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Olot is the capital city of the comarca of Garrotxa, in the Province of Girona, Spain. The city is known for its natural landscape, including four volcanoes scattered around the city center; the municipality is part of the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone Natural Park. Olot is well known for its cultural activity, with historical art movements like Olot school or factories of religious imagery, which contributed to the location in the city of the main Design and Arts & Crafts school of the province of Girona, the Escola d'Art i Superior de Disseny d'Olot; the etymology of Olot is not clear and there are several hypotheses. According to the Crònica Universal de Catalunya, Olot was founded by Ulo, former king of the dynasty of Atlanteans, with the name of Ulot. Another theory, more widespread, is that the name comes from ala, because the city has been documented with the names Aulot and Alot. For this reason, the coat of arms of Olot has a wing in reference to the name of the city; the municipality 29,12 includes the city of Olot and the town of Batet de la Serra.

The term is located at 443.4 meters above sea level and is 50 km from Girona, the capital of the province of the same name. It is bordered by Santa Pau, Les Preses, Riudaura and La Vall de Bianya; the municipality consists of the original city of Olot and old towns and neighbourhoods that now form a conurbation around the city apart from different urbanisations and the old municipality of Batet de la Serra, independent until 1971. Olot is located on a plain surrounded by the mountain ranges of Valentí, the plateau of Batet and Sant Valentí de la Pinya; the plain is crossed by the Riudaura stream. There are four volcanoes in the city of Olot, called Montolivet, Montsacopa and Bisaroques; the Fluvià discharges 1.07 m3/s into the Mediterranean Sea. The area of Garrotxa is more humid than neighbouring regions; the annual rainfall is around 1000 mm. Popularly, it is said that "if it isn't raining in Olot, it isn't raining anywhere"; the minimum in Olot in January is around 0 °C, the maximum in August is around 28 °C.

The Montsacopa volcano is one of the main symbols of Olot. It has a cone of a circular crater. From above, a 360° panoramic of the city can be seen; the volcano has a chapel on its top, dedicated to Saint Francis, two watchtowers surrounding the crater. The old town, which grew up in the 9th century, has a rich cultural heritage, including the three-storied neo-classical cloister from the Hospici, the church of la Mare de Déu del Tura, the Renaissance cloister of El Carme, the Sant Esteve Parish Church, built in 1763 and it contains several artistic treasures, including an original El Greco. In the old town there are examples of Art Nouveau architecture, like the Solà-Morales house. Painting and ceramics have been the key elements in the art of Olot, not to mention the tradition of the Nativity Scenes, the worldwide famous sculptures of saints. Of importance is the School of Art, created in 1783 and nowadays it is the most important school of arts in the province of Girona; the artistic tradition of the city can be seen in several museums, being the Museu Comarcal de la Garrotxa the most relevant.

In Olot there are two important natural areas, the Moixina and the Parc Nou, which are characterized by their oak woods, which boast an undestorey of plants that are rare on the south side of the Pyrenees. These woods inspired many of the painters from the "Olot school". With the city being situated in the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone Natural Park, the surrounding area offers spectacular natural places like the Fageda d'en Jordà or the natural springs of Sant Roc; the city has a bicycle lane connecting to Girona, an old railway. Main products of Olot's local gastronomy are the sweet herbal liquor ratafia, the traditional cakes coca de llardons and tortell de matafaluga, the charcuterie from Olot, the Olot potatoes, the buckwheat flour; some of the restaurants of the city have grouped together, offering the so-called "volcanic cuisine". Miquel Blay Antonio Soler Marià Vayreda Pedro Llosas Badía Notre-Dame-de-Bondeville, France Thuir, France Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria. Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona: Caixa de Catalunya.

ISBN 84-87135-01-3. ISBN 84-87135-02-1. Government data pages

USS Raton

USS Raton, a Gato-class submarine, was a ship of the United States Navy named for the raton, a polynemoid fish inhabiting semitropical waters off the Pacific coast of America. Raton, an attack submarine, was laid down 29 May 1942 by Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co. Manitowoc, Wisc.. West and commissioned 13 July 1943, Lt. Comdr. J. W. Davis in command. Following training in Lake Michigan and at Coco Solo, C. Z. Raton sailed for the southwest Pacific 19 September 1943, upon arriving at Brisbane, Australia, on 16 October, joined Submarine Force, 7th Fleet. From Brisbane, Raton sailed to Tulagi, Solomon Islands for her first war patrol, from 20 November to 6 December 1943, in the Bismarck Archipelago–Solomons–New Guinea area. On 24 November, while patrolling west of Massau Raton sighted two Japanese cargo-type ships, with two destroyers and a "Rufe" float plane; the submarine trailed that night made a torpedo attack, sinking the Onoe Maru. The excellent countermeasures of the two escorts thwarted four attempts to sink the remaining freighter.

On 28 November, she sighted. In a submerged attack, Raton sank two ships of the Hokko Maru and Yuri Maru. After a severe pounding by the escorts, Raton remained in the area for a return bout. In a night attack, she damaged a third freighter, called for assistance, as her torpedoes were nearly expended. Gato joined the attack, only to be jumped by the two Japanese destroyers. Raton surfaced and raced at flank speed to draw the escorts away from Gato, succeeded, allowing Gato to sink Columbia Maru. After returning to Milne Bay, New Guinea, for rest and refit alongside Fulton, Raton departed on her second war patrol, from 11 December to 25 January 1944, for the Mindanao–Celebes–Halmahera area. On 24 December, the submarine made an attack on four merchantmen and two destroyers in Morotai Strait, sinking Heiwa Maru and damaging an auxiliary aircraft carrier. On 2 January, she encountered two tankers, escorted by a Fubuki-class destroyer northwest of Faland Island on the Palau shipping lane, she scored hits on one tanker, but the efficient countermeasures of the Japanese escorts interrupted the attack.

Raton departed the patrol area on 19 January and reached Fremantle on 25 January for refit by Pelias. Her third patrol, from 18 February to 14 April, was conducted in the Java Sea, the Karimata Strait, the South China Sea. Rasher sank the only two ships, her fourth patrol, from 19 May to 23 June, in the South China and Java Seas, provided good hunting. On 23 May, Raton intercepted two small intercoastal freighters north of the Tambelan Islands, sank both with her deck gun; that same evening, she contacted fast convoy Hi-63 of four destroyers. She sank destroyer Iki, damaged a transport. On 27 May, the ship's log reported: "0615 Ship shaken up by either two underwater explosions or by striking submerged object. People in forward torpedo room thought we had struck something or had been struck by something." This turned out to be 2 torpedoes fired by U. S. S. Lapon. Lapon was looking for a Japanese submarine passing through the area and mistook Raton for that enemy sub; the Commanding officer checked fire on the second set of torpedoes realizing he wasn't shooting at the enemy.

Dry-dock inspection of Raton showed dents where the torpedoes hit. This is the only known friendly fire incident in World War II between two submarines. On 28 May, Raton missed due to an unfavorable firing angle. On 6 June, a bright moonlit night brought out a large convoy of 11 ships with four destroyer-type escorts. One frigate was blown apart by three hits from a spread of fish fired by Raton, but the submarine received a severe pounding from a prolonged depth charge attack before making her escape. A boarding party from the submarine captured a small sailing vessel on 13 June, taking 11 prisoners and scuttling the craft. Four days Raton sighted a small freighter, sinking it with one torpedo, rescuing nine survivors. SS-270 returned to Fremantle 23 June for upkeep alongside Orion; the fifth patrol, 18 July to 10 September, conducted in the South China Sea off Luzon, gave Raton only one victory, a tanker left beached off Dasol Bay, Philippines, on 4 August. Raton had better luck on her sixth patrol, 6 October in the South China Sea.

On the night of 18 October, Raton slipped into the center of a nine-ship convoy for a surface attack. She fired both sets of torpedo tubes, her bow tubes at six overlapping targets while her stern fish were fired at a large freighter. Two ships, Shiranesan Maru and Taikai Maru went down, another vessel was damaged. A final attack resulted in damage to another cargo ship. With her torpedo supply running low and a typhoon approaching, Raton pulled into Mios Woendi, Schouten Islands, for more fuel and torpedoes with which to finish the patrol. Leaving Mios Woendi 27 October, Raton encountered an enemy task group of two heavy cruisers and five escort vessels on 6 November. In a submerged attack, she scored three hits on a Mogami-class cruiser Kumano, but did not put the heavy out of action. On 11 November and Ray attacked a four-ship convoy guarded by three escorts. In a surface action Raton sank Unkai Kurasaki with four torpedoes. Both submarines fired torpedoes at the remaining auxiliaries with unconfirmed results.

With only four torpedoes remaining, Raton steamed home. On 13 March 1945, after an overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Raton headed west for Pearl Harbor for refresher training, she sai

Manly Fleischmann

Manly Fleischmann was an attorney whose record of public service included positions in the Democratic Administration of Harry S Truman and in the Republican Administration of New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller. He served as President Truman's Defense Production Administrator for the Korean War. At the request of Gov. Rockefeller, he chaired the New York State Commission on the Quality and Financing of Elementary and Secondary Education. Manly Fleischmann was born July 15, 1908 in Hamburg, New York to a prominent Buffalo trial lawyer, Simon Fleischmann; the family had ties to both Quakerism. The Fleischmann boys—of whom there were six -- remembered of their childhood that a Quaker idiom was the household vernacular when they were growing up. Manly Fleischmann never practiced Judaism, however. Fleischmann received his undergraduate training at Harvard College, graduating in 1929 and took his law degree at the University of Buffalo in 1933. Buffalo native John Lord O'Brian, a friend of Simon Fleischmann, was General Counsel to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's War Production Board during World War II.

He named Manly Fleischmann his Assistant General Counsel. Fleischmann remained in this post until 1943, when he joined the Office of Strategic Services, serving as a united States Navy officer detached to a British Army unit involved in espionage in Japanese-occupied Burma. For his service, he was decorated by both the U. S. and Thai governments. At the War's end, Fleischmann returned to Buffalo and founded a private law practice, Fleischmann Brothers, with his brother, Adelbert. However, with the advent of the Korean War, in 1950, he returned to Washington as General Counsel to the War Production Board. In 1951, President Truman appointed him Defense Production Administrator and National Production Administrator, positions in which Fleischmann balanced war production with maintaining a domestic economy, he served as U. S. Chairman of the International Materials Conference; as Korean War Production Administrator, Fleischmann was described as "...the man who exercises the greatest control over the economy in peacetime history."

The author, Robert J. Donovan, said Fleischmann " representative of the rare type of government executive whose judgment is unfettered by political loyalties and whose decisions are unhampered by past ties with business, labor, or other big interests." The magazine concluded that, "t the age of forty-three Fleischmann is looked upon as one of the ablest administrators in Washington, at a time when Washington sorely needs competent administrators."President Truman sent Fleischmann to Europe as one of his representatives in discussions that would lead to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. After the Korean War, in 1952, who had turned down President Truman's offer of the Ambassadorship to Indonesia, returned to private law practice, he was a founding partner of two major firms: Webster, Fleischmann, Hitchcock, & Chrystie in New York City, Jaeckle, Kelly, Swart, & Augspurger in Buffalo: the former evolved into Webster & Sheffield, which formed in 1934 dissolved in 1991.

Jaeckle, Fleischmann & Mugel announced on September 30, 2015 that, as of January 1, 2016, it would cease to exist. The remnants of the partnership were joined into a Syracuse, N. Y.-based firm and, in a move that stunned observers of the legal profession, the iconic Jaeckle Fleischmann name was not retained. In 1965 Gov. Nelson Rockefeller appointed Fleischmann Trustee of the State University of New York. In 1969, New York Gov. Nelson Rockefeller appointed Fleischmann to head a state commission to study the quality and financing of public education. In 1972, Fleischmann issued his report, it stunned the educational establishment by: proposing busing to end racial segregation. Fleischmann suffered a stroke, he died March 1987, at Buffalo in a fall at his home after suffering a heart attack. He is interred in the crypt of St. Paul's Episcopal Cathedral at Buffalo

Frederick Tubb

Major Frederick Harold Tubb, VC was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Tubb was born on 28 November 1881 to Harry and Emma E. Tubb, of St. Helena, Longwood East, Australia, he was 33 years old, a lieutenant in the 7th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force, during the First World War when he was awarded the VC for his actions on 9 August 1915 at Lone Pine, Gallipoli. Lieutenant Tubb held a newly captured trench, being counter-attacked by the enemy, who blew in a sand-bag barricade, leaving only a foot of it standing. Tubb repulsed the enemy and rebuilt the barricade. Twice more the enemy blew in the barricade, but on each occasion this officer, although wounded in the head and arm, held his ground and assisted by corporals Alexander Burton and William Dunstan, rebuilt it, maintained the position under heavy bombardment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty at Lone Pine trenches, in the Gallipoli Peninsula, on 9th August, 1915.

In the early morning the enemy made a determined counter attack on the centre of the newly captured trench held by Lieutenant Tubb. They advanced up a sap and blew in a sandbag barricade, leaving only one foot of it standing, but Lieutenant Tubb led his men back, repulsed the enemy, rebuilt the barricade. Supported by strong bombing parties, the enemy succeeded in twice again blowing in the barricade, but on each occasion Lieutenant Tubb, although wounded in the head and arm, held his ground with the greatest coolness and rebuilt it, succeeded in maintaining his position under heavy bomb fire, he achieved the rank of major and died of wounds suffered in battle at Polygon Wood, in the Third Battle of Ypres, on 20 September 1917. In this action Major Tubb was serving with 7th Battalion, 2nd Brigade, 1st Australian Division when he was shot by a German sniper during the Battle of the Menin Road Ridge. While being carried to the rear he was struck by British artillery shells, he died at the dressing station at Lijssenthoek and was buried at Lijssenthoek Military Cemetery, Belgium.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, along with the eight other Australian Gallipoli VCs. Tubb was awarded: Victoria Cross 1914-15 Star British War Medal Victory Medal H. Murray Hamilton,'Tubb, Frederick Harold', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 12, Melbourne University Press, 1990, pp 273–274. Lieutenant Frederick Tubb VC, People profiles, Australian War Memorial timeline.

Sriprakash Jaiswal

Sriprakash Jaiswal written Shriprakash or Sri Prakash, is an Indian politician. He served as a member of Parliament for the Indian National Congress and as Minister of State for Home Affairs, he completed his education in BNSD Inter College. He married Maya Rani on 28 April 1967, he has one daughter. His first political assignment was serving Kanpur city as its mayor in 1989, he won the 1999 Lok Sabha election and was reelected in 2004 and 2009. He served as Minister of State for Home Affairs in 2004, he was elevated to Minister Of State in 2009 holding dual charges of Coal and Statistics And Programme Implementation. In 2014 Lok Sabha elections he lost his seat. Jaiswal stayed out of the political spats and media. However, he came into limelight when the Indian coal allocation scam erupted via a leaked Report of Comptroller and Auditor General of India in August 2012, he was not the Coal Minister at the time of the crime, but was criticised by the opposition. Jaiswal, maintained that the Coal Allocation Process was proper and that the report was disputable.

He defended Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Another controversy arose while Jaiswal was attending a cultural event in Kanpur he made sexist remarks, saying'A new victory and a new marriage have their own importance, but as times passes, the memories of a victory go old and as time passes, a wife gets old, the same charm is not there'. He apologized, his remarks received nationwide criticism and a petition was filed against him in the Court by Women's Organizations


A salute is a gesture or other action used to display respect. Salutes are associated with armed forces, but other organizations and civilians use salutes. In military traditions of various times and places, there have been numerous methods of performing salutes, using hand gestures, cannon or rifle shots, hoisting of flags, removal of headgear, or other means of showing respect or deference. In the Commonwealth of Nations, only commissioned officers are saluted, the salute is to the commission they carry from their respective commanders-in-chief representing the Monarch, not the officers themselves. Hand salutes are carried out by bringing the right hand to the head in some way, the precise manner varying between different countries; the British Army's salute is identical to the French salute, with the palm facing outward. The customary salute in the Polish Armed Forces is the two-fingers salute, a variation of the British military salute with only two fingers extended. In the Russian military, the right hand, palm down, is brought to the right temple but not quite, touching.

In the Hellenic Army salute, the palm is facing down and the fingers point to the coat of arms. In the United States Navy, United States Marine Corps, United States Coast Guard, United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Colombian Army and Ecuadorian Army, as well as in all branches of the French Armed Forces, Spanish Armed Forces, British Armed Forces, Canadian Forces, Danish Armed Forces, Hellenic Armed Forces, Italian Armed Forces, Norwegian Armed Forces, Polish Armed Forces, Irish Defence Forces, Australian Defence Force, South African National Defence Force, Swedish Defence Forces, Finnish Defence Forces, Turkish Armed Forces, Portuguese Armed Forces and Russian and all former Soviet republic forces, hand salutes are only given when a cover is worn. If there is a reason not to salute with the right hand, due for example to performing an activity that should not be interrupted, or injury, an equivalent left-hand salute is sometimes performed. A right-handed boatswain's mate piping an officer aboard may salute with their left hand.

When the presence of enemy snipers is suspected, military salutes are forbidden, since the enemy may use them to recognize officers as valuable targets. According to some modern military manuals, the modern Western salute originated in France when knights greeted each other to show friendly intentions by raising their visors to show their faces, using a salute. Others note that the raising of one's visor was a way to identify oneself saying "This is who I am, I am not afraid." Medieval visors were, to this end, equipped with a protruding spike that allowed the visor to be raised using a saluting motion. The US Army Quartermaster School provides another explanation of the origin of the hand salute: that it was a long-established military courtesy for subordinates to remove their headgear in the presence of superiors; as late as the American Revolution, a British Army soldier saluted by removing his hat. With the advent of cumbersome headgear in the 18th and 19th centuries, the act of removing one's hat was converted into the simpler gesture of grasping or touching the visor and issuing a courteous salutation.

As early as 1745, a British order book stated that: "The men are ordered not to pull off their hats when they pass an officer, or to speak to them, but only to clap up their hands to their hats and bow as they pass." Over time, it became conventionalized into something resembling the modern hand salute. In the Austrian Army the practice of making a hand salute replaced that of removing the headdress in 1790, although officers wearing cocked hats continued to remove them when greeting superiors until 1868; the naval salute, with the palm downwards is said to have evolved because the palms of naval ratings deckhands, were dirty through working with lines and was deemed insulting to present a dirty palm to an officer. During the Napoleonic Wars, British crews saluted officers by touching a clenched fist to the brow as though grasping a hat-brim between fingers and thumb; when carrying a sword, still done on ceremonial occasions, European military forces and their cultural descendants use a two-step gesture.

The sword is first raised, in the right hand, to the level of and close to the front of the neck. The blade is inclined up 30 degrees from the vertical; the sword is slashed downward to a position with the point close to the ground in front of the right foot. The blade is inclined forward with the true edge to the left; this gesture originated in the Crusades. The hilt of a sword formed a cross with the blade, so if a crucifix was not available, a Crusader could kiss the hilt of his sword when praying, before entering battle, for oaths and vows, so on; the lowering of the point to the ground is a traditional act of submission. In fencing, the fencers salute each other before putting their masks on to begin a bout. There are several methods of doing this, but the most common is to bring the sword in front of the face so that the blade is pointing up in front of the nose; the fencers salute the referee and the audience. When armed with a rifle, two methods are available; the usual method is called "present arms".

The hands hold the stock close to the positions they would have if the rifle were being fired, though the trigger is not touched. Less formal salutes include the "order arms salute" and the "shoulder a