click links in text for more info


Olympias was the daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the sister of Alexander I of Epirus, the fourth wife of Philip II, the king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia and the mother of Alexander the Great. According to the 1st century AD biographer, she was a devout member of the orgiastic snake-worshiping cult of Dionysus, he suggests that she slept with snakes in her bed. Olympias was the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of the Molossians, an ancient Greek tribe in Epirus, sister of Alexander I, her family belonged to the Aeacidae, a well-respected family of Epirus, which claimed descent from Neoptolemus, son of Achilles. She was named Polyxena, as Plutarch mentions in his work Moralia, changed her name to Myrtale prior to her marriage to Philip II of Macedon as part of her initiation into an unknown mystery cult; the name Olympias was the third of four names. She took it as a recognition of Philip's victory in the Olympic Games of 356 BC, the news of which coincided with Alexander's birth.

She was named Stratonice, an epithet attached to Olympias following her victory over Eurydice in 317 BC. When Neoptolemus I died in 360 BC, his brother Arymbas succeeded him on the Molossian throne. In 358 BC, Arymbas made a treaty with the new king of Macedonia, Philip II, the Molossians became allies of the Macedonians; the alliance was cemented with a diplomatic marriage between Arymbas' niece and Philip in 357 BC. It made Olympias the queen consort of Macedonia, Philip the king. Philip had fallen in love with Olympias when both were initiated into the mysteries of Cabeiri at the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, on the island of Samothrace, though their marriage was political in nature. One year in 356 BC, Philip's race horse won in the Olympic Games. In the summer of the same year, Olympias gave birth to her first child, Alexander. In ancient Greece people believed; as Plutarch describes, the night before the consummation of their marriage, Olympias dreamed that a thunderbolt fell upon her womb and a great fire was kindled, its flames dispersed all about and were extinguished.

After the marriage Philip dreamed that he put a seal upon his wife's womb, the device of, the figure of a lion. Aristander's interpretation was that Olympias was pregnant of a son whose nature would be bold and lion-like. Philip and Olympias had a daughter, who married her uncle, Alexander I of Epirus, to further diplomatic ties between Macedonia and Epirus. According to primary sources, their marriage was stormy due to Philip's volatility and Olympias' ambition and alleged jealousy, which led to their growing estrangement. Things got more tumultuous in 337 BC when Philip married a noble Macedonian woman, the niece of Attalus, given the name Eurydice by Philip. At a gathering after the marriage, Philip failed to defend Alexander's claim to the Macedonian throne when Attalus threatened his legitimacy, causing great tensions between Philip and Alexander. Olympias went into voluntary exile in Epirus along with Alexander, staying at the Molossian court of her brother Alexander I, the king at the time.

In 336 BC, Philip cemented his ties to Alexander I of Epirus by offering him the hand of his and Olympias' daughter Cleopatra in marriage, a fact that led Olympias to further isolation as she could no longer count on her brother's support. However, Philip was murdered by Pausanias, a member of Philip's somatophylakes, his personal bodyguard, while attending the wedding, Olympias, who returned to Macedonia, was suspected of having countenanced his assassination. After the death of Philip II, Olympias ordered the execution of Eurydice and her child in order to secure Alexander's position as king of Macedonia. During Alexander's campaigns, she corresponded with him and may have confirmed her son's claim in Egypt that his father was not Philip but Zeus; the relationship between Olympias and Alexander was cordial, but her son tried to keep her away from politics. However, she wielded great influence in Macedonia and caused troubles to Antipater, the regent of the kingdom. In 330 BC, she returned to Epirus and served as a regent to her cousin Aeacides in the Epirote state, as her brother Alexander I had died during a campaign in southern Italy.

After Alexander the Great's death in Babylon in 323 BC, his wife Roxana gave birth to their son named Alexander IV. Alexander IV and with his uncle Philip III Arrhidaeus, the half brother of Alexander the Great who may have been disabled, were subject to the regency of Perdiccas, who tried to strengthen his position through a marriage with Antipater's daughter Nicaea. At the same time, Olympias offered Perdiccas Philip's daughter, Cleopatra. Perdiccas chose Cleopatra, which angered Antipater, who allied himself with several other Diadochi, deposed Perdiccas, was declared regent, only to die within the year. Polyperchon succeeded Antipater in 319 BC as regent, but Antipater's son Cassander established Philip II's son Philip III as king and forced Polyperchon out of Macedonia, he fled to Epirus, taking Roxana and her son Alexander IV with him, left in the care of Olympias. At the beginning, Olympias had not been involved in this conflict, but she soon realized that in the case of Cassander's rule, her grandson would lose the crown, so she allied with Polyperchon in 317 BC.

The Macedonian soldiers supported her return and the united armies of Polyperchon and Olym

AltCar Expo

AltCar Expo is the alternative energy and transportation expo in Santa Monica Civic Auditorium. Admission is free. In the 2008 Expo, the Chevrolet Volt prototype was seen by more than 15,000 people in Santa Monica at AltCar Expo. A123 Systems/Hymotion AC Propulsion Advanced Battery Systems American Custom Golf Cars American Honda Motor Company Ample Austin Energy Bad Boy Buggies Batteries Plus Better World Club Big Blue Bus California Department of Consumer Affairs California Green Designs California Energy Commission Canadian Electric Vehicles City of Santa Monica, Environmental Programs Division City of Santa Monica, Green Building Programs Coulomb Technologies Columbia Par Car Department of Consumer Affairs Earth Friendly Moving EcoLimo Elite Power Solutions, LLC e-ride Industries EF9 Energy Systems Electrorides Electric Blue Motors Euro Taxi Free Drive-Ev Inc General Motors Gimm Inc. Global Green Green Depot Green Earth Electric Vehicles Hi-Performance Golf Cars, Inc International Environmental Solutions Invest Green Jungle Motors Los Angeles County Bike Coalition Los Angeles Times Might-e-truck Miles Electric Vehicles National Biodiesel Board Petersen Automotive Museum Plug In America Plug in Partners Prometheus Systems REC Solar Rent A Green Box Revolution USA Roush Industries Inc.

Santa Monica Ford Segway, Los Angeles Skeuter Society of Automotive Engineers Solar Santa Monica South Coast Air Quality Management District Southern California Edison Southern California Transit Advocates States Logistics Service Inc. Sustainable Transport Club Sustainable Works Studio MFT, INC T3 Motion, Inc. Inc. Taxi! Taxi! Tellurian BioDiesel, Inc; the Bikerowave The Electric Car Company of Long Beach The Transit Coalition Tom's Truck Center Toyota TrioBike Union of Concerned Scientists Vantage Vehicle International, Inc. Zero Motorcycles Alternative propulsion Official website

Palpal bulb

The two palpal bulbs – known as palpal organs and genital bulbs – are the copulatory organs of a male spider. They are borne on the last segment of the pedipalps, giving the spider an appearance described as like wearing boxing gloves; the palpal bulb does not produce sperm, being used only to transfer it to the female. Palpal bulbs are only developed in adult male spiders and are not visible until after the final moult. In the majority of species of spider, the bulbs have complex shapes and are important in identification; the palpal bulb of a mature male spider is borne on the last segment of the pedipalp. This segment has touch-sensitive hairs with nerves leading to them; the bulb itself is without nerves, hence without sensory organs and muscles, since these depend on nerves for their functioning, although some spiders have one or two muscles external to the bulb and connected to it by tendons. The bulb contains a tube or duct coiled, open near the tip of the bulb and closed at the other end, in which sperm is stored before being used to inseminate a female.

The closed end may be expanded, forming a "fundus". The tube opens via a narrow tip, the "embolus"; the palpal bulbs are only developed in adult male spiders. They develop within the end segment of the palp, are only visible after the final moult. In some species, apart from carrying the palpal bulb, the tarsus is unchanged. In most species, the tarsus changes shape and forms a hollow structure which surrounds and protects the bulb, it is called a "cymbium". The structure of the palpal bulb varies widely. Most species have a bulb made up of three groups of hardened parts, separated from the rest of the palp and one another by elastic sacs called "haematodochae"; the haematodochae are collapsed and more-or-less hidden between the groups of sclerites, but they can be expanded by haemolymph being pumped in, thus causing the sclerites to move and separate. In some groups of spiders the bulb is reduced to a single pear-shaped structure. By contrast, members of the Entelegynae have evolved elaborate palpal bulbs, with multiple complexly shaped sclerites.

Spider specialists have developed a detailed terminology to describe the kind of palpal bulb found in most spiders. Starting from the end nearest the head: the cymbium is the modified tarsus of the palp the basal haematodocha or proximal haematodocha separates the cymbium from the following group of sclerites the subtegulum is the main sclerite in the first group the median haematodocha separates the subtegulum from the next group of sclerites the tegulum is the main sclerite in the second group, along with the median apophysis and the conductor the distal haematodocha separates the tegulum from the final group of sclerites the embolus is the main part of the third and final group of sclerites Other sclerites and "protrusions" may be present; the diversity of entelegyne palpal bulbs makes it difficult to be sure that structures given the same name have the same origin. This applies in particular to the "median apophysis". In mesothele spiders, whose palpal bulbs have the same basic structure as those of entelegyne spiders, the name contrategulum has been used in preference to "median apophysis" for the sclerite following the tegulum.

The palpal bulb is moved during courtship and copulation. In mesothele spiders, such as Liphistius and Heptathela, there are two muscles, originating lower in the pedipalp, that attach by tendons to parts of the bulb and help to move it, the soft haematodochae allowing both movement and expansion; the same two muscles are present in mygalomorphs. In araneomorph spiders there is a trend towards loss of muscles and greater development of the basal haematodocha. Most non-entelegyne araneomorphs have both muscles. Like most arachnids, spiders have internal fertilization by indirect sperm transfer; the tubular testes of a male spider, which produce sperm, are located in the abdomen. Sperm is exuded from the gonopore of the male and deposited on the top surface of a small "sperm web", constructed for this sole purpose; the male moves to the underside of the sperm web and takes up the sperm into the sperm ducts of the palpal bulbs, either through the base of the web or around its side. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain.

Capillary action and gravity are two possibilities. Where the sperm duct has rigid walls, removal of the liquid via the epithelium surrounding them may suck sperm into the duct; the reverse mechanism may explain. In other species with more flexible duct walls, changes in pressure of the surrounding haemolymph may be involved. In most spiders only the end of the bulb – the embolus – is inserted into a female pore during copulation before the sperm is ejaculated. In a minority of spiders with simple palps, most or all of the bulb is inserted. Since the palpal bulbs lack sensory organs, the male faces difficulties in ensuring the correct positioning of the palpal bulbs relative to the female, difficulties which have been described as like "those of a person attempting to adjust a complex, delicate mechanism in the dark, using an elongate, elabor

Steve Bren

Steve Bren is a former American racing driver from Newport Beach, Calif ornia. Bren is the son of Diane and Donald Bren and chairman of the US-based real estate investment company, the Irvine Company, his paternal grandfather was Hollywood movie producer Milton H. Bren. After a successful stint in US Formula Super Vee in 1985, Bren moved to the new American Racing Series in 1986. While he only participated in four races, he was competitive in all his ARS starts; that year he completed rookie orientation for the Indianapolis 500 but could not find a ride to make a qualification attempt. He made two one-off starts in the CART Championship Car series in 1988 at Laguna Seca Raceway and 1990 at Long Beach, however he failed to finish either race. Steve's brother Cary drove in Super Vee and Indy Lights. Bren became a property developer and art collector. Bren has been married twice: In 1988, he married model Thais Baker in a Roman Catholic ceremony, they subsequently divorced in the 1990s. In July 2010, he married Erica Spangler of Hawaii.

Bren and Erica have Bella Rose Bren born in Ketchum, Idaho. In 2017, Bren was in trouble with the law for stalking Spangler in Idaho and held in contempt of court for failing to appear at a civil case where he owes creditors over $5 million as part of his real estate developments. Bren said he could not pay because he was in rehab for drug and alcohol addiction

Pinky the Cat

Pinky the Cat is a video that aired on several American reality television programs in the 1990s before it achieved additional fame on the internet as a viral video in the 2000s. The video clip shows a cat attacking an animal control officer during a promotional message for pet adoption for an animal shelter in Placer County, California; the video footage was taped by Placer County Animal Control sometime in the early 1990s. The recording was intended as a promotional video for the county's "Pet of the Week" pet adoption program. Sometime before 1992, then-police chief Willie Weatherford distributed copies of the tape—which he named "Pinky the Cat"—to the media and his friends. Video clips from the full version of Pinky the Cat aired throughout the 1990s on television in the United States; the American television network ABC showed clips from the video on TV's Funniest Commercials and on Real Funny hosted by comedian Craig Shoemaker, where the clip was introduced as a public service announcement.

CBS aired clips on The World's Most Dangerous Animals III. In that program, a voice-over cautions that "sometimes the animals we should fear the most are those we expect the least" and shows a "house cat named Pinky going berserk and sinking his teeth deep into a man's thigh." Pinky the Cat is featured on World's Most Amazing Videos and Maximum Exposure. Animal control officer Carl Pritchard kneels on the ground while petting a cat on a leash in a recording of a pet adoption video for an animal shelter. Pritchard introduces the cat as "Pinky" and describes him as a domestic shorthair, a "very loving cat". Pinky becomes agitated and leaps out of the hands of Pritchard and onto the ground and jumping around in all directions as he tries to break free from the leash. Still holding the leash but not wanting to pick up the "wildcat", Pritchard asks someone to retrieve a catchpole. In the confusion, Colleen Maguire, the director of animal control, arrives to help Pritchard capture Pinky and tries to corral him into a cardboard pet carrier.

Pinky continues to dart around frantically, tangling the leash around Pritchard's leg in the process. Pinky decides to pounce, launching himself towards Pritchard's right leg and twisting his body around Pritchard's upper thigh. Pinky grabs onto Pritchard's leg with all four of its clawed paws and bites into the flesh near the groin. Pritchard screams once, Pinky digs in again, this time with his tail twitching, making Pritchard scream a second time. With renewed effort, Pinky is removed from Pritchard's leg and the cat runs away. "Son of a bitch", Pritchard whispers, followed by a polite "excuse my language", as he doubles over in pain clutching his leg. NBC reporter George Lewis ran a story featuring Pinky the Cat on June 28, 2006; the story highlighted the popularity of several different internet memes. Lewis described the video as "an animal shelter adopt-a-pet video gone wrong as Pinky flips out and fails to show that loving side". Two days producer Gena Fitzgerald followed-up with a column in The Daily Nightly, the official blog of NBC Nightly News.

Fitzgerald wondered about Pinky's fate and if the cat was adopted. Pinky the Cat appeared on CNN during "The Shot" segment on Anderson Cooper 360° for March 16, 2007; the segment began as Anderson Cooper ran a related video of a cat that attacked WJW's Kathleen Cochrane during a live report. In response to Cochrane's video, correspondent Erica Hill upped the ante: "That's bad, but you know what? I'd like to raise you Pinky the cat. Take a look." After the video rolled, Hill added, "Pinky's a loving cat all right!"Keith Olbermann was inspired by the YouTube Awards to start an "annual best of stuff we found on the Internets awards". On March 30, 2007, Olbermann appeared on the MSNBC news commentary program, Countdown with Keith Olbermann, bestowed a "Keithie" award on the Pinky the Cat video. Commenting on the award, Olbermann said, "Ahh, Pinky, we‘re sure you were adopted by a loving family; the officer now can't have a family."In a 2007 article in Film Comment, American cartoonist Matt Groening revealed that one of his favorite YouTube videos is "the immortal Pinky the Cat."

A film clip Pinky the Cat is available at the Internet Archive Pinky the Cat on YouTube

Emil Victor Langlet

Emil Victor Langlet was a Swedish architect. He is most associated with his design for the Norwegian Parliament Building in Oslo, Norway. Langlet was born in Sweden, he was educated at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg and at the Royal Institute of Art, Stockholm where he trained under Per Axel Nyström. From 1850, he attended the École des Beaux-arts in Paris where he trained under Guillaume-Abel Blouet, he first made his mark when designing the Norwegian Parliament Building, built between 1861–1866. He drew plans the Fredrikstad Town Hall and the Fredrikstad Hospital, several villas and Sagatun, the first folk high school in Norway. After 1866 he returned to Sweden, where he oversaw the construction of twelve churches, including Erska Church in Sollebrunn, he still drew the occasional building in Norway, including Hartvig Nissens Girls' School in Oslo and Drammen Theater. From 1867, he was included in the editorial staff of the engineering publication Tidskrift för byggkunkonst og ingeniørskennis.

He took the position of editor in 1871. He was an instructor at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, he was given responsibility for the Stockholm Royal Palace. From 1884 to 1886 he led the works for the preservation of the medieval Visby City Wall. From 1886 to 1893 was the building manager for the restoration of the 13th century Uppsala Cathedral. Emil Victor Langlet was married to translator Clara Mathilda Ulrika Clementine Söderén, they were the parents of civil engineer Filip Langlet, chemist Abraham Langlet, painter Alexander Langlet and author Valdemar Langlet