
"For The Mekons, et al." – Palace Brothers "Don't I Look Good Today" – Palace Brothers "Two More Days" – Palace Brothers "I Am A Cinematographer" - Palace Brothers "Meaulnes" – Palace Brothers "I Send My Love To You" – Palace Brothers "You Will Miss Me When I Burn" – Palace Brothers "Little Blue Eyes" – Palace "Ebb's Folly" – Will Oldham and Jim O'Rourke "Blokbuster" – Live Palace Music "What's Wrong With A Zoo?" – Bonnie'Prince' Billy "Watch With Me" – Bonnie'Prince' Billy "Song For The New Breed" – Bonnie'Prince' Billy "Today I Started Celebrating Again" – Bonnie'Prince' Billy "The Eagle and the Hawk" – Bonnie'Prince' Billy "Early Morning Melody" – Bonnie'Prince' Billy "You Can Never Go Fast Enough" – Will Oldham and Alan Licht "There's Something About What Happens When We Talk" – Bonnie Billy and Mary Feiock "All These Vicious Dogs" – Will Oldham "Lessons From What's Poor" – Bonnie'Prince' Billy "Antagonism (live
Mini is a British automotive marque founded in 1969, owned by German automotive company BMW since 2000, used by them for a range of small cars. The word Mini has been used in car model names since 1959, in 1969 it became a marque in its own right when the name "Mini" replaced the separate "Austin Mini" and "Morris Mini" car model names. BMW acquired the marque in 1994; the original Mini was a line of British small cars manufactured by the British Motor Corporation, which in 1966 became part of British Motor Holdings. This merged with Leyland Motors in 1968 to form British Leyland. In the 1980s, British Leyland was broken-up and in 1988 Rover Group, including Mini, was acquired by British Aerospace. Mini models included the Morris Mini-Minor and the Austin Seven, the Countryman, Moke, 1275GT and Clubman. Performance versions of these models used the name Cooper, due to a partnership with racing legend John Cooper; the original Mini continued in production until 2000. In 1994, Rover Group was acquired by BMW.
Development of a modern successor to the Mini began in 1995 and an new Mini model was launched in 2001 by BMW. The current Mini range includes the Hardtop/Hatch/Convertible, Countryman, Coupe/Roadster and Paceman; the Mini Hatch/Hardtop, Clubman and Roadster are assembled at BMW's Plant Oxford in Cowley, England. The Mini Convertible and Countryman are assembled at VDL Nedcar in Born, the Mini Hatch/Hardtop is assembled here besides the Oxford plant; the Paceman was. A total of 301,526 Mini vehicles were sold worldwide in 2012. Mini vehicles have been active in rallying and the Mini Cooper S won the Monte Carlo Rally on three occasions, in 1964, 1965 and 1967. Mini has participated in the World Rally Championship since 2011 through the Prodrive WRC Team. In April 2013, Peter Schwarzenbauer became new Mini's managing director. On 1 April 2019, BMW named Bernd Körber as director of the Mini brand and replaced Peter Schwarzenbauer; the original two-door Mini was a small car produced by the British Motor Corporation and its successors from 1959 until 2000.
It is considered an icon of the 1960s, its space-saving front-wheel-drive layout influenced a generation of car-makers. The vehicle is in some ways considered the British equivalent to its German contemporary, the Volkswagen Beetle, which enjoyed similar popularity in North America. In 1999 the Mini was voted the second most influential car of the 20th Century, behind the Ford Model T; this distinctive two-door car was designed for BMC by Sir Alec Issigonis. It was manufactured at the Longbridge and Cowley plants in England, the Victoria Park / Zetland British Motor Corporation factory in Sydney and also in Spain, Chile, Portugal, South Africa, Uruguay and Yugoslavia; the Mini Mark I had three major UK updates: the Mark II, the Clubman and the Mark III. Within these was a series of variations including an estate car, a pickup truck, a van and the Mini Moke—a jeep-like buggy; the Mini Cooper and Cooper "S" were sportier versions that were successful as rally cars, winning the Monte Carlo Rally four times from 1964 through to 1967, although in 1966 the Mini was disqualified after the finish, along with six other British entrants, which included the first four cars to finish, under a questionable ruling that the cars had used an illegal combination of headlamps and spotlights.
Minis were marketed under the Austin and Morris names, as the Austin Seven and Morris Mini-Minor, until Mini became a marque in its own right in 1969. The Mini was again marketed under the Austin name in the 1980s. In the 1990s, BMW was seeking to broaden its model range through the addition of compact cars and SUVs; this sparked a series of compact car concept vehicles from the company during the early 1990s. The first were the E1 and Z13, powered by an electric motor and a rear-mounted 1100 cc BMW motorcycle engine, respectively. In early 1994, BMW acquired the Rover Group from British Aerospace, which owned Mini, among other brands. BMW insisted that a compact model must feature traditional BMW characteristics to uphold the company's standards and image; the "MINI" brand, did not share these standards and BMW saw this as an opportunity to create a competitively priced, yet premium, compact car. This formed BMW's plan to launch the mid-range Mini, it was at around this time that Rover, was working on a successor to the original Mini.
Its first concept was the ACV30, unveiled at the 1997 Monte Carlo Rally. The name was an acronym of Anniversary Concept Vehicle, whilst the'30' represented the 30 years that had passed since a Mini first won the Monte Carlo Rally; the vehicle itself was a two-door coupe powered by a rear-mounted MG F engine. Just months Rover released another concept, this time, a pair of vehicles called Spiritual and Spiritual Too; these vehicles were a more realistic attempt to create a modern Mini, coincided with BMW's official creation of the Mini project. Although the two-door and four-door pair wore Mini badges, both vehicles remained purely concepts. In 1998, BMW set out on creating the production Mini; the first aspect, considered was the design, chosen from 15 full-sized design studies. Five of these designs came from BMW Germany, another five fro
The theology of Pope Pius IX was aware and convinced about the pontiff's role as the highest teaching authority in the Church. He promoted the foundations of Catholic Universities in Belgium and France and supported Catholic associations with the intellectual aim to explain the faith to non-believers and non-Catholics; the Ambrosian Circle in Italy, the Union of Catholic Workers in France and the Pius Verein and the Deutsche Katholische Gesellschaft in Germany all tried to bring the Catholic faith in its fullness to people outside of the Church. Pope Pius IX was religious and shared a strong devotion to the Virgin Mary with many of his contemporaries, who made major contributions to Roman Catholic Mariology. Marian doctrines featured prominently in 19th century theology the issue of the Immaculate Conception of Mary. During his pontificate petitions increased requesting the dogmatization of the Immaculate Conception. In 1848 Pius appointed a theological commission to analyze the possibility for a Marian dogma.
In a record 38 encyclicals he took position on Church issues. They include: Qui pluribus dealt with faith and religion. On 7 February 1862 he issued the papal constitution Ad universalis Ecclesiae, dealing with the conditions for admission to religious orders of men in which solemn vows are prescribed. Unlike popes in the 20th century, Pius IX did not use encyclicals to explain the faith in its details, but to show problem areas and errors in the Church and in various countries, his December 1864 encyclical Quanta cura contained the Syllabus of Errors, an appendix that listed and condemned as heresy 80 propositions, many on political topics, established his pontificate in opposition to secularism and modernism in all its forms. The document affirmed that the Church is a true and perfect society free, endowed with proper and perpetual rights of her own, conferred upon her by her Divine Founder; the Church has the power of defining dogmatically that the religion of the Catholic Church is the only true religion.
After centuries of being dominated by States and secular powers, the Pope thus defended the rights of the Church to free expression and opinion if particular views violated the perception and interests of secular forces, which in Italy at the time tried to dominate many Church activities, Bishop appointments and the education of the clergy in seminaries. The Syllabus was controversial at the time. "The Pope whose influence and State was seen as declining ending before the Syllabus, was at once the center of attention as the powerful enemy of progress, a man of boundless power and dangerous influence." Anti-Catholic forces viewed the papal document as an attack on progress, while Catholics were happy, that their rights were defined, that the rights of monarchs were viewed in a restrictive way. European Catholics welcomed the idea, that national churches are not subjected to State authority, as was so long practiced in France, Portugal under various versions of Gallicanism. American Catholics, who saw agreement of the papal views on the role of the State in Church affairs with those of the founding fathers, rejoiced over the definition of temporal rights in the areas of education and family.
Pius IX was the first pope to popularize encyclicals on a large scale to foster his views. He decisively acted on the century-old struggle between Dominicans and Franciscans regarding the Immaculate Conception of Mary, deciding in favour of the latter ones. However, this decision, which he formulated as an infallible dogma, raised the question, can a Pope in fact make such decisions without the bishops? This foreshadowed one topic of the Vatican Council which he convened for 1869; the Pope did consult the bishops beforehand with his encyclical Ubi Primum, but insisted on having this issue clarified nevertheless. The Council was to deal with Papal Infallibility not on its own but as an integral part of its consideration of the definition of the Catholic Church and the role of the bishops in it; as it turned out, this was not possible because of the imminent attack by Italy against the Papal States, which forced a premature suspension of the First Vatican Council. Thus the major achievements of Pius IX are his Mariology and Vatican I.
The Vatican Council did prepare several decrees, with small changes, were all signed by Pius IX. They refer to the Catholic faith, God the creator of all things, divine revelation, the relation between faith and human reasoning, the primacy of the papacy and the infallibility of the papacy, it was noted that the theological style of Pius was negative, stating obvious errors rather than stating what is right. Pius was noted for overstating his case at times, explained in part due to his epileptic condition; this created problems inside and outside the Church but resulted in a clearing of the air and in much attention to his utterings, which otherwise may not have materialized. Contrary to stiff ultra-conservative sterility, which some attempted to associate with Pius IX, an extraordinary renewal of Catholic vigour and religious life took place during his pontificate: The entire episcopate was reappointed, religious ord
Alana Cook is a professional soccer player who plays as a defender for French Division 1 Féminine club Paris Saint-Germain and the United States national team. Cook played high school soccer for The Pennington School, helping guide the team to the 2013 New Jersey Independent Athletic Association title, she played in the NSCAA High School All-America Game. Cook's club team, Match Fit Academy Colchesters, won the 2013 U. S. Youth Soccer National League title. Cook attended the Stanford University from 2015 to 2018 where she got a degree in symbolic systems and was a four year starter for the Stanford Cardinal women's soccer team, captaining the team in her final two seasons, she was notably named as Pac-12 Conference Defender of the Year and a MAC Hermann Trophy semifinalist in 2018. In January 2019, Cook elected to forgo the 2019 NWSL College Draft despite her first round draft grade and instead chose to pursue opportunities in Europe, signing a three-year deal with French Division 1 Féminine team Paris Saint-Germain.
Cook is a former United States youth international having captained the United States U17s. She first made the jump to the U20 level in 2014 and the U23 level in 2017, she captained the United States U23s in 2019. Cook is eligible to represent England because of her British father, she received her first senior international call-up in September 2019 as a training player for England's friendlies against Portugal and Brazil. Cook received her first call-up to the United States national team on October 31, 2019; as of match played October 31, 2019. Stanford Cardinal Pac-12 Conference Women's Soccer Tournament: 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 NCAA Women's College Cup: 2017 United States U-23Nordic Tournament: 2019 Pac-12 Conference Defender of the Year: 2018 MAC Hermann Trophy Semifinalist: 2018 PSG profile Stanford profile Alana Cook at Soccerway