Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in France; the modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The original five Winter Olympic sports were bobsleigh, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, skating; the Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936, interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II, resumed in 1948. Until 1992, the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year, in accordance with the 1986 decision by the IOC to place the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years, the next Winter Olympic Games after 1992 were held in 1994.
The Winter Olympic Games have evolved since their inception. Sports and disciplines have been added and some of them, such as Alpine skiing, short track speed skating, freestyle skiing and snowboarding, have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic programme; some others, including curling and bobsleigh, have been discontinued and reintroduced. Still others, such as speed skiing and skijoring, were demonstration sports but never incorporated as Olympic sports; the rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It generated income via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising, which has become lucrative for the IOC; this allowed outside interests, such as television companies and corporate sponsors, to exert influence. The IOC has had to address numerous criticisms over the decades like internal scandals, the use of performance-enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians, as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympic Games. Countries have used the Winter Olympic Games as well as the Summer Olympic Games to proclaim the superiority of their political systems.
The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents by twelve different countries. They have been held four times in the United States, three times in France and twice each in Austria, Japan, Italy and Switzerland; the Winter Olympic Games have been held just once each in Germany and Herzegovina, Russia and South Korea. The IOC has selected Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, the host of the 2026 Winter Olympics will be selected on June 23, 2019; as of 2018, no city in the Southern Hemisphere has applied to host the cold-weather-dependent Winter Olympic Games, which are held in February at the height of the Southern Hemisphere's summer. To date, twelve countries have participated in every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Great Britain, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the United States. Six of these countries have won medals at every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Norway and the United States; the only country to have won a gold medal at every Winter Olympic Games is the United States.
Germany leads the all-time medal table of the Winter Olympic Games both on number of gold and overall medals won, followed by Norway and the United States. A predecessor, the Nordic Games, were organised by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and every fourth year thereafter until 1926. Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin, he attempted to have winter sports figure skating, added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Four figure skating events were contested, at which Ulrich Salchow and Madge Syers won the individual titles. Three years Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden; the organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports.
The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Germany. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I; the first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Summer Olympics, were held in Antwerp and featured figure skating and an ice hockey tournament. Germany, Hungary and Turkey were banned from competing in the games. At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics, would host a separate "International Winter Sports Week" under the patronage of the IOC. Chamonix was chosen to host this "week" of events; the games proved to be
Pan American Games
The Pan American Games is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, every four years in the year before the Summer Olympic Games; the only Winter Pan American Games were held in 1990. And from 2021, there would be a Junior Pan American Games for young athletes; the Pan American Sports Organization is the governing body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter. The XVII Pan American Games were held in Toronto from July 10–26, 2015. Since 2007, host cities are contracted to manage both the Pan American and the Parapan American Games, in which athletes with physical disabilities compete with one another; the Parapan American Games are held following the Pan American Games. The Pan American Games Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees that are recognized by PASO, organizing committees for each specific Pan American Games.
As the decision-making body, PASO is responsible for choosing the host city for each Pan American Games. The host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter and rules; the Pan American Games program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is determined by PASO. The celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the flag and torch, the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Pan American Games in nearly 400 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive gold and bronze medals, respectively. The idea of holding a Pan American Games was first raised at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, where Latin American representatives of the International Olympic Committee suggested that a competition among all the countries in the Americas should be created; the first event called the Pan American Games took place in Dallas in 1937 as part of the Greater Texas & Pan-American Exposition, but it attracted so little attention it has never counted in the records of the competition.
At the first Pan American Sports Congress, held in Buenos Aires in 1940, the participants decided that the first games should be held in Buenos Aires in 1942. The plans had to be postponed because of World War II. A second Pan American Sports Congress held in London during the 1948 Summer Olympics reconfirmed Buenos Aires as the choice of host city for the inaugural games, which were held in 1951; the games offered 18 sports. Countries that were part of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada did not compete at the first Pan American Games; the second games were held in Mexico. Competitions started on March 12 and included 2,583 athletes from 22 countries, competing in 17 sports; the Pan American Games have been held subsequently every four years. While the inaugural 1951 Games hosted 2,513 participants representing 14 nations, the most recent 2015 Pan American Games involved 6,132 competitors from 41countries. During the games most athletes and officials are housed in the Pan American Games village.
This village is intended to be a self-contained home for all the participants. It is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, locations for religious expression. PASO allows nations to compete that do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organizations demand; as a result and dependencies are permitted to set up their own National Olympic Committees. Examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico and Bermuda which compete as separate nations despite being under the jurisdiction of another power. There have been attempts to hold Winter Pan American Games throughout the history of the games, but these have had little success. An initial attempt to hold winter events was made by the organizers of the 1951 Pan American Games in Buenos Aires, who planned to stage winter events in the year but dropped the idea due to lack of interest. Reliable winter snow in the Americas is limited to the United States and Canada. Andean winter weather is fickle, higher elevation areas in South America with annual snow lack the infrastructure to host major sporting events.
Another difficulty is that the Americas cover two hemispheres, which creates scheduling issues related to reverse seasons. Lake Placid, New York tried to organize Winter Games in 1959 but, not enough countries expressed interest; the plans were cancelled. In 1988, members of PASO voted to hold the first Pan American Winter Games at Las Leñas, Argentina in September 1989, it was further agreed. Lack of snow however, forced the postponement of the games until September 16–22, 1990 when only eight countries sent 97 athletes to Las Leñas. Of that total, 76 were from just three countries: Argentina and the United States. Weather was unseasonably warm and again there was little snow, so only three Alpine Skiing events – the Slalom, Giant Slalom, Super G were staged; the United States and Canada won all 18 medals. PASO awarded the second Pan American Winter Games to Santiago, Chile for 1993; the United States warned. The Santiago organizing committee gave up on planning the Games after the United States Olympic Committee declined to participate, the idea has not been revived since.
On 16 January 2019 PASO announced the creation of the Juni
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
Special Olympics World Games
The Special Olympics World Games are an international sporting competition for athletes with intellectual disabilities, organized by the IOC-recognised Special Olympics organisation. Although local Special Olympics events and competitions are held around the world every day, the World Games are flagship events; the goal is to showcase the skills and accomplishments of people with intellectual disabilities on a global stage. The World Games feature more than a week of competitions involving thousands of athletes. Through media coverage of the Games, the stories and achievements of children and adults with intellectual disabilities are made known to millions of people worldwide. Special Olympics World Games take place every two years and alternate between Summer and Winter Games, a schedule similar to the Olympics and Paralympics. Attracting as many as 350,000 volunteers and coaches, plus several thousands of athletes, these World Games can be the world's largest sporting event of the year. Special Olympics athletes can compete in 32 Olympic-style winter sports.
The athletes are adults and children with intellectual disabilities who can range from gifted, world-class competitors to average athletes to those with limited physical ability. It's a fundamental rule of Special Olympics competitions that athletes are matched up according to their ability and age; this “divisioning” process is an effort to make every competition fair and exciting for athletes as well as fans. The first International Special Olympics Summer Games were held in Chicago, Illinois, US, in 1968, while the first International Special Olympics Winter Games were held in February 1977 in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, US. In 1991, the name was changed from International Special Olympics Summer/Winter Games to Special Olympics World Summer/Winter Games. In 2011, Special Olympics World Summer Games were held on June 25 – July 4 in Athens, involving 6,000 athletes with intellectual disabilities from 170 countries. In 2013, the Special Olympics World Winter Games were held in PyeongChang, South Korea from Jan. 29 – Feb. 5.
The Host Town program, in which families host Special Olympics athletes from around the world t 13. In 2015 Special Olympics World Summer Games; these games were the first Special Olympics World Summer Games held in the United States in 16 years since the 1999 Summer Games held in Raleigh, North Carolina. In 2017 Special Olympics World Winter Games in Schladming in Styria, Austria; this marked a return: Salzburg and Schladming, Austria hosted the fifth Special Olympics World Winter Games in 1993. These were the first Special Olympics; the 2017 World Winter Games were held on March 14-25, 2017. The recent Special Olympics World Summer Games were held March 14-21, 2019 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; these were the first Special Olympics. Competitions were held in 24 sports. Åre and Östersund,Sweden will host the next World Winter Games between February 2 to 13, 2021. It will mark the first time that Sweden has hosted the Special Olympics World Games. Berlin, Germany will host the next World Summer Games in 2023.
It will mark the first time that Germany has hosted the Special Olympics World Games
131st IOC Session
The 131st IOC Session took place between September 13 – September 16, 2017 at the Lima Convention Centre in Lima, Peru. The host cities for the 2024 Summer Olympics and the 2028 Summer Olympics were elected during the 131st IOC Session on September 13, 2017. Lima, was selected as session host by the IOC general assembly over Helsinki, Finland, by 54 votes to 30. Two Olympic host city elections took place at the 131st IOC Session; the host cities of the 2024 and 2028 Summer Olympics were elected. The only candidate city for the 2024 Summer Olympics, France, was elected during the 131st IOC Session; the two French IOC members, Guy Drut and Tony Estanguet were not eligible to vote in this host city election under the rules of the Olympic Charter. Candidate city Paris The only candidate city for the 2028 Summer Olympics, Los Angeles, United States, was elected during the 131st IOC Session; the three American IOC members, Anita DeFrantz, Angela Ruggiero and Larry Probst were not eligible to vote in this host city election under the rules of the Olympic Charter.
Candidate city Los Angeles Milan was elected as the host city of the 134th IOC Session in 2019. The 134th IOC Session will see the election of the host of the 2026 Winter Olympics. Candidate city Milan Eight new IOC members were elected at the session; the eight new members who were elected are: Baklai Temengil Kristin Kloster Aasen Khunying Patama Leeswadtrakul Luis Mejía Oviedo Neven Iván Ilic Álvarez Khalid Muhammad Al Zubair Jean-Christophe Rolland Ingmar De Vos Two IOC members were elected to the IOC Executive Board at the session. Denis Oswald and Nicole Hoevertsz were elected to the executive board. Anita DeFrantz was elected to a four-year term as a vice-president, succeeding John Coates, who concluded his term as a vice-president. New members were appointed. Ban Ki-moon: chairman Angela Ruggiero Hanqin Xue Samuel Schmid Robin Mitchell 125th IOC Session 128th IOC Session 130th IOC Session 132nd IOC Session
An Olympic medal is awarded to successful competitors at one of the Olympic Games. There are three classes of medal: gold, awarded to the winner; the granting of awards is laid out in detail in the Olympic protocols. Medal designs have varied since the first Olympic Games in 1896 in size and weight. A standard obverse design of the medals for the Summer Olympic Games began in 1928 and remained for many years, until its replacement at the 2004 Games as the result of controversy surrounding the use of the Roman Colosseum rather than a building representing the Games' Greek roots; the medals of the Winter Olympic Games never had a common design, but feature snowflakes and the event where the medal has been won. In addition to supporting their Olympic athletes, some countries provide sums of money and gifts to medal winners, depending on the classes and number of medals won. Total medals won are used to rank competitor nations in medal tables, these may be compiled for a specific discipline, for a particular Games, or over all time.
These totals always total event placements rather than actual medals — a victory in a team event equates to a single gold for such rankings though each team member would receive a physical medal. The olive wreath was the prize for the winner at the Ancient Olympic Games, it was an olive branch, off the wild-olive tree that grew at Olympia, intertwined to form a circle or a horse-shoe. According to Pausanias it was introduced by Heracles as a prize for the winner of the running race to honour Zeus; when the modern Olympic Games began in 1896 medals started to be given to successful olympian competitors. However, gold medals were not awarded at the inaugural Olympics in 1896 in Greece; the winners were instead given a silver medal and an olive branch, while runners-up received a laurel branch and a copper or bronze medal. In 1900, most winners received trophies instead of medals; the custom of the sequence of gold and bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri in the United States.
The International Olympic Committee has retroactively assigned gold and bronze medals to the three best placed athletes in each event of the 1896 and 1900 Games. If there is a tie for any of the top three places all competitors are entitled to receive the appropriate medal according to IOC rules; some combat sports award two bronze medals per competition, resulting in, more bronze medals being awarded than the other colours. Medals are not the only awards given to competitors. At the main host stadium, the names of all medal winners are written onto a wall; as noted below, all athletes receive a participation medal and diploma. The IOC dictates the physical properties of the medals and has the final decision about the finished design. Specifications for the medals are developed along with the National Olympic Committee hosting the Games, though the IOC has brought in some set rules: Recipients: The top three competitors receive medals Shape: Usually circular, featuring an attachment for a chain or ribbon Diameter: A minimum of 60 mm Thickness: A minimum of 3 mm Material: First place: It is composed at least 92.5% of silver, plated with 6 grams of gold.
Second place: 92.5 % silver. Third place: It is 97.0% copper with 0.5% tin and 2.5% zinc. Event details: The sport for which the medal has been awarded should be written on the medalThe first Olympic medals in 1896 were designed by French sculptor Jules-Clément Chaplain and depicted Zeus holding Nike, the Greek goddess of victory, on the obverse and the Acropolis on the reverse, they were made by the Paris Mint, which made the medals for the 1900 Olympic Games, hosted by Paris. This started the tradition of giving the responsibility of minting the medals to the host city. For the next few Olympiads the host city chose the medal design; until 1912 the gold medals were made of solid gold. In 1923 the International Olympic Committee launched a competition for sculptors to design the medals for the Summer Olympic Games. Giuseppe Cassioli's Trionfo design was chosen as the winner in 1928; the obverse brought back Nike but this time as the main focus, holding a winner's crown and palm with a depiction of the Colosseum in the background.
In the top right section of the medal a space was left for the name of the Olympic host and the Games numeral. The reverse features a crowd of people carrying a triumphant athlete, his winning design was first presented at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. The competition saw this design used for 40 years until the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich became the first Games with a different design for the reverse side of the medal. Cassioli's design continued to inspire the obverse of the medal for many more years, though recreated each time, with the Olympic host and numeral updated; the obverse remained true to the Trionfo design until the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, where the IOC allowed an updated version to be created. For the next few events they allowed other aspects to change; the trend ended in 2004 due to the negative publicity in reaction to the design of medal for the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Wojciech Pietranik, the designer of the medal, along with the organisers of the Games were criticised by the Greek press for using the Roman Colosseum rather than the Greek Parthenon.
Pietranik's original design had featured the Sydn
The Olympic symbols are icons and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee to elevate the Olympic Games. Some—such as the flame and theme—are more used during Olympic competition, but others, such as the flags, can be seen throughout the years; the Olympic flag was created under the guidance of Baron Coubertin in 1913 and was released in 1914. But it was first hoisted in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium at the 1920 Summer Olympics in the main stadium. Five rings equal the Five continents of the world; the Olympic motto is the hendiatris Citius, Fortius, Latin for "Faster, Stronger". It was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin upon the creation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894. Coubertin borrowed it from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest, an athletics enthusiast. Coubertin said "These three words represent a programme of moral beauty; the aesthetics of sport are intangible." The motto was introduced in 1924 at the Olympic Games in Paris. A more informal but well-known motto introduced by Coubertin, is "The most important thing is not to win but to take part!"
Coubertin got this motto from a sermon by the Bishop of Pennsylvania during the 1908 London Games. The rings are five interlocking rings, coloured blue, black and red on a white field, known as the "Olympic rings"; the symbol was designed in 1912 by de Coubertin. He appears to have intended the rings to represent the five continents: Europe, Africa and America. According to Coubertin, the colours of the rings together with the white of the background included the colours composing every competing nation's flag at the time. Upon its initial introduction, Coubertin stated the following in the August 1912 edition of Olympique:... the six colours combined in this way reproduce the colours of every country without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the tricolour flags of France, the United States, Belgium and Hungary, the yellow and red of Spain are included, as are the innovative flags of Brazil and Australia, those of ancient Japan and modern China; this is an international emblem.
In his article published in the Olympic Revue the official magazine of the International Olympic Committee in November 1992, the American historian Robert Barney explains that the idea of the interlaced rings came to Pierre de Coubertin when he was in charge of the USFSA, an association founded by the union of two French sports associations and until 1925, responsible for representing the International Olympic Committee in France: The emblem of the union was two interlaced rings and the idea of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung: for him, the ring symbolized continuity and the human being. The 1914 Congress was suspended due to the outbreak of World War I, but the symbol and flag were adopted, they debuted at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. The symbol's popularity and widespread use began during the lead-up to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Carl Diem, president of the Organizing Committee of the 1936 Summer Olympics, wanted to hold a torchbearers' ceremony in the stadium at Delphi, site of the famous oracle, where the Pythian Games were held.
For this reason he ordered construction of a milestone with the Olympic rings carved in the sides, that a torchbearer should carry the flame along with an escort of three others from there to Berlin. The ceremony was celebrated but the stone was never removed. Two American authors and Gray Poole, when visiting Delphi in the late 1950s, saw the stone and reported in their History of the Ancient Games that the Olympic rings design came from ancient Greece; this has become known as "Carl Diem's Stone". This created a myth; the current view of the International Olympic Committee is that the symbol "reinforces the idea" that the Olympic Movement is international and welcomes all countries of the world to join. As can be read in the Olympic Charter, the Olympic symbol represents the union of the "five continents" of the world and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. However, no continent is represented by any specific ring. Prior to 1951, the official handbook stated that each colour corresponded to a particular continent: blue for Europe, yellow for Asia, black for Africa, green for Australia and Oceania, red for the Americas.
The logo of the Association of National Olympic Committees places the logo of each of its five continental associations inside the ring of the corresponding colour. The Olympic flag was created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1913; the Olympic flag has a white background, with five interlaced rings in the centre: blue, black and red. This design is symbolic. There are specific Olympic flags that are displayed by cities that will be hosting the next Olympic games. During each Olympic closing ceremony in what is traditionally known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the flag is passed from the mayor of one host city to the next host, where it will be taken to the new host and displayed at city hall; these flags should not be confused with the larger Olympic flags designed and created for each games, which are flown over the host stadium and retired. Because there is no specific flag for this purp