Her Father's Son
Her Father's Son is a 1916 American comedy silent film directed by William Desmond Taylor and written by Anna Fielder Brand and L. V. Jefferson; the film stars Vivian Martin, Gayne Whitman, Herbert Standing, Helen Jerome Eddy, Joe Massey and Jack Lawton. The film was released on October 12, 1916, by Paramount Pictures. Vivian Martin as Frances Fletcher Gayne Whitman as Lt. Richard Harkness Herbert Standing as William Fletcher Helen Jerome Eddy as Betty Fletcher Joe Massey as John Fletcher Jack Lawton as Willard Gordon Lucille Ward as Mammy Chloe Tom Bates as Mose This film is preserved in the Library of Congress collection, her Father's Son on IMDb
Adolph Zukor was an Austro-Hungarian-born American film producer best known as founder of Paramount Pictures. Zukor was born to a Jewish family in Ricse, a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At a young age he became an orphan so he decided to immigrate to the USA, he sailed from Hamburg on the s/s Rugia on March 1 and arrived in New York City under the name Adolf Zuckery on March 16, 1891. Like most immigrants, he began modestly. After having landed in New York City, he started working in an upholstery shop. A friend got him a job as an apprentice at a furrier. Zukor stayed in New York City for two years; when he left to become a "contract" worker, sewing fur pieces and selling them himself, he was twenty years old and an accomplished designer. He was young and adventuresome, the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago drew him to the Midwest. There he started a fur business. In the second season of operation, Zukor's Novelty Fur Company expanded to 25 men and opened a branch. Historian Neal Gabler wrote, "one of the stubborn fallacies of movie history is that the men who created the film industry were all impoverished young vulgarians..."
Zukor didn't fit this profile. By 1903, he looked and lived like a wealthy young burgher, he earned the income of one, he had a commodious apartment at 111th Street and Seventh Avenue in New York City's wealthy German-Jewish section". In 1918, he moved to New City, Rockland County, New York, where he purchased 300 acres of land from Lawrence Abraham, heir to the A&S Department Stores. Abraham had built a sizable house, a nine-hole golf course and a swimming pool on this property. Two years Zukor bought an additional 500 acres, built a night house, guest house, movie theater, locker room, garages, staff quarters and hired golf architect A. W. Tillinghast to build an 18-hole championship golf course. Today, Zukor's estate is the private Paramount Country Club. In 1903, he became involved in the motion picture industry when his cousin, Max Goldstein, approached him for a loan to invest in a chain of theaters; these theaters were started by Mitchell Mark in New York and hosted Edisonia Hall. Mark needed investors to expand his chain of theaters.
Zukor gave Goldstein the loan and formed a partnership with Mark and Morris Kohn, a friend of Zukor's who invested in the theaters. Zukor and Kohn opened a penny arcade operating as The Automatic Vaudeville Company on 14th Street in New York City, they soon opened branches in Boston and Newark, with funding by Marcus Loew. In 1912, Adolph Zukor established Famous Players Film Company—advertising "Famous Players in Famous Plays"—as the American distribution company for the French film production Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth starring Sarah Bernhardt; the following year he obtained the financial backing of the Frohman brothers, the powerful New York City theatre impresarios. Their primary goal was to bring noted stage actors to the screen and Zukor went on to produce The Prisoner of Zenda, he purchased an armory on 26th Street in Manhattan and converted it into Chelsea Studios, a movie studio, still used today. In 1916, the company merged with Jesse L. Lasky's company to form Famous Players-Lasky.
The Paramount Pictures Corporation was formed to distribute films made by Famous Players-Lasky, a dozen smaller companies pulled into Zukor's corporate giant. The consolidations led to the formation of a nationwide film distribution system. In 1917, Zukor acquired 50% of Lewis J. Selznick's Select Pictures which led Selznick's publicity to wane. However, Selznick bought out Zukor's share of Select Pictures. Zukor shed most of his early partners. In 1919, the company bought 135 theaters in the Southern states, making the producing concern the first that guaranteed exhibition of its own product in its own theaters, he revolutionized the film industry by organizing production and exhibition within a single company. Zukor believed in stars, he signed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Zukor pioneered "Block Booking" for Paramount Pictures, which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. Zukor was the driving force behind Paramount's success. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, he ran two production studios, one in Astoria, New York and the other in Hollywood, California. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, who had an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. Zukor was now turning out 60 features a year, he made deals to show them all in theaters controlled by Loew's Enterprises, continued to add more theaters to his own chain.
By 1920 he was in a position to charge. Thus he pioneered the concept, now the accepted practice in the film industry, by which the distributor charges the exhibitor a percentage of box-office receipts. Zukor the impresa
Margaret Illington was an American stage actress popular in the first decade of the 20th century. She made an attempt at silent film acting by making two films with Adolph Zukor's Famous Players-Lasky franchise. Maude Light was born on July 23, 1879 in Bloomington, Illinois to I. H. Light and his wife, Mary Ellen, she was educated at Illinois Wesleyan University and for two years was a pupil at Conway's Dramatic School in Chicago. She made her Broadway debut in 1900 and a few years she married Broadway impresario Daniel Frohman in 1903 making her a sister-in-law of powerful theater owner Charles Frohman; the marriage didn't last the decade and ended in 1909 but her association with Frohman was a tremendous boost to her career. An early Broadway success was 1904, co-starring Grace George, she and George played the sisters played famously by Lillian and Dorothy Gish in D. W. Griffith's 1921 film Orphans of the Storm. Illington married Edward Bowes in 1910 and desired to have a baby according to newspaper accounts that interviewed her.
But it was not to be and she continued in plays. One of her best known plays at this time was Kindling turned into a 1916 silent film by Cecil B. DeMille, but minus Illington. In 1917 Illington decided to try her hand at moviemaking and signed with Adolph Zukor and Jesse Lasky, she starred in The Inner Sacrifice, both directed by stage actor Frank Reicher. Zukor famously visited her on the set during the making of The Inner Shrine; when her two films were completed she returned to the stage and remained for about two years before retiring in 1919. In 1906 she was painted by the Swiss-born American society painter Adolfo Müller-Ury, a three-quarter seated portrait wearing a gown from the play "Mrs Leffingwall's Boots", exhibited at the gallery of M. Knoedler & Co. Fifth Avenue that December. Müller-Ury sent the picture to the Paris Salon in 1907, exhibited it three times more in 1908 in New York and Philadelphia, it was reproduced in The Metropolitan Magazine, Vol. XXV, No. 1, 5 October 1906. She died in Miami, Florida in 1934.
Margaret Illington on IMDb Margaret Illington at the Internet Broadway Database Margaret Illington - Pantagraph Margaret Illington still selections portraits portrait of Margaret Illington, 1913, by Benjamin Strauss and Homer Peyton Margaret Illington: Broadway Photographs
Internet Broadway Database
The Internet Broadway Database is an online database of Broadway theatre productions and their personnel. It was conceived and created by Karen Hauser in 1996 and is operated by the Research Department of The Broadway League, a trade association for the North American commercial theatre community; the website has a corresponding app for both the IOS and Android. This comprehensive history of Broadway provides records of productions from the beginnings of New York theatre in the 18th century up to today. Details include cast and creative lists for opening night and current day, song lists and other interesting facts about every Broadway production. Other features of IBDB include an extensive archive of photos from past and present Broadway productions, links to cast recordings on iTunes or Amazon and attendance information, its mission was to be an interactive, user-friendly, searchable database for League members, journalists and Broadway fans. The League added Broadway Touring shows to the database for ease of tracking shows that play in theatres across the country.
It is managed by Karen Hauser, Michael Abourizk, Mark Smith of the Broadway League. Internet Theatre Database – ITDb Internet Movie Database – IMDb Internet Book Database – IBookDb Lortel Archives – IOBDb The Broadway League Official website Broadway League website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
L. Frank Baum
Lyman Frank Baum was an American author chiefly famous for his children's books The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and its sequels. He wrote 14 novels in the Oz series, plus 41 other novels, 83 short stories, over 200 poems, at least 42 scripts, he made numerous attempts to bring his works to the nascent medium of film. His works anticipated such century-later commonplaces as television, augmented reality, laptop computers, wireless telephones, women in high-risk and action-heavy occupations, the ubiquity of advertising on clothing. Baum was born in New York in 1856 into a devout Methodist family, he had Scots-Irish and English ancestry. He was the seventh of nine children of Cynthia Ann and Benjamin Ward Baum, only five of whom survived into adulthood. "Lyman" was the name of his father's brother, but he always disliked it and preferred his middle name "Frank". His father succeeded in many businesses, including barrel-making, oil drilling in Pennsylvania, real estate. Baum grew up on his parents' expansive estate called Rose Lawn, which he fondly recalled as a sort of paradise.
Rose Lawn was located in New York. Frank was a dreamy child, tutored at home with his siblings. From the age of 12, he spent two miserable years at Peekskill Military Academy but, after being disciplined for daydreaming, he had a psychogenic heart attack and was allowed to return home. Baum started writing early in life prompted by his father buying him a cheap printing press, he had always been close to his younger brother Henry Clay Baum, who helped in the production of The Rose Lawn Home Journal. The brothers published several issues of the journal, including advertisements from local businesses, which they would give to family and friends for free. By the age of 17, Baum established a second amateur journal called The Stamp Collector, printed an 11-page pamphlet called Baum's Complete Stamp Dealers' Directory, started a stamp dealership with friends. At 20, Baum took on the national craze of breeding fancy poultry, he specialized in raising the Hamburg. In March 1880, he established a monthly trade journal, The Poultry Record, in 1886, when Baum was 30 years old, his first book was published: The Book of the Hamburgs: A Brief Treatise upon the Mating and Management of the Different Varieties of Hamburgs.
Baum had a flair for being the spotlight of fun in the household, including during times of financial difficulties. His selling of fireworks made the Fourth of July memorable, his skyrockets, Roman candles, fireworks filled the sky, while many people around the neighborhood would gather in front of the house to watch the displays. Christmas was more festive. Baum dressed as Santa Claus for the family, his father would place the Christmas tree behind a curtain in the front parlor so that Baum could talk to everyone while he decorated the tree without people managing to see him. He maintained this tradition all his life. Baum embarked on his lifetime infatuation—and wavering financial success—with the theater. A local theatrical company duped him into replenishing their stock of costumes on the promise of leading roles coming his way. Disillusioned, Baum left the theater — temporarily — and went to work as a clerk in his brother-in-law's dry goods company in Syracuse; this experience may have influenced his story "The Suicide of Kiaros", first published in the literary journal The White Elephant.
A fellow clerk one day was found locked in a store room dead from suicide. Baum could never stay away long from the stage, he performed in plays under the stage names of Louis F. George Brooks. In 1880, his father built him a theater in Richburg, New York, Baum set about writing plays and gathering a company to act in them; the Maid of Arran proved a modest success, a melodrama with songs based on William Black's novel A Princess of Thule. Baum wrote the play and composed songs for it, acted in the leading role, his aunt Katharine Gray played his character's aunt. She was the founder of Syracuse Oratory School, Baum advertised his services in her catalog to teach theater, including stage business, play writing, translating and operettas. On November 9, 1882, Baum married Maud Gage, a daughter of Matilda Joslyn Gage, a famous women's suffrage and feminist activist. While Baum was touring with The Maid of Arran, the theater in Richburg caught fire during a production of Baum's titled parlor drama Matches, destroying the theater as well as the only known copies of many of Baum's scripts, including Matches, as well as costumes.
In July 1888, Baum and his wife moved to Aberdeen, Dakota Territory where he opened a store called "Baum's Bazaar". His habit of giving out wares on credit led to the eventual bankrupting of the store, so Baum turned to editing the local newspaper The Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer where he wrote the column Our Landlady. Following the death of Sitting Bull at the hands of Indian agency police, Baum urged the wholesale extermination of all America's native peoples in a column that he wrote on December 20, 1890. On January 3, 1891 he returned to the subject in an editorial response to the Wounded Knee Massacre: The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extirmination of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries, we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamab