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Olympia, Greece

Olympia, is a small town in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula in Greece, famous for the nearby archaeological site of the same name, a major Panhellenic religious sanctuary of ancient Greece, where the ancient Olympic Games were held. The site was dedicated to Zeus and drew visitors from all over the Greek world as one of a group of such "Panhellenic" centres which helped to build the identity of the ancient Greeks as a nation. Despite the name, it is nowhere near Mount Olympus in northern Greece, where the Twelve Olympians, the major deities of Ancient Greek religion, were believed to live; the Olympic Games were held every four years throughout Classical antiquity, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. The archaeological site held over 70 significant buildings, ruins of many of these survive, although the main Temple of Zeus survives only as stones on the ground; the site is a major tourist attraction, has two museums, one devoted to the ancient and modern games. Olympia lies in the wide valley of the rather small Alfeiós River in the western part of the Peloponnese, today around 18 kilometers away from the Ionian Sea, but in antiquity half that distance.

The name Altis was derived from a corruption of the Elean word meaning "the grove" because the area was wooded and plane trees in particular. The Altis, as the sanctuary was known, was an irregular quadrangular area more than 200 yards on each side and walled except to the North where it was bounded by the Kronion. According to Pausanias, there were over 70 temples in total, as well as treasuries, altars and other structures dedicated to many deities. Somewhat in contrast to Delphi, where a similar large collection of monuments were packed within the tenemos boundary, Olympia sprawled beyond the boundary wall in the areas devoted to the games; the Altis consists of a somewhat disordered arrangement of buildings, the most important of which are the Temple of Hera, the Temple of Zeus, the Pelopion, the area of the great altar of Zeus, where the largest sacrifices were made. There was still a good deal of wooded areas inside the sanctuary. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the Prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city-states.

The Metroon lies with the Echo Stoa to the east. The hippodrome and stadium were located east of the Echo Stoa. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the bouleuterion, whereas the palaestra, the workshop of Pheidias, the gymnasion, the Leonidaion lie to the west. Olympia was known for the gigantic chryselephantine statue of Zeus, the cult image in his temple, sculpted by Pheidias, named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World by Antipater of Sidon. Close to the Temple of Zeus which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found; the ancient ruins sit south of Mount Kronos. The Kladeos, a tributary of the Alpheios, flows around the area. 1. Northwest Propylon, 2. Prytaneion, 3. Philippeion, 4. Temple of Hera, 5. Pelopion, 6. Nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus, 7. Metroon, 8. Treasuries, 9. Crypt, 10. Stadium, 11. Echo Stoa, 12. Building of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II, 13. Hestia stoa, 14. Hellenistic building, 15. Temple of Zeus, 16. Altar of Zeus, 17. Ex-voto of Achaeans, 18.

Ex-voto of Mikythos, 19. Nike of Paeonius, 20. Gymnasion, 21. Palaestra, 22. Theokoleon, 23. Heroon, 24. Pheidias' workshop and paleochristian basilica, 25. Baths of Kladeos, 26. Greek baths, 27. and 28. Hostels, 29. Leonidaion, 30. South baths, 31. Bouleuterion, 32. South stoa, 33. Villa of Nero. Treasuries. I. Sicyon, II. Syracuse, III. Epidamnus, IV. Byzantium, V. Sybaris, VI. Cyrene, VII. Unidentified, VIII. Altar, IX. Selinunte, X. Metapontum, XI. Megara, XII. Gela. For a history of the Olympic Games, see Olympic Games or Ancient Olympic Games, it used to be thought that the site had been occupied since about 1500 BC, with a religious cult of Zeus developing around 1000 BC. It may be that instead there was only a sanctuary from the 9th or 8th centuries, though the question remains in debate. Others believe that remains of food and burnt offerings dating back to the 10th century BC give evidence of a long history of religious activity at the site. No buildings have survived from this earliest period of use; the first Olympic festival was organized on the site by the authorities of Elis in the 8th century BC – with tradition dating the first games at 776 BC.

Major changes were made to the site including levelling land and digging new wells. Elis' power diminished and the sanctuary fell into the hands of the Pisatans in 676 BC; the Pisatans organized the games until the late 7th century BC. The earliest evidence of building activity on the site dates from around 600 BC. At this time the Skiloudians, allies of the Pistans, built the Temple of Hera; the Treasuries and the Pelopion were built during the course of the 6th century BC. The secular structures and athletic arenas were under construction during this period including the Bouleuterion; the first stadium was constructed around 560 BC, it consisted of just a simple track. The stadium was remodelled around 500 BC with sloping sides for spectators and shifted to the east. Over the course of the 6th century BC a range of sports were added to the Olympic festival. In 580 BC, Elis, in alliance wit

Der Frosch mit der Maske

Der Frosch mit der Maske, aka Face of the Frog, is a 1959 West German-Danish black-and-white crime film directed by Harald Reinl and starring Siegfried Lowitz and Joachim Fuchsberger. It was the first of a successful series of films based on works by Edgar Wallace produced by Rialto Film in West Germany; this film was adapted from the 1925 novel The Fellowship of the Frog. The film is adapted from Edgar Wallace's novel The Fellowship of the Frog. Previous versions were made in 1928 in the US and in 1937 in the UK, both titled The Mark of the Frog; the project was deemed risky, as so far no German crime film had succeeded at the box office after World War II. The initiative to try came from Waldfried Barthel, head of Constantin Film who approached his friend Preben Philipsen with the idea. Philipsen acquired the rights for the movie adaption of The Fellowship of the Frog and The Crimson Circle from Penelope Wallace, with an option on other novels by her father should the films be successful. Barthel decided on Reinl as director and fixed production cost at a maximum of 600,000 Deutsche Mark.

As scriptwriter the producer hired Egon Eis. Eis' script for the Frog, delivered in January 1959 under the nom de plume "Trygve Larsen", stuck to the novel. Jochen Joachim Bartsch, a friend of Reinl worked on the script; the "comic relief" character, played by Arent, was added by the script writers, he does not exist in the novel. Some characters were much reduced in significance, some were dropped altogether. Another change was making Fuchsberger's character the nephew of Sir Archibald, the head of Scotland Yard. In addition, the name for Brockmann's character was changed: in Wallace's novel he was called "Harry Lime". Since this had been the name of Orson Welles' character in Carol Reed's The Third Man, the producers decided to change it. Cinematography took place from 24 April to 9 June 1959; the studio for interiors was Palladium Atelier at Kopenhagen. Exteriors were shot in and around Kopenhagen. A small team, including Reinl and his director of cinematography Kalinke travelled to London for two days to shoot some stock footage to be used in back projection.

The FSK gave the film a rating of 16 years and up, unsuitable for screening on public holidays. Four scenes had to be cut to receive this rating and avoid an "adults only" one; the film premiered on 4 September 1959 at the Universum in Stuttgart. With an audience of 3 million in Germany the film was an extraordinary success; the film's box office success spawned the series of films by Rialto of 32 films that ran through 1972. The series influenced the style and content of German crime and mystery films throughout the 1960s, as well as giving rise to outright copycat films made by other studios such as Artur Brauner's CCC Film; the film made its DVD debut on 29 January 2008 by Infinity Entertainment Group as a part of The Edgar Wallace Collection which included several other adaptions of the works of writer Edgar Wallace. Face of the Frog on IMDb Der Frosch mit der Maske at AllMovie

Mary Caffrey Low

Mary Caffrey Low Carver was an American librarian and educator. She was one of the five founding members of the Sigma Kappa sorority and a pioneering advocate for women's education, along with being an accomplished library scientist and writer. Colby College, in Waterville, became the first New England college to admit women along with men when Low became the first female student at Colby in 1871, for two years remained the only one, she was joined by four other women, along with Elizabeth Gorham Hoag, Ida Fuller, Frances Elliott Mann Hall and Louise Helen Coburn, Low created Sigma Kappa sorority at Colby on November 9, 1874. Low was the first woman to appear on the rolls of Sigma Kappa and the first to preside over an initiation, she was the first woman to be invited to join the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society. As the only women enrolled in the college, the five of them found themselves together frequently. In 1873-74, the five young women decided to form a social society, they were instructed by the college administration that they would need to present a constitution and bylaws with a petition requesting permission to form Sigma Kappa Sorority.

They began work during that year and on November 9, 1874, the five young women received a letter from the faculty approving their petition. They sought for and received permission to form a sorority with the intent for the organization to become national. In July 1875, Low became the first female graduate of Colby College, at 25 years of age, she was the valedictorian of her class. She was one of the first women in America to receive a full-fledged Bachelor of Arts degree. In those days, it was not customary for women to give public speeches at solemn occasions such as graduation ceremonies, but Low gave the class prayer in Latin, but not the valedictory speech. Colby's website now calls her the "grandmother of coeducation at Colby."In "The History of Colby College," Ernest C. Marriner wrote, "No small part of the agitation that arose in regard to the retention of women in the College was prompted by the fact that they persistently ran away with the honors." In 1890, the president of Colby initiated a plan to divide women and men into separate classes at the college.

Low, along with Louise Coburn and 17 other women who had graduated from Colby, sent a petition protesting the move. The letter declared, "The issue is not whether men and women can recite together, whether men and women shall study this or that, it is the issue whether the men are willing to take the risk of having women surpass them in scholarship." Although Low wrote the letter, she wrote it in a way to make it appear that Coburn had, since Coburn came from a prominent family and Low did not. In the end, Colby did not go back to being coeducational until 1969. However, in honor of her achievements, Colby presented her with an honorary doctorate in 1916. By 1924, the school's student body consisted of two-thirds women, a fitting testimonial to Low's pioneering attitude for the school. After graduation, Low married Leonard D. Carver, who became the Maine state librarian in Augusta, she became a schoolteacher, she grew interested in the field of library science and became a librarian herself, beginning the first card catalogue of the Maine State Library.

She was an accomplished writer. Her daughter, was initiated into the Alpha chapter at Colby. Ruby Carver Emerson became National President of Sigma Kappa in 1935-36. Low was always interested in the future of her sorority; the chapter minutes of the 1880s and 1890s refer to the choosing of delegates to travel to the town of Augusta to consult Mrs. Carver on everything from the selection of furniture to the decision to extend Sigma Kappa beyond Colby. In life, Low lived with her daughter in Cambridge and delighted Boston Sigma Kappas with her wit, she offered toasts at the joint Delta/Omicron chapter initiation banquets. Mary was hearing-impaired, she died March 4, 1926, at the age of 75. Today, Sigma Kappa presents the Mary Caffrey Low Award to the most outstanding alumnae chapter in a college community. In addition, Colby College has honored her achievements by naming a residence hall, the Mary Low Residence Hall, after their first female graduate; the hall features the Mary Low Coffeehouse, a coffee shop that hosts poetry readings and open mic nights and serves as a general hangout for the student population at Colby.

Sigma Kappa Sorority official site