The Mexican Cession was the third largest acquisition of territory in US history. The northern boundary of the 42nd parallel north was set by the Adams–Onís Treaty signed by the U. S. and Spain in 1821 and ratified by Mexico in 1831. The eastern boundary of the Mexican Cession was the Texas claim at the Rio Grande and extending north from the headwaters of the Jojo Rivera, not corresponding to Mexican territorial boundaries. The southern boundary was set by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and it was uncertain whether any treaty could be reached. Although Mexico did not overtly cede any land under the treaty, the United States paid $15,000,000 for the land, and agreed to assume $3.25 million in debts to US citizens. While technically the territory was purchased by the United States, the $15 million payment was simply credited against Mexicos debt to the U. S. at that time. The Mexican Cession as ordinarily understood amounted to 525,000 square miles, if the disputed western Texas claims are included, that amounts to a total of 750,000 square miles.
If all of Texas had been seized, since Mexico had not previously acknowledged the loss of any part of Texas, eventually the Compromise of 1850 preserved the Union, but only for another decade. Passed by the United States House of Representatives in August 1846 and February 1847, an effort to attach the proviso to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo failed. Failed amendments to the Wilmot Proviso by William W, the line was again proposed by the Nashville Convention of June 1850. Popular sovereignty, developed by Lewis Cass and Douglas as the eventual Democratic Party position, none of the area would be left as an unorganized or organized territory, avoiding the question of slavery in the territories. Senator Thomas Hart Benton in December 1849 or January 1850, Texass western and northern boundaries would be the 102nd meridian west, Texas dropped its claim to the disputed northwestern areas in return for debt relief, and the areas were divided between the two new territories and unorganized territory.
El Paso where Texas had successfully established county government was left in Texas, no southern territory dominated by Southerners was created. Also, the trade was abolished in Washington, D. C. It quickly became apparent that the Mexican Cession did not include a route for a transcontinental railroad connecting to a southern port. The topography of the New Mexico Territory included mountains that naturally directed any railroad extending from the southern Pacific coast northward, to Kansas City, St. Louis, or Chicago. Southerners, anxious for the business such a railroad would bring, agitated for the acquisition of land at the expense of Mexico. A Continent Divided, The U. S. -Mexico War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, the University of Texas at Arlington
Northern California, often abbreviated NorCal, is the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, and from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries, in 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County. Northern California is not a geographic designation. Californias north-south midway division is around 37° latitude, near the level of San Francisco, though, Northern California usually refers to the states northernmost 48 counties. This definition coincides with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, the term is applied to the area north of Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains.
Because of Californias large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well, the state is often considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast while the region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate. Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the economic, scientific. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is Home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, Northern Californias largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto.
The 2010 U. S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any area in California. The states larger cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts. The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown, in 1542, beginning in 1565, the Spanish Manila galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish Philippines, with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Manila galleons returned across the northern Pacific, and reached North America usually off the coast of northern California, in 1579, northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of todays San Francisco and claimed the area for England. In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored Californias coast as far north as Monterey Bay, other Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established.
The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast, the mission at Monterey was first established in 1770, and at San Francisco in 1776
Heritage Documentation Programs
These programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, and written reports, in 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency. It was founded as a constructive program for architects, draftsmen. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of Americas architectural heritage, by creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement. Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher, who worked for the project for over 40 years. The Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10,1969, by NPS, HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts.
Since the advent of HAER, the program is typically called HABS/HAER. Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, a predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940. That project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, the permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, which was established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States, U. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph. As a branch of the United States Government, its works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures, locales and designs.
Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places HAER,30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage, IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. Documenting Complexity, The Historic American Engineering Record and Americas Technological History, IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. National Park Service−NPS, official Heritage Documentation Programs website
The Petaluma River is a river in the California counties of Sonoma and Marin that becomes a tidal slough for the majority of its length. The headwaters are in the area southwest of Cotati, the word Petaluma may derive from the Miwok words pe’ta, and luma, back. The Miwok people lived in Sonoma County for more than 2500 years, Petaluma was the name of a village on a low hill east of Petaluma creek and north east of the present day town of Petaluma. The first recorded exploration of the Petaluma River was by Captain Fernando Quiros in October,1776, located in southern Sonoma County, and a portion of northeastern Marin, the Petaluma River Watershed drains 146 square miles. The watershed is approximately 19 miles long and 13 miles wide with the City of Petaluma near its center, the lower 12 miles of the Petaluma River flow through the Petaluma Marsh, the largest remaining salt marsh in San Pablo Bay. The marsh covers 5,000 acres and is surrounded by approximately 7,000 acres of reclaimed wetlands, in the marshes west of Lakeville, the river is joined by San Antonio Creek, at which point it becomes the boundary between Marin County and Sonoma County.
The river flows under State Route 37 at Green Point and enters northwest San Pablo Bay just north of Petaluma Point, while the rivers source lies over 300 ft above sea level, it descends to 50 ft within about 0.4 mi. The river is fully tidal 11 mi from its mouth, indicating its slight gradient through the marshes below Petaluma, the United States Army Corps of Engineers dredges this section to keep it navigable by gravel barges and pleasure craft. The Petaluma River Watershed hosts several federally endangered animals including the salt marsh harvest mouse, endangered flora include soft bird’s-beak, Baker’s stickyseed, Burke’s goldfields, showy Indian clover, and Sebastopol meadowfoam. Steelhead that spawn and rear in the Petaluma River watershed are wild, not hatchery, Chinook salmon are seen in the main stem of the Petaluma River and The United Anglers of Casa Grande High School have seen chinook at the turning basin, near the Lynch Creek confluence. The high school constructed a salmonid hatchery in 1993 and in 200274 Chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Adobe Creek tributary.
The marshes provide an important wildlife habitat and fish hatchery, since the onset of intensive immigration in the mid-1850s, the water quality has diminished, partly due to overgrazing and other agricultural uses. Pollutants present in the river include nitrates, petroleum hydrocarbons, urban runoff, particularly from the City of Petaluma, adds heavy metals and hydrocarbons to the river. Starting about 1990, material steps were taken to mitigate the pollution, because the Petaluma River is relatively well-protected, most of the pollution comes from nearby storm drains. It is up to the people of Petaluma to keep the river clean, because most of the length of the waterway is tidal and urban/suburban, there is a significant collection of tidally deposited debris along the banks. Despite the poor aesthetics including turbidity, the quality is not particularly poor. It has been alleged that the greatest threat to the Petaluma River is the planned Dutra asphalt plant, the reported concerns involve the loud noises it will create that will scare away the birds and throw off the entire ecosystem.
The longest highway span, the 4-lane Route 37 bridge, is 2,183 ft long and was built in 1958, the oldest public bridge, built in 1925, is a 114 ft concrete triple span carrying two lanes of Petaluma Boulevard North
Belvedere is a city in Marin County, United States, located 1.5 miles northeast of Sausalito. Situated on two islands, it is adjacent to the Tiburon Peninsula, accessible via a short bridge from the city of Tiburon. Belvedere and Tiburon share a post office, mail sent there can be addressed as Belvedere Tiburon, CA. Belvedere is located at 37°52′22″N 122°27′52″W, about 4 mi north of San Francisco, situated on the Tiburon Peninsula about 3 miles south/southeast of Ring Mountain, between Richardson Bay and the Town of Tiburon, Belvedere consists of two islands and the lagoon between them. The larger of the two islands is Belvedere Island, and the one is Corinthian Island, which is shared with Tiburon. The area of Ring Mountain is notable for its resources of extant Native American petroglyphs as well as considerable biodiversity of California native plants. Belvedere Lagoon is owned and maintained by the Belvedere Lagoon Property Owners Association, the lagoon is not accessible by boat from San Francisco Bay, and no public access is provided.
Until somewhat late in the 20th century, houseboats were present in Belvedere Lagoon, the city has a total area of 2.42 sq mi, of which 0.54 sq mi is land and 1.89 sq mi is water. The first settlers arrived in the late 19th century, the railroad came and Tiburon was the last stop for passengers and cargo destined for San Francisco and beyond. Belvedere Lagoon was partially filled after World War II to provide building sites for tract houses and it was once the site of a 9-hole golf course. The first post office opened in 1897, the City Hall was formerly a Presbyterian Church. It was moved to its present location on San Rafael Avenue in 1949, actress Vivian Vance, who played Ethel on I Love Lucy, died in Belvedere in 1979 at the age of 70. Giving back to the community and providing a catalyst to move it forward are goals of the Foundations grant program, as its endowment grows, the Foundation aspires to offer substantial assistance to projects which protect and enhance the quality of life in Belvedere.
Belvedere sits on the side of the tip of Tiburon Peninsula. Many Belvedere properties are renowned for their views of the Bay Area, Angel Island, San Francisco, Sausalito. As a result, land values are extremely high, in 2000,87. 6% of the citys owner-occupied housing units cost more than $1,000,000, compared with 2. 3% for California as a whole. Many houses in Belvedere are in the Victorian style of architecture, some Belvedere homes are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, such as the Valentine Rey House designed by Willis Polk and built in 1893. Other notable architects include Albert Farr, who designed the Belevdere Land Company Building and cottages, Henry Gutterson, and Charles Callister
China Camp State Park
China Camp State Park is a state park of California, United States, surrounding a historic Chinese American shrimp-fishing village and a salt marsh. The park is located in San Rafael, California, on the shore of San Pablo Bay and it is known for its hiking and mountain biking trails, scenic views, and open spaces. The 1, 514-acre park was established in 1976, China Camp State Park, along with the Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve, is part of the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. After the 1775 arrival of the Spanish, who founded the nearby Mission San Rafael Arcángel, in 1844, the Spanish granted much of the land that now comprises the park to Timothy Murphy, an Irish settler who became mayor of San Rafael. These businesses employed a number of Chinese immigrants, who began to settle in the area, by the 1880s, Chinese Americans had established a village at China Camp of approximately 500 people, many of whom were originally from Canton, China. They supported themselves by fishing in San Pablo Bay and/or working at local businesses.
In its heyday, the village had three stores, a marine supply store and a barber shop. For a brief time following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, in the late 1800s, the Chinese American fishermen of China Camp would catch 3 million pounds of shrimp per year, much of which was exported to China and Hawaii. As a result, the population of China Camp greatly declined, in 1914, a new net, the trawl, was invented, which made it possible for the Quans to resume their commercial shrimp fishing enterprise and process 5,000 pounds of shrimp per day. They operated other businesses such as a store, a boat rental, and a cafe. By the 1960s, most of the area including the future park lands was owned or controlled by developer Chinn Ho. In the early 1970s, Gulf Oil expressed interest in development of the area, including high-rise condominiums. Chinn Ho donated the 36-acre site of China Camp village for preservation as a memorial to Chinese American history, the general plan established for the park specifically provided that Frank Quan would be permitted to continue living in the village.
In 2011, China Camp State Park was one of 70 parks slated for closure by the state of California in connection with a $22 million state budget cut. The California state parks department claimed that China Camp State Park was running at a deficit, the nonprofits Marin State Parks Association and Friends of China Camp, along with various other residents and community groups, protested the closure and raised funds to save the park. Similar agreements were reached for two other Marin County state parks, Olompali State Historic Park and Tomales Bay State Park. A revised agreement in 2013 returned operation of Olompali and Tomales Bay parks to the state, Frank Quan died August 2016, at age 90, while still living at the park. The park offers a variety of activities, including overnight camping, picnic facilities and biking trails, paddleboarding
Adobe is a building material made from earth and often organic material. Adobe is among the earliest building materials, and is used throughout the world, modern methods of construction allow the pouring of whole adobe walls that are reinforced with steel. In dry climates, adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world. Adobe buildings offer significant advantages due to their greater thermal mass, cases where adobe structures were widely damaged during earthquakes include the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, the 2003 Bam earthquake and the 2010 Chile earthquake. Puebloan peoples built their structures with handfuls or basketfuls of adobe. Adobe bricks were used in Spain from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages and its wide use can be attributed to its simplicity of design and manufacture, and economics. A distinction is made between the smaller adobes, which are about the size of ordinary baked bricks, and the larger adobines. The word adobe /əˈdoʊbiː/ has existed for around 4000 years with little change in either pronunciation or meaning.
The word can be traced from the Middle Egyptian word ɟbt mudbrick, Middle Egyptian evolved into Late Egyptian, Demotic or pre-Coptic, and finally to Coptic, where it appeared as τωωβε tōʾpə. This was borrowed into Arabic as الطوب aṭ-ṭawbu or aṭ-ṭūbu, with the definite article al- attached, English borrowed the word from Spanish in the early 18th century. In more modern English usage, the adobe has come to include a style of architecture popular in the desert climates of North America. An adobe brick is a material made of earth mixed with water. The soil composition typically contains sand and clay, straw is useful in binding the brick together and allowing the brick to dry evenly, thereby preventing cracking due to uneven shrinkage rates through the brick. The most desirable soil texture for producing the mud of adobe is 15% clay, 10–30% silt, another source quotes 15–25% clay and the remainder sand and coarser particles up to cobbles 50 to 250 mm with no deleterious effect. Modern adobe is stabilized with either emulsified asphalt or Portland cement up to 10% by weight, no more than half the clay content should be expansive clays with the remainder non-expansive illite or kaolinite.
Too much expansive clay results in uneven drying through the resulting in cracking. Typically the soils of the Southwest United States, where construction is in use, are an adequate composition. Adobe walls are bearing, i. e. they carry their own weight into the foundation rather than by another structure
San Pablo Bay
San Pablo Bay is a tidal estuary that forms the northern extension of San Francisco Bay in the East Bay and North Bay regions of the San Francisco Bay Area in northern California. San Pablo Bay was named after Rancho San Pablo, a Spanish land grant given to colonial Alta California settlers in 1815, the bay is approximately 10 mi across and has an area of approximately 90 sq mi. The bay is heavily silted from the contributions of the two rivers, which drain most of the Central Valley of California. All tributaries except for Sonoma Creek are commercially navigable and maintained by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, two peninsulas separate San Pablo Bay from San Francisco Bay. The eastern is in the City of Richmond and the western in the City of San Rafael, the bay is shared between Contra Costa county on the southern and eastern shore, and Solano and Marin counties on the northern and western shores. The county boundaries meet near the center of the bay, communities on the shores of San Pablo Bay include, San Pablo, Hercules, Rodeo in Contra Costa County, Vallejo in Solano County, along with Novato and San Rafael in Marin County.
Because the Bay is close to major and local airports. Because of its size but shallow waters, San Pablo Bay frequently has difficult boating conditions. There are many undeveloped shore lands with salt marshes and mudflats, the Bay is a primary wintering stop for the canvasback duck population on the Pacific Flyway, as well as a migratory staging ground for numerous species of waterfowl. Much of the shore of the bay is protected as part of the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Endangered species that are found in the bay include the California brown pelican, California clapper rail and this is a popular destination for recreation fishing, with Saltwater species including, striped bass, sturgeon, starry flounder, leopard shark and anchovy. In the 1880s there was a village, where some 500 Chinese people lived. The location is now part of China Camp State Park, San Pablo Bay is the setting of alternative rock band Primuss four-part song series Fishermans Chronicles, and is referenced in The Toys Go Winding Down and Harold of the Rocks.
It is mentioned in The Minus 5 song John Barleycorn Must Live, provides a brief history of the marshes of San Pablo Bay
Novato is a city in northern Marin County, in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 51,904, Novato is located about 10 miles northwest of San Rafael and about 30 miles north of San Francisco on U. S.101. What is now Novato was originally the site of several Coast Miwok villages, near downtown Novato, near Ignacio, in 1839 the Mexican government granted the 8, 876-acre Rancho Novato to Fernando Feliz. The rancho was named after a local Miwok leader who had probably given the name of Saint Novatus at his baptism. R. Novato, along with the rest of California, became part of the United States on February 2,1848, early pioneers included Joseph Sweetser and Francis De Long who bought 15,000 acres in the mid-1850s and planted orchards and vineyards. The first post office at Novato opened in 1856, it closed in 1860, the first school was built in 1859 at the corner of Grant Avenue at what is today Redwood Boulevard.
The original town was located around Novato Creek at what is now South Novato Boulevard, a railroad was built in 1879, connecting Novato to Sonoma County and San Rafael. The area around the depot became known as New Town. The current depot was built in 1917, but closed in 1959 and is largely derelict, the depot consisted of two buildings, a warehouse and a station. The warehouse burned twice in the intervening years, behind the rail station/warehouse complex was a grain and feed mill complex. A Presbyterian church, still a landmark in Novato today, was built in 1896, until 2006 it housed a number of city offices, but was vacated that year due to safety concerns and condemned. The church has since been renovated, a new city center complex has been erected adjacent to the old City Hall The Great Depression of the 1930s had a marked effect on the area as many farmers lost their land. After World War II, Novato grew quickly with the construction of tract homes, as the area was unincorporated much of the growth was unplanned and uncontrolled.
Novato was finally incorporated as a city in 1960, one of the most important venues of the time was Western Weekend. Beard growing contests sponsored by Bobs Barber Shop and many other odd activities helped to bring community together. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 28.0 square miles. 27.4 square miles of it is land and 0.5 square miles of it is water, major geographical features nearby include Mount Burdell and Mount Burdell Open Space Preserve to the north and Big Rock Ridge to the southwest. Stafford Lake to the west is a water supply for Novato
In June 1846, a number of American immigrants in Alta California rebelled against the Mexican departments government. The immigrants had not been allowed to buy or rent land and had threatened with expulsion from California because they had entered without official permission. Mexican officials were concerned about a war with the United States coupled with the growing influx of Americans into California. The rebellion was soon overtaken by the beginning of the Mexican–American War, the name California Republic appeared only on the flag the insurgents raised in Sonoma. It indicated their aspiration of forming a government for California. The insurgents elected military officers but no structure was ever established. The flag featured an image of a California grizzly bear and became known as the Bear Flag and the revolt as the Bear Flag Revolt. Three weeks later, on July 5,1846, the Republics military of 100 to 200 men was subsumed into the California Battalion commanded by U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C.
By 1845–46, Alta California had been neglected by Mexico for the twenty-five years since Mexican independence. The 1845 removal of Manuel Micheltorena, the latest governor to be sent by Mexico and forcefully ejected by the Californians, resulted in a divided government. The region south of San Luis Obispo was ruled by Governor Pio Pico with his capital in The Town of Our Lady the Queen of Angels of the Porciúncula River and Castro disliked each other personally and soon began escalating disputes over control of the Customhouse income. Decrees issued by the government in Mexico City were often acknowledged and supported with proclamations. By the end of 1845, when rumors of a force being sent from Mexico proved to be false. The relationship between the United States and Mexico had been deteriorating for some time, which Mexico still considered to be its territory, had been admitted to statehood in 1845. Mexico had earlier threatened war if this happened, james K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844, and considered his election a mandate for his expansionist policies.
Mexican law had long allowed grants of land to naturalized Mexican citizens, obtaining Mexican citizenship was not difficult and many earlier American immigrants had gone through the process and obtained free grants of land. The orders required Californias officials not to land grants. All non-citizen immigrants, who had arrived without permission, were threatened with being forced out of California, Alta Californias Sub-Prefect Francisco Guerrero had written to U. S
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space.
As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary.
The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills
Inverness is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located in western Marin County, California. Inverness is located on the southwest shore of Tomales Bay 3.5 miles northwest of Point Reyes Station, in the 2010 census, the population was 1,304. The community is named after Inverness in Scotland by a Scots landowner, Inverness is north of San Francisco, on a bay of the Pacific Ocean. Inverness is located on the west shore of Tomales Bay, which runs southeast along the line of the San Andreas Fault, surrounded by Point Reyes National Seashore, it is primarily a residential community, with little industry other than tourism. It has a downtown area with a general store, post office, library. A third restaurant is located a short way north of downtown, there are a number of hotels and inns spread throughout the town. One aspect of the town is a concentration of recreational boating, there is a small public marina, a few private piers, and the Inverness Yacht Club. Portions of the John Carpenter film The Fog as well as most of his film Village of the Damned were shot in and around Inverness.
The town is 15 miles or so from Drakes Bay on the Pacific Ocean, named after Sir Francis Drake, although Drakes official log was lost, the ships doctors log described landing in an area that reminded him of the White Cliffs of Dover. Drakes Bay is backed by similar-looking cliffs, leading many to believe this is where the ship landed, the region became the property of James Shafter, who began to develop the property in the 1890s. It became a resort where people from San Francisco and Oakland came to camp, hike. Many built small summer cabins still exist today. Small steamboats took day trippers down the bay to secluded beaches and they left from Brock Schreibers boathouse, which has been preserved and is a prominent local landmark with its prominent sign Launch for Hire. The first post office opened in 1897, in 1995, Inverness Ridge was the site of the Mt. Vision Fire, which burned a large area of Point Reyes National Seashore and a number of homes built on the ridge. The town itself was threatened but was saved by helicopters dipping water from Tomales Bay to drop on the Bishop pine forest between the town and the burning ridgetop, Inverness is located at 38°06′04″N 122°51′25″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has an area of 6.8 square miles. The town is adjacent to the San Andreas Fault, other nearby towns include Point Reyes Station, Inverness Park and Marshall. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Inverness has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated Csb on climate maps