Malibu is a beach city in western Los Angeles County, situated about 30 miles west of Downtown Los Angeles. It is known for its Mediterranean climate and its 21-mile strip of the Malibu coast, incorporated in 1991 into the City of Malibu; the area is known for being the home of Hollywood movie stars, people in the entertainment industry, other affluent residents. Most Malibu residents live within a few hundred yards of Pacific Coast Highway, which traverses the city, with some residents living up to a mile away from the beach up narrow canyons; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,645. Nicknamed "the'Bu" by surfers and locals, beaches along the Malibu coast include Surfrider Beach, Zuma Beach, Malibu Beach, Topanga Beach, Point Dume Beach, County Line, Dan Blocker Beach. State parks and beaches on the Malibu coast include Malibu Creek State Park, Leo Carrillo State Beach and Park, Point Mugu State Park, Robert H. Meyer Memorial State Beach, with individual beaches: El Pescador, La Piedra and El Matador.
The many parks within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area lie along the ridges above the city along with local parks that include Malibu Bluffs Park, Trancas Canyon Park, Las Flores Creek Park, Legacy Park. Signs around the city proclaim "21 miles of scenic beauty", referring to the incorporated city limits; the city updated the signs in 2017 from the historical 27-mile length of the Malibu coast spanning from Tuna Canyon on the southeast to Point Mugu in Ventura County on the northwest. For many residents of the unincorporated canyon areas, Malibu has the closest commercial centers and they are included in the Malibu ZIP Codes; the city is bounded by Topanga on the east, the Santa Monica Mountains to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south, Solromar in Ventura County to the west. Malibu is named for the Ventureño Chumash settlement of Humaliwo, which translates to “The Surf Sounds Loudly.” This pre-colonial village is now part of the State Park. Malibu was settled by the Chumash, Native Americans whose territory extended loosely from the San Joaquin Valley to San Luis Obispo to Malibu, as well as several islands off the southern coast of California.
They named it "Humaliwo" or "the surf sounds loudly". The city's name derives from this; the village of Humaliwo was located next to Malibu Lagoon and was an important regional center in prehistoric times. The village, identified as CA-LAN-264, was occupied from 2,500 BCE, it was the second-largest Chumash coastal settlement by the Santa Monica Mountains, with just Muwu being more populated. A total of 118 individuals were baptized in Humaliwo. Humaliwo was considered an important political center, but there were additional minor settlements in today’s Malibu. One village, known as Ta’lopop, was located few miles up Malibu Canyon from Malibu Lagoon. Research have shown that Humaliwo had ties to other villages in pre-colonial times, including Hipuk and Huwam. Explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo is believed to have moored at Malibu Lagoon, at the mouth of Malibu Creek, to obtain fresh water in 1542; the Spanish presence returned with the California mission system, the area was part of Rancho Topanga Malibu Sequit—a 13,000-acre land grant—in 1802.
That ranch passed intact to Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1891. He and his widow, May K. Rindge, guarded their privacy zealously by hiring guards to evict all trespassers and fighting a lengthy court battle to prevent the building of a Southern Pacific railroad line through the ranch. Interstate Commerce Commission regulations would not support a railroad condemning property in order to build tracks that paralleled an existing line, so Frederick H. Rindge decided to build his own railroad through his property first, he died, May K. Rindge followed through with the plans, building the Hueneme and Port Los Angeles Railway; the line started at Carbon Canyon, just inside the ranch's property eastern boundary, ran 15 miles westward, past Pt. Dume. Few roads entered the area before 1929, when the state won another court case and built what is now known as the Pacific Coast Highway. By May Rindge was forced to subdivide her property and begin selling and leasing lots; the Rindge house, known as the Adamson House, is now part of Malibu Creek State Park and is situated between Malibu Lagoon State Beach and Surfrider Beach, beside the Malibu Pier, used to provide transportation to/from the ranch, including construction materials for the Rindge railroad, to tie up the family's yacht.
In 1926, in an effort to avoid selling land to stave off insolvency, May K. Rindge created a small ceramic tile factory. At its height, Malibu Potteries employed over 100 workers, produced decorative tiles which furnish many Los Angeles-area public buildings and Beverly Hills residences; the factory, located one-half mile east of the pier, was ravaged by a fire in 1931. Although the factory reopened in 1932, it could not recover from the effects of the Great Depression and a steep downturn in Southern California construction projects. A distinct hybrid of Moorish and Arts and crafts designs, Malibu tile is considered collectible. Fine examples of the tiles may be seen at the Adamson House and Serra Retreat, a fifty-room mansion, started in the 1920s as the main Rindge home on a hill overlooking the lagoon; the unfinished building was sold to the Franciscan Order in 1942 and is
Euphronios was an ancient Greek vase painter and potter, active in Athens in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC. As part of the so-called "Pioneer Group,", Euphronios was one of the most important artists of the red-figure technique, his works place him at the transition from Late Archaic to Early Classical art, he is one of the first known artists in history to have signed his work. In contrast to other artists, such as sculptors, no Ancient Greek literature sources refer to vase painters; the copious literary tradition on the arts hardly mention pottery. Thus reconstruction of Euphronios's life and artistic development—like that of all Greek vase painters—can only be derived from his works. Modern scientific study of Greek pottery began near the end of the 18th century. Interest focused on iconography; the discovery of the first signature of Euphronios in 1838 revealed that individual painters could be identified and named, so that their works might be ascribed to them. This led to an intensive study of painters' signatures, by the late 19th century, scholars began to compile stylistic compendia.
The archaeologist John D. Beazley used these compendia as a starting point for his own work, he systematically described and catalogued thousands of Attic black-figure and red-figure vases and sherds, using the methods of the art historian Giovanni Morelli for the study of paintings. In three key volumes on Attic painters, Beazley achieved a taxonomy that remains valid to this day, he listed all known painters who produced individual works of art which can always be unmistakably ascribed. Today, most painters are identified, though their names remain unknown. Euphronios must have been born around 535 BC, when Athenian art and culture bloomed during the tyranny of Peisistratos. Most Attic pottery was painted in the black-figure style. Much of the Athenian pottery production of that time was exported to Etruria. Most of the extant Attic pottery has been recovered as grave goods from Etruscan tombs. At the time, vase painting received major new impulses from potters such as Nikosthenes and Andokides.
The Andokides workshop began the production of red-figure pottery around 530 BC. The new red-figure technique began to replace the older black-figure style. Euphronios was to become one of the most important representatives of early red-figure vase painting in Athens. Together with a few other contemporary young painters, modern scholarship counts him as part of the "Pioneer Group" of red-figure painting. Euphronios appears to have started painting vases around 520 BC under the tutelage of Psiax. Euphronios himself was to have a major influence on the work of his erstwhile master, as well as on that of several other older painters, he worked in the workshop of the potter Kachrylion, under supervision of the painter Oltos. His works from this early phase show several of Euphronios' artistic characteristics: his tendency to paint mythological scenes, his preference for monumental compositions, but for scenes from everyday life, his careful rendering of muscles and movement; the latter aspects indicate a close link with Psiax, who painted in a similar style.
Apart from a few fragments, a bowl in London and one in Malibu can be ascribed to this phase of his work. The most important early vase, however, is a signed specimen depicting Sarpedon, it was only through the appearance of this vase on the international market that Euphronios' early works could be recognised and distinguished from the paintings of Oltos, credited with some works by Euphronios. Although it became common for painters to sign their best works, signatures were used in black-figure and early red-figure painting. Euphronios's earliest known works show a total control of the technical abilities necessary for red-figure vase painting. A number of technical advances which were adopted as part of the standard red-figure technique can be first seen in his work. To render the depictions of human anatomy more plastic and realistic, he introduced the relief line and the use of diluted clay slip. Depending on how it is applied, the slip can acquire a range of colours between light yellow and dark brown during firing, thus multiplying the stylistic possibilities available to the artist.
Euphronios's technical and artistic innovations were quickly influential. Although Kachylion's workshop only produced drinking bowls, Euphronios continued to work for him into his maturity, simple bowls soon failed to satisfy his artistic impulse, he began to paint other vase types working with different potters. The Villa Giulia holds two early pelikes by him; such medium-size vases offered more space for his figural paintings. A psykter now in Boston is counted among his early work, as it resembles the work of Oltos: stiff garment folds, almond-shaped eyes, a small protruding chin and ill-differentiated hands and feet. Alternatively, it could be a careless work from a phase; such problems in assigning Euphronios' works to the different periods of his activity recur for several of his vases. Although the general chronology and development of his work is well known, some of his works remain difficult to place precisely. For example, a chalice krater in the Antikensammlung Berlin, depicting young men
Brunswick is a town in Cumberland County, United States. The population was 20,278 at the 2010 United States Census. Part of the Portland-South Portland-Biddeford metropolitan area, Brunswick is home to Bowdoin College, the Bowdoin College Museum of Art, the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum, the Maine State Music Theatre, it was home to the U. S. Naval Air Station Brunswick, permanently closed on May 31, 2011. Settled in 1628 by Thomas Purchase and other fishermen, the area was called by its Indian name, meaning "the long, rocky rapids part ". In 1639, Purchase placed his settlement under protection of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. During King Philip's War in 1676, Pejepscot was burned and abandoned, although a garrison called Fort Andros was built on the ruins during King William's War. During the war, in Major Benjamin Church's second expedition a year he arrived on 11 September 1690 with 300 men at Casco Bay, he went up the Androscoggin River to the English Fort Pejepscot. From there he attacked a native village.
Three or four native men were shot in retreat. A few days in retaliation, the natives attacked Church at Cape Elizabeth on Purpooduc Point, killing 7 of his men and wounding 24 others. On September 26, Church returned to New Hampshire; the 1713 Treaty of Portsmouth brought peace to the region between the Abenaki Indians and the English colonists. In 1714, a consortium from Boston and Portsmouth bought the land, thereafter called the Pejepscot Purchase; the Massachusetts General Court constituted the township in 1717, naming it Brunswick in honor of the House of Brunswick and its scion, King George I. A stone fort called, but during Dummer's War on July 13, 1722, Abenaki warriors from Norridgewock burned the village. Governor Samuel Shute declared war on the Abenakis. In 1724, 208 English troops sacked Norridgewock during Dummer's War. Brunswick was rebuilt again in 1727, in 1739 incorporated as a town, it became a prosperous seaport, where Bowdoin College was chartered in 1794. The Androscoggin River falls in three successive stages for a total vertical drop of 41 feet, providing water power for industry.
Brunswick became a major producer of lumber, with as many as 25 sawmills. Some of the lumber went into shipbuilding. Other firms produced paper, flour and granite work and harness, furniture and confections; the town was site of the first cotton mill in Maine, the Brunswick Cotton Manufactory Company, built in 1809 to make yarn. Purchased in 1812, the mill was enlarged by the Maine Woolen Factory Company. In 1857, the Cabot Manufacturing Company was established to make cotton textiles, it expanded the brick factory along the falls. Needing more room, the company in 1890 persuaded the town to move Maine Street. Today, Brunswick has a number of historic districts recognized on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Pennellville Historic District preserving shipbuilders' and sea captains' mansions built in the Federal, Greek Revival and Italianate architectural styles. Principal employers for Brunswick include L. L. Bean, Bath Iron Works, as well as companies that produce fiberglass construction material and electrical switches.
A number of health services providers serving Maine's mid-coast area are located in Brunswick. The former Naval Air Station Brunswick was a major employer in Brunswick prior to its closure; the book Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe while she was living in Brunswick, because her husband was a professor at Bowdoin. She got a key vision for the book in the First Parish Church. A scene in the 1993 movie The Man Without a Face was filmed in the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 54.34 square miles, of which 46.73 square miles is land and 7.61 square miles is water. Brunswick is located at the north end of Casco Bay, as well as the head of tide and head of navigation on the Androscoggin River; as of 2000, the median income for a household in the town was $40,402. Males had a median income of $32,141 versus $24,927 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,322. About 5.0% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 15,175 people, 7,183 households, 6,498 families residing in the census-designated place of Brunswick. The population density was 433.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,599 housing units at an average density of 205.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.0% White, 1.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 8,469 households. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the town was 41.4 years. 19.2% of residents were under the age of 18.
Dionysus is the god of the grape-harvest and wine, of fertility, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, theatre in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, the cult of Dionysus was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption, his worship became established in the seventh century BC. He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenaean Greeks. His origins are uncertain, his cults took many forms. In some cults, he arrives as an Asiatic foreigner; some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios or Zalmoxis. He is a god of epiphany, "the god that comes", his "foreignness" as an arriving outsider-god may be inherent and essential to his cults, he is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion, becoming important over time, included in some lists of the twelve Olympians, as the last of their number, the only god born from a mortal mother.
His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre. He is known as Bacchus, the name adopted by the Romans and the frenzy he induces is bakkheia, his thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a weapon used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios, his wine and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care, subvert the oppressive restraints of the powerful; those who partake of his mysteries are empowered by the god himself. The cult of Dionysus is a "cult of the souls", he is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god. Dionysus is depicted in myth as the son of Zeus and the mortal Semele, although in the Orphic tradition, he was identified as the son of Zeus and Persephone. In the Eleusinian Mysteries he was identified with the son of Demeter; the dio- element has been associated since antiquity with Zeus. The earliest attested form of the name is Mycenaean Greek, di-wo-nu-so, written in Linear B syllabic script for /Diwonūsoio/.
This is attested on two tablets, found at Mycenaean Pylos and dated to the 12th or 13th century BC, but at the time, there could be no certainty on whether this was indeed a theonym. But the 1989–90 Greek-Swedish Excavations at Kastelli Hill, unearthed, inter alia, four artefacts bearing Linear B inscriptions. Variants include Dionūsos and Diōnūsos in Boeotia. A Dio- prefix is found in other names, such as that of the Dioscures, may derive from Dios, the genitive of the name of Zeus; the second element -nūsos is associated with Mount Nysa, the birthplace of the god in Greek mythology, where he was nursed by nymphs, but according to Pherecydes of Syros, nũsa was an archaic word for "tree". Nonnus, in his Dionysiaca, writes that the name Dionysus means "Zeus-limp" and that Hermes named the new born Dionysus this, "because Zeus while he carried his burden lifted one foot with a limp from the weight of his thigh, nysos in Syracusan language means limping". In his note to these lines, W. H. D. Rouse writes "It need hardly be said that these etymologies are wrong".
The Suda, a Byzantine encyclopedia based on classical sources, states that Dionysus was so named "from accomplishing for each of those who live the wild life. Or from providing everything for those who live the wild life."R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name; the cult of Dionysus was associated with trees the fig tree, some of his bynames exhibit this, such as Endendros "he in the tree" or Dendritēs, "he of the tree". Peters suggests the original meaning as "he who runs among the trees", or that of a "runner in the woods". Janda accepts the etymology but proposes the more cosmological interpretation of "he who impels the tree"; this interpretation explains how Nysa could have been re-interpreted from a meaning of "tree" to the name of a mountain: the axis mundi of Indo-European mythology is represented both as a world-tree and as a world-mountain. The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a mature male and robed, he holds a fennel staff, known as a thyrsus. Images show him as a beardless, naked or half-naked androgynous youth: the literature describes him as womanly or "man-womanish".
In its developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized. His procession is made up of bearded satyrs with erect penises; the god himself is drawn in a chariot by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers, is sometimes attended by a bearded, drunken Silenus. This procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. Dionysus is represented by city religions as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and he thus symbolizes the chaotic and unexpected
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py
The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been sourced during the era of the British Empire, it documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world; the British Museum was established in 1753 based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. It first opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, its expansion over the following 250 years was a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the Natural History Museum in 1881. In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997.
The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport, as with all national museums in the UK it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions. Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles. Although today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum", its foundations lie in the will of the Irish physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based doctor and scientist from Ulster. During the course of his lifetime, after he married the widow of a wealthy Jamaican planter, Sloane gathered a large collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000. At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Greece, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas.
On 7 June 1753, King George II gave his Royal Assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. The British Museum Act 1753 added two other libraries to the Sloane collection, namely the Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dating back to Elizabethan times, the Harleian Library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford, they were joined in 1757 by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf; the British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests; the addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library.
The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. At this time, the largest parts of collection were the library, which took up the majority of the rooms on the ground floor of Montagu House and the natural history objects, which took up an entire wing on the second state storey of the building. In 1763, the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson, employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus, Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.
In 1823, King George IV gave the King's Library assembled by George III, Parliament gave the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the museum's library would expand indefinitely. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays; the predominance of natural history and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the museum acquired for £8,410 its first significant antiquities in Sir William Hamilton's "first" collection of Greek vases. From 1778, a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of unknown lands; the bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the museum's reputation. The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton, British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to
The Staatliche Antikensammlungen is a museum in Munich's Kunstareal holding Bavaria's collections of antiquities from Greece and Rome, though the sculpture collection is located in the opposite Glyptothek and works created in Bavaria are on display in a separate museum. Ancient Egypt has its own museum; the neo-classical building at Königsplatz with Corinthian columns was established in 1848 as counterpart to the opposite Glyptothek and commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I. The architect was Georg Friedrich Ziebland. From 1869 to 1872 the building housed the royal antiquarium before the Munich Secession resided here from 1898 to 1912. From 1919 the building contained the New State Gallery; the museum building was damaged by bombing in World War II but was reconstructed and reopened to the public in the late 1960s to display the State Collection of Antiques. The State Collection of Antiquities is based on the Wittelsbach antique collections the collection of attic vases of King Ludwig I.
In 1831 his agent Martin von Wagner acquired pottery from the archeological excavation in Vulci, his agent Friedrich von Thiersch purchased by auction the antiques from the estate of Lucien Bonaparte. The king acquired antique gold jewellery from the collection of Caroline Murat, Etruscan bronzes excavated in Perugia and Greek terra-cottas from South Italy. After the king's death in 1868 his collection was united with the Wittelsbach antique collection, founded by Albert V, Duke of Bavaria; the museum got extended by purchase and donations. Among these private collections are the donations of Paul Arndt, of James Loeb, of Hans von Schoen; these comprehensive collections specialised in smaller antique objects, bronzes, terra-cottas, jewelry and silver. During World War II the museum lost Etruscan pottery, stored in the bombed Neue Pinakothek; the internationally renowned collection of antique pottery is outstanding, comparable only with the collections of the Louvre and the British Museum. On display is Cycladic art.
The Mycenaean pottery is represented as well as the pottery from the geometric, the archaic, the classical and the Hellenistic period in Greece. The museum exhibits artworks of the most famous Greek potters and painters like the Amasis Painter, Archikles, the Penthesilea Painter, the Andokides Painter, Kleophon, Euphronios, Epiktetos, the Pan Painter, the Berlin Painter, Makron, the Brygos Painter, the Acheloos Painter and Lydos; the collection contains numerous masterpieces such as the Belly Amphora by the Andokides Painter and the Dionysus cup by Exekias. The Standing Woman is a notable statuette of terracotta; the Beauty is one of the best preserved ancient terracotta figures in the world. It was found in the vicinity of Athens; the Goddess of Beauty and Love is a masterpiece of Hellenstic bronze art and dates back to around 100 BC. An outstanding example for antique jewellery is the gold Funerary Garland from Armento. A Golden Diadem from the Black Sea, an elaborately decorated headdress from the Crimean Peninsula was produced in around 150 BC.
A famous Roman Goblet from Cologne made of reticella glass still shows its Latin inscription BIBE MULTIS ANNIS. It was a present of the City of Cologne in return for King Ludwig's support for the completion of Cologne Cathedral. An antique mummy portrait which originates from around 140 AD depicts a young upper-class man of imperial Egypt belongs to the most beautiful and best-quality antique mummy portraits that exist. Part of the Staatliche Antikensammlungen is a comprehensive collection of ca 800 engraved gems donated by Helmut Hansmann. Staatliche Antikensammlungen Staatliche Antikensammlungen