Wolfgang von Trips
Wolfgang Alexander Albert Eduard Maximilian Reichsgraf Berghe von Trips was a German racing driver. He was the son of a noble Rhineland family, Von Trips was born in Cologne, Germany. Von Trips had diabetes during his career and he always had high sugar snacks during the races to compensate for his blood and he participated in 29 Formula One World Championship Grand Prix races, debuting on 2 September 1956. He won two races, secured one position, achieved six podiums, and scored a total of 56 championship points. He sustained a concussion when he spun off track at the Nürburgring during trial runs for a car race held in May 1957. The following August he was fifth at Porto in the 1958 Portuguese Grand Prix, won by Stirling Moss in a Vanwall, von Trips completed 49 laps and was one lap behind at the finish. Moss was more than five minutes ahead of Mike Hawthorn, who finished second in a Ferrari, in July 1960 von Trips was victorious in a Formula Two event in a Ferrari, with a newly introduced engine in the rear.
The race was in Stuttgart and was called the Solitude Formula Two Grand Prix and it was a 20-lap event with the winner averaging 102.21 m. p. h. over 142 miles. He won the Targa Florio, 10-lap 448 mile race, in May 1961, Von Trips achieved an average speed of 64.26 mph in his Ferrari with Olivier Gendebien of Belgium as his co-driver. Von Trips and Phil Hill traded the lead at Spa, Belgium during the 1961 Belgian Grand Prix, Hill led most of the way in front of a crowd of 100,000 people. Ferraris captured the first four places at the conclusion with von Trips finishing second. The Formula One World Championship driver competition at this juncture in 1961 was led by Hill with 19 points followed by von Trips with 18, at the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, his Ferrari collided with Jim Clarks Lotus. His car became airborne and crashed into a barrier, fatally throwing von Trips from the car. Clark described the accident, Von Trips and I were racing along the straightaway and were nearing one of the banked curves and we were about 100 metres from the beginning of the curve.
Von Trips was running close to the inside of the track, I was closely following him, keeping near the outside. At one point Von Trips shifted sideways so that my front wheels collided with his back wheels, Von Trips car spun twice and went into the guardrail along the inside of the track. Then it bounced back, struck my own car and bounced down into the crowd, at the time of his death von Trips was leading the Formula One World Championship. However, he had previous incidents at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, where he crashed cars in the 1956 Italian Grand Prix and the 1958 Italian Grand Prix, in 1961 von Trips had established a go-kart race track in Kerpen, Germany
Coventry Climax was a British forklift truck, fire pump and other speciality engine manufacturer. An early user was GWK, who produced over 1,000 light cars with Coventry-Simplex two-cylinder engines between 1911 and 1915, just before World War I a Coventry-Simplex engine was used by Lionel Martin to power the first Aston Martin car. Ernest Shackleton selected Coventry-Simplex to power the tractors that were to be used in his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914, hundreds of Coventry-Simplex engines were manufactured during World War I to be used in generating sets for searchlights. In 1917 the company was renamed Coventry Climax and moved to East Street, in the 1920s the company moved to Friars Road, Coventry and in the late 1930s they acquired the former Riley premises on Widdrington Road, Coventry. In the early 1930s the company supplied engines for buses. With the closure of Swift in 1931, the company was left with a stock of engines that were converted to electric generators. Going into the war, Coventry Climax used their marine diesel experience to further develop and this has been fitted as an auxiliary engine in the British Chieftain and Challenger battle tanks and Rapier anti-aircraft missile systems.
In the late 1940s, the company shifted away from engines and into other markets, including marine diesels, fire pumps. In 1946, the ET199 was announced, which the company claimed was the first British-produced forklift truck, the ET199 was designed to carry a 4,000 lb load with a 24-inch load centre, and with a 9 ft lift height. This was designated the FW, for Feather Weight, the engine was displayed at the Motor Show in London and attracted attention from the motor racing fraternity for its very high horsepower per pound of weight. The FWA became popular in racing and was followed by the Mark II. The new Formula Two regulations suited the 1. 5-litre engine, the following year, the first Climax engines began to appear in Formula One in the back of Cooper chassis. Initially, these were FWBs but the FPF engine followed, Stirling Moss scored the companys first Formula One victory, in Argentina in 1958, using a 2-litre version of the engine. At the same time, the company produced the FWE engine for Lotus Elite, there were a total of 22 Grand Prix victories before 1966 with crossplane, two- and four-valve versions of the FWMV.
This combination was considered radical at the time, especially the syncromesh on all forward gears. The adoption to mass-production was successful, and the project out to the market as the 875cc Hillman Imp totaling over 400,000 units made by 1976 including the 998cc version. Nonetheless, Coventry Climax remained in Formula One until they were unable to come up with a new engine for the three-litre formula, the company was purchased by Jaguar Cars in 1963, which itself merged with the British Motor Corporation in 1966 to form British Motor Holdings. The citation reads, Awarded to Coventry Climax Engines Ltd. for the design, the history of this trophy dates back to 1906
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in motorsport series, including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar. The Lotus name returned to Formula One in 2010, as the name of Tony Fernandess Lotus Racing team. In 2011, Team Lotuss iconic black-and-gold livery returned to F1 as the livery of the Lotus Renault GP team, sponsored by Lotus Cars, colin Chapman established Lotus Engineering Ltd in 1952 at Hornsey, UK. Lotus achieved rapid success with the 1953 Mk 6 and the 1954 Mk 8 sports cars, Team Lotus was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954. A new Formula Two regulation was announced for 1957, and in Britain, the following year, the Lotus 12 appeared. Driving one in 1958, Allison won the F2 class in the International Trophy at Silverstone, beating Stuart Lewis-Evanss Cooper. As the Coventry Climax engines were enlarged in 1952 to 2. 2-litres, Chapman decided to enter Grand Prix racing, running a pair of Lotus 12s at Monaco in 1958 for Graham Hill and these were replaced that year by Lotus 16s.
By then, the success had caused it to expand to such an extent that it had to move to new premises at Cheshunt. The first Formula One victory for Team Lotus came when Innes Ireland won the 1961 United States Grand Prix, a year earlier, Stirling Moss had recorded the first victory for a Lotus car at Monaco in his Lotus 18 entered by the independent Rob Walker Racing Team. There were successes in Formula Two and Formula Junior, the road car business was doing well with the Lotus Seven and the Lotus Elite and this was followed by the Lotus Elan in 1962. In 1963 Clark drove the Lotus 25 to a remarkable seven wins in a season and won the World Championship. The 1964 title was still for the taking by the time of the last race in Mexico but problems with Clarks Lotus, however, in 1965, Clark dominated again, six wins in his Lotus 33 gave him the championship. While very innovative, Chapman came under criticism for the fragility of his designs. In Dave Friedmans book Indianapolis Memories 1961–1969, Dan Gurney is quoted as saying and we had several structural failures in those cars.
But at the time, I felt it was the price you paid for getting something significantly better, a switch to the new Ford Cosworth DFV, designed by former Lotus employee Keith Duckworth, in 1967 returned the team to winning form. Although they failed to win the title in 1967, by the end of the season, the Lotus 49, for 1968 Lotus had lost its exclusive right to use the DFV. The season-opening 1968 South African Grand Prix confirmed Lotuss superiority, with Jim Clark and it would be Clarks last win
The Tulip Rally, first held in 1949, is the oldest Dutch rally competition. The teams are divided into three classes, Tour and Expert, the Class Tour teams ride with little or no experience. Participating cars must have built before December 31,1971. They are Class C, D, E, F or G divided depending on their age, if there are not more than three cars in one of these classes, the class is merged with the next class. In 2007 there were 43 teams in the Expert class with,140 in the Sporting / Expert Class,93 in the Sporting Class and 42 in the Touring Class. According to the current event rules, it is not allowed to use a phone unless you have bad luck. Modern stopwatches and watches are allowed and it is allowed to have up to 10 liters extra fuel in your trunk. Violations of the speed is punished with penalty seconds
Noblesse oblige is a French phrase literally meaning nobility obligates. It denotes the concept that nobility extends beyond mere entitlements and requires the person who holds such status to fulfill social responsibilities, the Dictionnaire de lAcadémie française defines it thus, Whoever claims to be noble must conduct himself nobly. One must act in a fashion that conforms to ones position, the Oxford English Dictionary meanwhile says that the term suggests noble ancestry constrains to honorable behavior, privilege entails to responsibility. Noblesse oblige is generally used to imply that with wealth, power, in ethical discussion, it is sometimes used to summarize a moral economy wherein privilege must be balanced by duty towards those who lack such privilege or who cannot perform such duty. It has used to describe a person taking the blame for something in order to solve an issue or save someone else. An early instance of this concept in literature may be found in Homers Iliad, in Book XII, the Trojan prince Sarpedon delivers a famous speech in which he urges his comrade Glaucus to fight with him in the front ranks of battle.
His advice had included comments like others will respect you for detesting people who have done detestable things, the phrase is carved into Bertram Goodhues Los Angeles Public Library on a sculpture by Lee Lawrie as part of Hartley Burr Alexanders iconographic scheme for the building. Noblesse oblige, while seeming to impose on the nobility a duty to behave nobly and their argument is as nobles, we have rights, but we have duties also, so such duties validate our rights. Jurists Dias and Hohfeld have pointed out that rights and duties are jural correlatives and this reasoning of Dias was used in Murphy v Brentwood District Council to disapprove Lord Denning MRs judgment in Dutton v Bognor Regis Urban District Council. Chivalry The Gospel of Wealth Mandate of Heaven The White Mans Burden Notes Sources Oxford English Dictionary, athens on Trial, The Antidemocratic Tradition in Western Thought. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press
24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the worlds oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is one of the most prestigious races in the world and is often called the Grand Prix of Endurance. The event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, other events being the Indianapolis 500, since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship. In 2017, it will be the round of the season. The race has over the years inspired imitating races all over the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at places like Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, and Bathurst. The American Le Mans Series and Europes Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test. Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines and this encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible.
At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics, while this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability. The oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduced time spent during pit stops. Such technological innovations have had an effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop road cars in order to develop them into even faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have changed to their benefit.
The race is held in June, leading at times to very hot conditions for drivers, particularly in closed vehicles with poor ventilation, the race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors often cover distances well over 5,000 km, the record is 2010s 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or approximately 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding damage, as well as managing the cars consumables, primarily fuel, tires
Jaguars business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922, originally making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S, Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co many bearing Jaguar as a model name. The companys name was changed from S. S, Cars to Jaguar Cars in 1945. Jaguar was de-merged from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles, the carmaker said around 1,000 academics and engineers would work there and that construction would start in 2014. The Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley, in 1934 Walmsley elected to sell-out and Lyons formed S. S. Cars Limited funding the replacement of Walmsleys investment by issuing shares to the public, the SS Jaguar name first appeared in September 1935 on a 2. 5-litre saloon, sports models of which were the SS90 and SS100.
On 23 March 1945 the S. S, Cars shareholders in general meeting agreed to change the companys name to Jaguar Cars Limited. Said Chairman William Lyons Unlike S. S. the name Jaguar is distinctive, Jaguar made its name by producing a series of successful eye-catching sports cars, the Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140, Jaguar XK150, and Jaguar E-Type, all embodying Lyons mantra of value for money. The sports cars were successful in motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the companys products. Jaguars sales slogan for years was Grace, Pace, during the time this slogan was used, but the exact text varied. It had a hemispherical cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical, originally at 30 degrees and 45 degrees. As fuel octane ratings were low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered, domed and dished. The main designer, William Bill Heynes, assisted by Walter Wally Hassan, was determined to develop the Twin OHC unit, Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan.
It was risky to take what had previously considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling. The subsequent engine was the powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons. It was employed in the E Type, itself a development from the winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would achieve 200,000 miles of useful life, Two of the proudest moments in Jaguars long history in motor sport involved winning the Le Mans 24 hours race, firstly in 1951 and again in 1953
Ecurie Ecosse was a motor racing team from Scotland. The team raced in three Formula One races, Ecurie Ecosses cars were always distinctive in their Flag Blue Metallic paint. Ecurie Ecosse had four Formula One Grand Prix entries, over three seasons, the first was by David Murray himself, driving a Cooper T20 in the 1952 British Grand Prix. However, he retired with engine trouble early in the race, for the 1953 event the team entered two cars a Cooper T20 for Jimmy Stewart a new Connaught A Type was entered for Ian Stewart. Unfortunately neither of the finished the race, Jimmy spun off track on lap 79. The teams last F1 outing was at the 1954 British Grand Prix, where the Connaught was again entered, although this time the car did take the finish, it came in twelve laps down on the leaders. From this point onward the team concentrated on sportcar events, Ecurie Ecosse raced in the European Formula Two Championship, from 1969 until 1971. Their first race was in 1969 at Thruxton where driver Graham Birrell finished 11th in a Brabham BT23C, at Enna Birrell couldnt start the race because he had crashed the car in practice and the team couldnt repair the car before the race.
In 1970 Ecurie Ecosse entered the car for Birrell. At Crystal Palace Birrell finished in 11th position, in the next race held at the Hockenheimring Birrell finished in 12th position. In Imola Richard Attwood took over from Birrell, after finishing sixth in the first heat, in 1971 Ecurie Ecosse had a new driver, Tom Walkinshaw, they had a new car, a March 712M. At Thruxton Walkinshaw retired on lap three due to a puncture, at the Nürburgring, Gerry Birrell finished in ninth position. In their last two races, at Jarama and Crystal Palace, Walkinshaw failed to qualify for the race, in the 195624 Hours of Le Mans Ron Flockhart and Ninian Sanderson were the winning drivers in a Jaguar D-Type. Ron Flockhart won again with a D-Type in the 1957 event, the teams second D-Type – driven by Sanderson and his new partner John Lawrence – finished second, a rare privateer 1–2 finish. The team would field a D-Type at Le Mans in 1959. Once again, neither car made it to the flag, the D-Type suffering engine failure after 70 laps.
Things went from bad to worse for the team in the 1960 running, the, by now much modified, D-Type was again entered, and lasted until the 168th lap before being forced out with a broken crankshaft. Ecurie Ecosses second car for this year, a Cooper T49 Monaco, the entrants for the 196124 Hours of Le Mans – a Cooper T57 Monaco and an Austin-Healey Sebring Sprite – retired after accidents in their 32nd and 40th laps respectively
Chimay is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. On January 1,2006, Chimay had a population of 9,774. The total area is 197.10 km² which gives a density of 50 inhabitants per km². The source of the Oise River is located in the municipality, situated in the administrative district of Thuin, the municipality was created with a merger of 14 old communes on January 1,1977. The Trappist monastery of Scourmont Abbey is located in the town and is famous for the Chimay Brewery, the origin of the name would come from the Celtic word coimos meaning pretty, pleasant. The Walloon names of the names are in brackets and italics. From the 1920s to 1960s the event was run for contemporary Grand Prix and sportscar categories, in recent times, while the event has persisted it has been run for historic race series. The track briefly lost its licence in 2006 related to safety fears, Chimay Trappist beers and cheeses are produced in the town by the Chimay Brewery, run by the Trappist monks of Scourmont Abbey, and are internationally renowned
1955 Formula One season
The 1955 Formula One season was the ninth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1955 World Championship of Drivers, which commenced on 16 January 1955, juan Manuel Fangio won his second consecutive World Championship title in a season that was curtailed by tragedies. The season included a number of non-championship Formula One races, Mercedes drivers again dominated the championship, with Fangio taking four races, and his new team mate Stirling Moss the British Grand Prix. Ferrari won at Monaco after all of the Mercedes cars broke down, although Ascari was apparently unscathed, the double World Champion crashed fatally at Monza while testing sportscars four days later. The disaster at the 24 Hours of Le Mans on 11 June which killed Pierre Levegh and over 80 spectators led to the cancellations of the French, German and Swiss Grands Prix. The French round, which was supposed to be held at Reims between the Dutch and British rounds, was cancelled first, the German event at the Nürburgring, the Swiss round at Bremgarten and the Spanish round at Pedralbes followed suit.
Pedralbes and Bremgarten were abandoned and never used again for racing, motor racing was banned altogether in Switzerland and since then,1955 would be the final season for Mercedes Benz as a constructor until the teams revival in 2010. It would mark the final win for Mercedes until the 2012 Chinese Grand Prix, the following teams and drivers competed in the 1955 FIA World Championship. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † = Car driven by more than one driver Championship points were awarded on an 8–6–4–3–2 basis for the first five places at each race, One point was awarded for fastest race lap at each race. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship, numbers without parentheses are Championship points, numbers in parentheses are total points scored. Other Formula One races held in 1955, which did not count towards the World Championship
Peter Collins (racing driver)
Peter John Collins was a British racing driver. He was killed in the 1958 German Grand Prix, just weeks after winning the RAC British Grand Prix and he started his career as a 17-year-old in 1949, impressing in Formula 3 races, finishing third in the 1951 Autosport National Formula 3 Championship. Born on 6 November 1931, Collins grew up in Mustow Green, the son of a motor-garage owner and haulage merchant, Collins became interested in motor vehicles at a young age. He was expelled from school at 16 owing to spending time at a fairground during school hours. He became an apprentice in his fathers garage and began competing in local trials races, in common with many British drivers of the time, Collins began racing in the 500 cc category, when his parents bought him a Cooper 500 from the fledgling Cooper Car Company. Success for Collins started once he switched to the JBS-Norton in 1951 and those small vehicles, powered by Norton motorcycle engines, were the proving ground of many of Collins F1 contemporaries, including Stirling Moss.
During that test, Aston was joined by the Formula 2 team, HWM – and by the time the teams were preparing to leave, Collins had a contract with both. At HWM Collins he became part of a team with Lance Macklin and Moss. Collins showed in speed, but the underfinanced HWM-Alta rarely finished a race and his best result was second place in the Grand Prix des Sables dOlonne. Collins got his Formula One break in 1952, with HWM when he replaced Moss and his best result in a World Champion event was sixth in the Grand Prix de l’ACF at Rouen-Les-Essarts. Success did not come the way, and Collins left after the 1953 season. Not known for his knowledge, Collins was happy to have his mechanics set up his car. This was evident in 1954, when Tony Vandervell signed Collins to drive the fearsome Thinwall Special, the potent machine was a crowd pleaser at Formula Libre events. He raced a Maserati 250F belonging to owner, Alfred Owen, winning the BRDC International Trophy. These results led to a drive with the works Maserati in the Gran Premio dItalia, meanwhile he had better success in sportscars.
Throughout the first half of the 1950s, Collins was a performer for the Aston Martin team. The following year he took the Aston Martin DB3S he shared with Pat Griffith to victory in the RAC Tourist Trophy at Dundrod, further successes included second places in an Aston Martin DB3S at Le Mans in 1955 and 1956 with Paul Frère and Moss respectively. For the 1956 season, Collins joined Ferrari on the strength of a drive in the previous year’s Targa Florio
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition