Province of Piacenza
The province of Piacenza is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its provincial capital is the city Piacenza, as of 2015, it has a total population of 288,013 inhabitants over an area of 2,585.86 square kilometres, giving it a population density of 111.38 inhabitants per square kilometre. The city Piacenza has a population of 102,269, as of 2015, the provincial president is Francesco Rolleri and it contains 48 comuni. The province dates back to its founding by the Romans in 218 BCE, Piacenza was founded by the Romans for military purposes in 218 BCE. It was conquered by Carthaginian Hasdrubal II in 207 BCE and the city was sacked in 200 BCE by the Gauls, a key city in the region, it was destroyed by barbarians but the town was rebuilt under the rule of bishops in the 10th century. By the 12th century, the city was a comune and it fought against Frederick I. In the Renaissance period it passed from French, to papal, to Viscontis, pope Paul III formed the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza and Piacenza became part of this duchy.
It voted for a union between it and Piedmont in May 1848, this union was enacted in 1859, but after the dismissal of Mario Monti, the provincial union was cancelled. The province of Piacenza is the most westernmost of the nine provinces in the region of Emilia-Romagna in northwestern Italy. It is bounded on the east by the Province of Parma, and to the north by the Province of Cremona, the Province of Lodi, and the Province of Pavia in the region of Lombardy. The Province of Alessandria lies to the west in the region of Piedmont, the alluvial Po Plain is agricultural land and there are many vineyards growing grapes from which the eighteen wines of the region are made. There is some industry, mostly in the mechanical sector. Media related to Province of Piacenza at Wikimedia Commons Provincia di Piacenza homepage Provincia di Piacenza homepage Piacenzainternet. it - Portale di Piacenza
Piedmont is one of the 20 regions of Italy. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of about 4.6 million, the capital of Piedmont is Turin. The name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i. e. ad pedem montium, meaning “at the foot of the mountains”. Other towns of Piedmont with more than 20,000 inhabitants sorted by population and it borders with France and the Italian regions of Lombardy, Aosta Valley and for a very small fragment with Emilia Romagna. The geography of Piedmont is 43. 3% mountainous, along with areas of hills. Piedmont is the second largest of Italys 20 regions, after Sicily and it is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy’s largest river. The Po collects all the waters provided within the semicircle of mountains which surround the region on three sides, from the highest peaks the land slopes down to hilly areas, and to the upper, and to the lower great Padan Plain. 7. 6% of the territory is considered protected area.
There are 56 different national or regional parks, one of the most famous is the Gran Paradiso National Park located between Piedmont and the Aosta Valley, Piedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celtic-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi. They were subdued by the Romans, who founded several colonies there including Augusta Taurinorum, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was repeatedly invaded by the Burgundians, the Goths, Lombards, Franks. In the 9th–10th centuries there were incursions by the Magyars. At the time Piedmont, as part of the Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire, was subdivided into several marks, in 1046, Oddo of Savoy added Piedmont to their main territory of Savoy, with a capital at Chambéry. Other areas remained independent, such as the powerful comuni of Asti and Alessandria, the County of Savoy was elevated to a duchy in 1416, and Duke Emanuele Filiberto moved the seat to Turin in 1563. In 1720, the Duke of Savoy became King of Sardinia, founding what evolved into the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Republic of Alba was created in 1796 as a French client republic in Piedmont.
A new client republic, the Piedmontese Republic, existed between 1798 and 1799 before it was reoccupied by Austrian and Russian troops, in June 1800 a third client republic, the Subalpine Republic, was established in Piedmont. It fell under full French control in 1801 and it was annexed by France in September 1802, in the congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Sardinia was restored, and furthermore received the Republic of Genoa to strengthen it as a barrier against France. Piedmont was a springboard for Italys unification in 1859–1861, following earlier unsuccessful wars against the Austrian Empire in 1820–1821 and this process is sometimes referred to as Piedmontisation. However, the efforts were countered by the efforts of rural farmers
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val dOrcia are internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast.
The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art.
The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia
Province of Pavia
The province of Pavia is a province in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. Its capital is Pavia and the president of the province is Daniele Bosone, as of 2015, the province has a population of 548,722 inhabitants and an area of 2,968.64 square kilometres, the town of Pavia has a population of 72,205. The city Pavia was initially settled by the Ligures and was occupied by Gaulish tribes. In the sixth century it was the capital of German tribe the Lombards, following the death of Charlemagne, the Lombard territory became part of Frankish territory. In the 12th century, it became a commune after Frankish rule ceased, the University of Pavia was founded in 1361. Starting from 1359, Pavia and its neighbourhood were owned by the Visconti and the Sforza of Milan, until, in 1499 and it was the scene of a Franco-Imperial battle in 1525, in which Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor defeated Francis I of France. The Province of Pavia is in the region of Lombardy in northwestern Italy and it is bounded to the north by the provinces of Milan and the Lodi, to the southeast by the Province of Piacenza, and to the southwest it is bounded by the Province of Alessandria.
The province is crossed by the rivers Ticino and Po, which meet four kilometres south of the capital, the province contains 190 communes and the River Po is navigable up to its confluence with the Ticino. The territory of Siccomario, at the confluence of the two rivers, should properly be included in Lomellina, but for historical reasons it is considered part of Pavese. Another large river flowing through the province is the Olona, the province is mostly flat with the northwestern part of the province being good agricultural land. The southern part rises to low hills which give way to the Ligurian Apennines, the town of Pavia has a major position in northern Italys textile industry and is renowned for hatmaking. It plays its part in the engineering and metallurgical industries. This is an important winemaking district and produces sparkling wines and it is the largest area in Italy for the production of Pinot noir. The list below shows the most populated municipalities of the province in 2010, Comuni of the Province of Pavia Province of Pavia official website Oltrepò Pavese Touristic site
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. Milan, Lombardys capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy, the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz, equivalent to long beard. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, Lombardy referred during the early Middle Ages to the entire territory of Italy ruled by the Lombards, a Germanic tribe who conquered much of the Italian peninsula beginning in the 6th century. During the late Middle Ages, the term shifted meaning and was used to identify the whole of Northern Italy, with a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the 4th largest region of Italy. It is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, three distinct natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in the Lombardy region, mountains and plains – the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa.
Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River. The mighty Po river marks the border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands, from west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains. The most commons trees are elm, sycamore, willow, in the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers.
The highlands are characterized by the vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow, on the slopes beech trees grow at the lowest limits. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone, Lombardy has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to inland water basins, and large metropolitan areas. In addition, there is a seasonal temperature variation. A peculiarity of the climate is the thick fog that covers the plains between October and February. In the Alpine foothills, characterised by an Oceanic climate, numerous lakes exercise a mitigating influence, in the hills and mountains, the climate is humid continental
Stradella is a town and comune of the Oltrepò Pavese in the Province of Pavia in the northern Italian region of Lombardy. It is situated in the Padan Plain, about 5 km south of the river Po, together with what is now the almost disinhabited locality of Montalino, was under the suzerainty of the bishop of Pavia in the early Middle Ages. Montalino and Pavia were repeatedly ravaged in the course of the Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, the bishops seigniory ended in 1797 with the abolition of feudalism. It obtained the status of town in 1865, Stradella received the honorary title of city with a royal decree on May 25,1865. The city was once an important centre for the production of accordions, mariano Dallapé was the first accordion builder in Stradella, his business was continued by his sons. Later famous names include the brothers Crosio Fratelli, Stradella was the birthplace of Agostino Depretis. Football, Promozione, group G Oratorio Stradella, Terza Categoria, group C Basketball, Pallacanestro Stradella, Promozione Media related to Stradella at Wikimedia Commons
The Pavese is a geographical and historical area in the Pianura Padana of northern Italy, located in south-western Lombardy. It constitutes one of the 3 territories in which is divided the Province of Pavia, the territory is located in the northwestern area of the province and borders with the provinces of Milan and Piacenza. It is crossed at its borders by the river Po and in the east by Ticino, which separates it from the Lomellina. The territory is flat, except from some hills, and is crossed by the rivers Olona, Southern Lambro, Naviglio Pavese, Naviglio di Bereguardo and several acequias. The city of Pavia constitutes an area, the other 51 comuni are divided in the areas of Campagna Soprana and Campagna Sottana
A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber. Truffles are ectomycorrhizal fungi and are usually found in close association with tree roots. Spore dispersal is accomplished through fungivores, animals that eat fungi, some of the truffle species are highly prized as food. French gourmet Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin called truffles the diamond of the kitchen, edible truffles are held in high esteem in French, Georgian, Italian, Middle Eastern, and Spanish cuisine, as well as in international haute cuisine. The first mention of truffles appears in the inscriptions of the neo-Sumerians regarding their Amorite enemys eating habits, cicero deemed them children of the earth, while Dioscorides thought they were tuberous roots. Italy in the Classical period produced three kinds of truffles, the Tuber melanosporum, the Tuber magnificanus and the Tuber magnatum. The Romans, used only the terfez, a fungus of similar appearance, which the Romans called truffles, terfez used in Rome came from Lesbos and especially Libya, where the coastal climate was less dry in ancient times.
Their substance is pale, tinged with rose, unlike truffles, terfez have no taste of their own. The Romans used the terfez as a carrier of flavor, because the terfez have the property to absorb surrounding flavours, Ancient Roman cuisine used many spices and flavours, and terfez were perfect in that context. Truffles were rarely used during the Middle Ages, according to a hadith narrated by Saeed bin Zaid, Muhammad said that truffles are like manna and that water from truffles heals eye diseases. During the Renaissance, truffles regained popularity in Europe and were honoured at the court of King Francis I of France, however, it was not until the 17th century that Western cuisine abandoned heavy oriental spices, and rediscovered the natural flavour of foodstuffs. Truffles were very popular in Parisian markets in the 1780s and they were imported seasonally from truffle grounds, where peasants had long enjoyed their secret. Brillat-Savarin noted characteristically that they were so expensive they appeared only at the tables of great nobles.
A great delicacy was a truffled turkey, Truffles long eluded techniques of domestication, as Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin noted, The most learned men have sought to ascertain the secret, and fancied they discovered the seed. Their promises, were vain, and no planting was ever followed by a harvest and this perhaps is all right, for as one of the great values of truffles is their dearness, perhaps they would be less highly esteemed if they were cheaper. As early as 1808, there were attempts to cultivate truffles. For discovering how to cultivate truffles, some sources now give priority to Pierre II Mauléon of Loudun and his experiment was successful, with truffles being found in the soil around the newly grown oak trees years later. In 1847, Auguste Rousseau of Carpentras planted 7 hectares of oak trees and he received a prize at the 1855 Worlds Fair in Paris