Serge Dassault was a French heir, business executive and politician. He served as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Dassault Group and was a conservative politician. According to Forbes, Dassault's net worth was estimated in 2016 at US$15 billion. Serge Dassault was the son of Madeline Dassault and Marcel Dassault, from whom he inherited the Dassault Group. Both his parents were of Jewish heritage, but converted to Roman Catholicism, his father founded the Dassault Aviation in 1929. During the Second World War, he was jailed when his father was sent to Buchenwald for refusing any cooperation from his society, Bordeaux-Aéronautique, directed by Henri Déplante, André Curvale and Claude de Cambronne, with the German aviation industry, he studied at the Lycée Janson de Sailly. He held engineering degrees from Supaéro. In 1963, he received an Executive MBA from HEC Paris. After the elder Dassault's death in 1986, Serge Dassault continued developing the company, with the help of CEOs Charles Edelstenne and Éric Trappier.
His group owned the newspaper Le Figaro. In December 1998, he was sentenced to two years' probation in the Belgian Agusta scandal, was fined 60,000 Belgian francs, he was a member of the Union for a Popular Movement political party, as is his son Olivier, a deputy in the National Assembly. He was a former mayor of the city of a southern suburb of Paris. In 2004, he became a senator, in that position, he was an outspoken advocate of conservative positions on economic and employment issues, claiming that France's taxes and workforce regulations ruin its entrepreneurs. In 2005, he inaugurated the €2 million Islamic cultural centre in his city of Corbeil-Essonnes. In November 2012, responding to the Ayrault government's plan to legalise same-sex marriage, he controversially said, during an interview for France Culture, that authorising it would cause "no more renewal of the population. We'll have a country of homosexuals, and so in ten years there'll be nobody left. It's stupid". Dassault married Nicole Raffel on 5 July 1950.
They had four children: Olivier, Laurent and Marie-Hélène. He died at his office at the Dassault group headquarters in Paris on 28 May 2018, from heart failure at the age of 93. List of French people by net worth The World's Billionaires Forbes.com: Forbes World's Richest People
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Instrument flight rules
Instrument flight rules is one of two sets of regulations governing all aspects of civil aviation aircraft operations. The U. S. Federal Aviation Administration's Instrument Flying Handbook defines IFR as: "Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals." It is a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate the type of flight plan an aircraft is flying, such as an IFR or VFR flight plan. To put instrument flight rules into context, a brief overview of visual flight rules is necessary, it is possible and straightforward, in clear weather conditions, to fly a plane by reference to outside visual cues, such as the horizon to maintain orientation, nearby buildings and terrain features for navigation, other aircraft to maintain separation. This is known as operating the aircraft under VFR, is the most common mode of operation for small aircraft.
However, it is safe to fly VFR only when these outside references can be seen from a sufficient distance. Thus, cloud ceiling and flight visibility are the most important variables for safe operations during all phases of flight; the minimum weather conditions for ceiling and visibility for VFR flights are defined in FAR Part 91.155, vary depending on the type of airspace in which the aircraft is operating, on whether the flight is conducted during daytime or nighttime. However, typical daytime VFR minimums for most airspace is 3 statute miles of flight visibility and a distance from clouds of 500' below, 1,000' above, 2,000' feet horizontally. Flight conditions reported as equal to or greater than these VFR minimums are referred to as visual meteorological conditions. Any aircraft operating under VFR must have the required equipment on board, as described in FAR Part 91.205. VFR pilots may use cockpit instruments as secondary aids to navigation and orientation, but are not required to. Visual flight rules are simpler than instrument flight rules, require less training and practice.
VFR provides a great degree of freedom, allowing pilots to go where they want, when they want, allows them a much wider latitude in determining how they get there. When operation of an aircraft under VFR is not safe, because the visual cues outside the aircraft are obscured by weather, instrument flight rules must be used instead. IFR permits an aircraft to operate in instrument meteorological conditions, any weather condition less than VMC but in which aircraft can still operate safely. Use of instrument flight rules is required when flying in "Class A" airspace regardless of weather conditions. Class A airspace extends from 18,000 feet above mean sea level to flight level 600 above the contiguous 48 United States and overlying the waters within 12 miles thereof. Flight in Class A airspace requires pilots and aircraft to be instrument equipped and rated and to be operating under Instrument Flight Rules. In many countries commercial airliners and their pilots must operate under IFR as the majority of flights enter Class A airspace.
Procedures and training are more complex compared to VFR instruction, as a pilot must demonstrate competency in conducting an entire cross-country flight by reference to instruments. Instrument pilots must meticulously evaluate weather, create a detailed flight plan based around specific instrument departure, en route, arrival procedures, dispatch the flight; the distance by which an aircraft avoids obstacles or other aircraft is termed separation. The most important concept of IFR flying is that separation is maintained regardless of weather conditions. In controlled airspace, air traffic control separates IFR aircraft from obstacles and other aircraft using a flight clearance based on route, distance and altitude. ATC monitors IFR flights on radar, or through aircraft position reports in areas where radar coverage is not available. Aircraft position reports are sent as voice radio transmissions. In the United States, a flight operating under IFR is required to provide position reports unless ATC advises a pilot that the plane is in radar contact.
The pilot must resume position reports after ATC advises that radar contact has been lost, or that radar services are terminated. IFR flights in controlled airspace require an ATC clearance for each part of the flight. A clearance always specifies a clearance limit, the farthest the aircraft can fly without a new clearance. In addition, a clearance provides a heading or route to follow and communication parameters, such as frequencies and transponder codes. In uncontrolled airspace, ATC clearances are unavailable. In some states a form of separation is provided to certain aircraft in uncontrolled airspace as far as is practical, but separation is not mandated nor provided. Despite the protection offered by flight in controlled airspace under IFR, the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the aircraft rests with the pilot in command, who can refuse clearances, it is essential to differentiate between flig
Dassault Falcon 50
The Dassault Falcon 50 is a French super-midsize, long-range business jet, featuring a trijet layout with an S-duct air intake for the central engine. It has the same fuselage cross-section and similar capacity as the earlier twin-engined Falcon 20, but is a new design, area ruled and includes a more advanced wing design; the first prototype flew on 7 November 1976, with French airworthiness certification on 27 February 1979, followed by U. S. Federal Aviation Administration certification on 7 March 1979. Dassault developed a maritime surveillance and environmental protection version as the Gardian 50; the Falcon 50 was updated as the Falcon 50EX, the first of which flew in 1996, the last of, delivered in 2008. The Falcon 50EX features improved engines and other enhancements to give further range improvements to an long-range jet; the Falcon 50EX designation applies to serial numbers 253–352, which marks the end of the production line for the Falcon 50/50EX. The last Falcon 50EX was built in late 2007 and delivered in early 2008.
Successors to the Falcon 50 are the Falcon 7X and the Falcon 900 featuring a larger fuselage and the same three-engine arrangement. Dassault announced in January 2008 what is a replacement aircraft for the Falcon 50, codenamed the "SMS"; the basic design process, including engine selection, was supposed to be completed by early 2009. However, in a June 2009 press conference, CEO Charles Edelstenne said that all design choices had been reopened and the goal was extended to the end of the year. Dassault and Aviation Partners Inc. have announced that High Mach blended winglets were being developed for the Falcon 50 as a retrofit kit. By 2018, Falcon 50s from the mid-late 1980s were priced at $0.879 to $1.6 million while 1998-2003 Falcon 50EXs can be had for $2.95 to $3.95 million. Falcon 50 Basic initial variant with Honeywell TFE 731-3-1C engines and optional auxiliary power unit. Falcon 50EX Marketing name for Falcon 50 with TFE 731-40 engines. Benin BoliviaBolivian Air ForceBulgariaBulgarian Air Force - former operatorBurundi DjiboutiDjibouti Air ForceFranceFrench Air Force - former operator French Navy operate eight Falcon 50M for maritime surveillance.
EgyptEgyptian Air Force - former operatorIranIranian Air Force Iranian GovernmentIraq ItalyThe Italian Air Force operated four Falcon 50s from 1985 until 2005, when two aircraft were retired. JordanRoyal Jordanian Air Force Jordanian Royal Flight. 20 October 2014: Falcon 50EX F-GLSA collided with a snow plow while taking off from Moscow Vnukovo Airport, killing all four people on board, including the CEO of Total oil and gas company Christophe de Margerie. Data from Flight InternationalGeneral characteristics Crew: two Capacity: eight to nine passengers Length: 18.52 m Wingspan: 18.86 m Height: 6.98 m Wing area: 46.83 m² Empty weight: 9889 kg Useful load: 8,119 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 18,008 kg Max Landing Weight: 16,200kg / 35,715lbs Payload with full fuel: 1,080kg / 2,380lbs Fuel Capacity: 7039 kg / 15520 lbs Cabin Length: 23’ 5” / 7.14m Cabin Width: Max: 6’ 1” / 1.86m Floor: 5' 2" / 1.57m Cabin Height: 5’ 9” / 1.75m Powerplant: 3 × Honeywell TFE 731-40 turbofan engines, 16.46kN each eachPerformance Maximum speed: Mach 0.86 Cruise speed: Mach 0.85 Range: 5,695 km Service ceiling: 14,936 m Rate of climb: 10.43 m/s Take off Distance: 1,504 m / 4,935 ft Landing Distance: 658 m / 2,159 ftAvionics Collins ProLine4 Dassault Falcon familyRelated development Dassault Falcon 20 Dassault Falcon 900Aircraft of comparable role and era Hawker 4000 Gulfstream G200 Bombardier Challenger 300 Cessna Citation X Related lists List of civil aircraft Federal Aviation Administration Type Certificate Data Sheet No.
A46EU, Revision 18: Dassault Aviation Mystere-Falcon 50, Mystere-Falcon 900, Falcon 900EX. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5. Dassault Falcon 50 official website Falcon 50 at Airliners.net
Marcel Dassault was a French industrialist who spent his career in aircraft manufacturing. Bloch was born on 22 January 1892 in Paris. Both of his parents were Jewish, he was educated at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris. After studies in Electrical Engineering he graduated from Supaéro. At the latter school Bloch was classmates with a Russian student named Mikhail Gurevich who would be instrumental in the creating of the MiG aircraft series. Bloch worked at the French Aeronautics Research Laboratory during World War I and invented a type of aircraft propeller subsequently used by the French army during the conflict. In 1928 Bloch founded the Société des Avions Marcel Bloch aircraft company which produced its first aircraft in 1930. In 1935 Bloch and Henry Potez entered into an agreement to buy Société Aérienne Bordelaise. In 1936 the company was nationalized as the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud Ouest. Bloch agreed to become the delegated administrator of the Minister for Air.
During the occupation of France by Nazi Germany during World War II, France’s aviation industry was disbanded, other than the compulsory manufacturing and servicing of German designs. In October 1940, Bloch refused to collaborate with the Germans occupiers at Bordeaux-Aéronautique and was imprisoned by the Vichy government. In 1944 the Nazis deported Bloch to the Buchenwald concentration camp, as punishment for refusing to co-operate with their regime, he was tortured and held in solitary confinement. In the meantime his wife was interned near Paris. Bloch was detained at Buchenwald until it was liberated on 11 April 1945. By the time of his return to Paris he was crippled to such an extent that he could walk, he was advised by his doctors to settle his affairs, as they did not expect him to recover his health. After the war he changed his name from Bloch in 1949 to Dassault. Dassault was the nom de guerre used by his brother, General Darius Paul Bloch, when he served in the French resistance, is derived from char d'assaut, French for "battle tank".
In 1971 Dassault acquired Breguet. In 1919, Bloch married Madeleine Minckes, the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family of furniture dealers, they had two sons and Serge. After changing his name to Dassault, he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1950. In July 1952, Dassault acquired the Paris landmark buildings now known as Hôtel Marcel Dassault, dating from 1844, at nos. 7 and 9 rond-point des Champs-Elysées, from the Sabatier d'Espeyran family. The building at no. 7 has been used since 2002 by the auction house Artcurial, which had further alterations made under the direction of architect Jean-Michel Wilmotte. While no. 7 has been sold, no. 9 is still used by the Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault. Marcel Dassault died in Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1986 and was buried in the Passy Cemetery in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. In 1973, Dassault was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame. Serge Dassault, Marcel's son, became CEO of Avions Marcel Dassault, restructured as Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault, reflecting its broader interests.
In 1990, the aviation division was renamed Dassault Aviation. In 1991, the rond-point des Champs-Elysées was renamed the “rond-point des Champs-Elysées-Marcel Dassault” in his honor. In The Adventures of Tintin book Flight 714 to Sydney, Dassault is parodied as the aircraft construction tycoon Laszlo Carreidas - "the millionaire who never laughs", who offers Tintin, Captain Haddock and Professor Calculus his personal jet, the Carreidas 160, to travel to Sydney. Marcel Dassault - Dassault Aviation site