The Olympic Order is the highest award of the Olympic Movement and is awarded for distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, i.e. recognition of efforts worthy of merit in the cause of sport. It was established in May 1975 by the International Olympic Committee as a successor to the Olympic Certificate; the Olympic Order had three grades. In 1984, at the 87th IOC Session in Sarajevo, it was decided that in future there would be no distinction between the silver and bronze order; the gold order would continue to be awarded in exceptional circumstances. Traditionally, the IOC bestows the Olympic Order upon the chief national organiser at the closing ceremony of each respective Olympic Games; the insignia of the Olympic Order is in the form of a collar, in Gold, Silver or Bronze according to grade. A lapel badge, in the form of the five rings in Gold and Bronze according to grade, is presented to recipients to wear as appropriate. Nadia Comăneci is the only athlete to be awarded the Olympic Order twice.
She is the youngest recipient of Olympic Order since 1984 when she was only 23 years old at the time of award. The following is a list of recipients of the Olympic Order. Following is the list of recipients of Olympic Order with some missing data like year of award and colour of award. Olympic Symbols Bertoni, Milano Recipients of the Olympic Order Olympic Cup Pierre de Coubertin Medal Media related to Olympic Order at Wikimedia Commons
President of the International Olympic Committee
The President of the International Olympic Committee is head of the Executive Board that assumes the general overall responsibility for the administration of the International Olympic Committee and the management of its affairs. The IOC Executive Board consists of four Vice-Presidents and ten other IOC members; the IOC organizes the modern Olympic Games, held every two years, alternating summer and winter Games. The IOC President holds the office for a term of eight years, renewable once for another four years, so would expect to lead the organization of at least two Summer Olympic Games and two Winter Olympic Games. If reelected, the President is expected to lead through three of each season Olympics; the IOC's first idea was that the country, holding the games would assume the role of president. However this idea was abandoned; the Baron de Coubertin had attempted to restart the Olympic Games at the congress for the fifth anniversary of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques in 1892.
While he may have raised the enthusiasm of the public, he did not manage to establish a proper commitment. He decided to reiterate his efforts at the next congress in 1894, which would address the issue of amateur sports, but with the sub-text of recreating the Olympic Games. Six of the seven points that would be debated pertained to amateurism and the seventh point concerned the possibility of restoring the Games. Coubertin sought to give an international dimension to his congress. De Coubertin gained support from several personalities: the King of the Belgians. Phokianos was one of the advocates of sport in Greece. Phokianos could not travel to Paris for financial reasons and because he was finalizing the construction of his new college. Instead, de Coubertin turned to one of the more eminent representatives of the Greek community in Paris—Demetrios Vikelas—whom he invited to take part in the congress. Athens was approved to host the 1896 Olympic Games, being the original home of the Olympics, Vikelas was duly chosen as the first President of the IOC.
Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, took over the IOC presidency when Demetrius Vikelas stepped down after the Olympics in his own country. Despite its initial success, the Olympic Movement faced hard times, as the 1900 Games and 1904 Games were both upstaged by World's Fairs—Exposition Universelle in 1900 and Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904—and received little attention; the 1906 Intercalated Games revived the momentum, the Olympic Games grew to become the most important sports event. De Coubertin created the modern pentathlon for the 1912 Summer Olympics, he subsequently stepped down from the IOC presidency after the 1924 Summer Olympics, which proved much more successful than the first attempt in Paris in 1900. He was succeeded as IOC President in 1925 by Belgian Henri de Baillet-Latour. De Coubertin remained Honorary President of the IOC until his death in 1937 in Switzerland. Henri, Comte de Baillet-Latour was elected IOC President in 1925, after the founder of the modern Olympic Movement, Baron de Coubertin, stepped down from the post to become Honorary President.
The Comte led the IOC until his death in 1942, when he was succeeded by his Vice-President Sigfrid Edström. When IOC president Henri de Baillet-Latour died in 1942, Swedish industrialist Sigfrid Edström took over as the acting president until the end of World War II, when he was formally elected IOC President, he played an important role in reviving the Olympic Movement after the war. In 1931, Edström was involved in the controversial decision to ban legendary Finnish runner Paavo Nurmi from competing at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, as the IOC considered Nurmi to be a professional athlete; this had a negative effect on Finland's relationship with Sweden, as Nurmi was a celebrated national hero in his own country. Edström was succeeded by Avery Brundage. Avery Brundage became vice-president of the IOC in 1945 and was subsequently elected president in 1952, at the 47th IOC Session in Helsinki, succeeding Sigfrid Edström. While he was being considered for this honor, Brundage fathered two sons with a woman to whom he was not married.
During his tenure as IOC president, Brundage opposed any form of professionalism in the Olympic Games. This opinion became less accepted by the sports world and other IOC members, but his opinions led to some embarrassing incidents, such as the exclusion of Austrian skier Karl Schranz from the 1972 Winter Olympics, he opposed the restoration of Olympic medals to Native American athlete Jim Thorpe, stripped of the medals when he was found to have played semi-professional baseball before taking part in the 1912 Summer Olympics. Despite this, Brundage accepted the "shamateurism" from Eastern Bloc countries, in which team members were nominally students, soldiers, or civilians working in a non-sports profession, but in reality were paid by their states to train on a full-time basis. Brundage claimed
The Olympic Cup is an award given annually by the International Olympic Committee. It was instituted by Pierre de Coubertin in 1906 and is awarded to an institution or association with a record of merit and integrity in developing the Olympic Movement, its recipients have included amateur sports clubs, schools and national sporting administrations, though it is awarded to groups connected with the organization of the Olympic Games. Olympic Order Pierre de Coubertin medal IOC Official Website List of recipients to 1948
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
The Olympic symbols are icons and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee to elevate the Olympic Games. Some—such as the flame and theme—are more used during Olympic competition, but others, such as the flags, can be seen throughout the years; the Olympic flag was created under the guidance of Baron Coubertin in 1913 and was released in 1914. But it was first hoisted in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium at the 1920 Summer Olympics in the main stadium. Five rings equal the Five continents of the world; the Olympic motto is the hendiatris Citius, Fortius, Latin for "Faster, Stronger". It was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin upon the creation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894. Coubertin borrowed it from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest, an athletics enthusiast. Coubertin said "These three words represent a programme of moral beauty; the aesthetics of sport are intangible." The motto was introduced in 1924 at the Olympic Games in Paris. A more informal but well-known motto introduced by Coubertin, is "The most important thing is not to win but to take part!"
Coubertin got this motto from a sermon by the Bishop of Pennsylvania during the 1908 London Games. The rings are five interlocking rings, coloured blue, black and red on a white field, known as the "Olympic rings"; the symbol was designed in 1912 by de Coubertin. He appears to have intended the rings to represent the five continents: Europe, Africa and America. According to Coubertin, the colours of the rings together with the white of the background included the colours composing every competing nation's flag at the time. Upon its initial introduction, Coubertin stated the following in the August 1912 edition of Olympique:... the six colours combined in this way reproduce the colours of every country without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the tricolour flags of France, the United States, Belgium and Hungary, the yellow and red of Spain are included, as are the innovative flags of Brazil and Australia, those of ancient Japan and modern China; this is an international emblem.
In his article published in the Olympic Revue the official magazine of the International Olympic Committee in November 1992, the American historian Robert Barney explains that the idea of the interlaced rings came to Pierre de Coubertin when he was in charge of the USFSA, an association founded by the union of two French sports associations and until 1925, responsible for representing the International Olympic Committee in France: The emblem of the union was two interlaced rings and the idea of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung: for him, the ring symbolized continuity and the human being. The 1914 Congress was suspended due to the outbreak of World War I, but the symbol and flag were adopted, they debuted at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. The symbol's popularity and widespread use began during the lead-up to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Carl Diem, president of the Organizing Committee of the 1936 Summer Olympics, wanted to hold a torchbearers' ceremony in the stadium at Delphi, site of the famous oracle, where the Pythian Games were held.
For this reason he ordered construction of a milestone with the Olympic rings carved in the sides, that a torchbearer should carry the flame along with an escort of three others from there to Berlin. The ceremony was celebrated but the stone was never removed. Two American authors and Gray Poole, when visiting Delphi in the late 1950s, saw the stone and reported in their History of the Ancient Games that the Olympic rings design came from ancient Greece; this has become known as "Carl Diem's Stone". This created a myth; the current view of the International Olympic Committee is that the symbol "reinforces the idea" that the Olympic Movement is international and welcomes all countries of the world to join. As can be read in the Olympic Charter, the Olympic symbol represents the union of the "five continents" of the world and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. However, no continent is represented by any specific ring. Prior to 1951, the official handbook stated that each colour corresponded to a particular continent: blue for Europe, yellow for Asia, black for Africa, green for Australia and Oceania, red for the Americas.
The logo of the Association of National Olympic Committees places the logo of each of its five continental associations inside the ring of the corresponding colour. The Olympic flag was created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1913; the Olympic flag has a white background, with five interlaced rings in the centre: blue, black and red. This design is symbolic. There are specific Olympic flags that are displayed by cities that will be hosting the next Olympic games. During each Olympic closing ceremony in what is traditionally known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the flag is passed from the mayor of one host city to the next host, where it will be taken to the new host and displayed at city hall; these flags should not be confused with the larger Olympic flags designed and created for each games, which are flown over the host stadium and retired. Because there is no specific flag for this purp
Le Havre, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France. It is situated on the right bank of the estuary of the river Seine on the Channel southwest of the Pays de Caux. Modern Le Havre remains influenced by its employment and maritime traditions, its port is the second largest in France, after that of Marseille, for total traffic, the largest French container port. The name Le Havre means "the harbour" or "the port", its inhabitants are known as Havraises. Administratively the commune is located in the Normandy region and, with Dieppe, is one of the two sub-prefectures of the Seine-Maritime department. Le Havre is the capital of the canton. Le Havre is the most populous commune of Upper Normandy, although the total population of the greater Le Havre conurbation is smaller than that of Rouen, it is the second largest subprefecture in France. The city and port were founded by King Francis I in 1517. Economic development in the Early modern period was hampered by religious wars, conflicts with the English and storms.
It was from the end of the 18th century that Le Havre started growing and the port took off first with the slave trade other international trade. After the 1944 bombings the firm of Auguste Perret began to rebuild the city in concrete; the oil and automotive industries were dynamic during the Trente Glorieuses but the 1970s marked the end of the golden age of ocean liners and the beginning of the economic crisis: the population declined, unemployment increased and remains at a high level today. Changes in years 1990–2000 were numerous; the right won the municipal elections and committed the city to the path of reconversion, seeking to develop the service sector and new industries. The Port 2000 project increased the container capacity to compete with ports of northern Europe, transformed the southern districts of the city, ocean liners returned. In 2005 UNESCO inscribed the central city of Le Havre as a World Heritage Site; the André Malraux Modern Art Museum is the second of France for the number of impressionist paintings.
The city has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Le Havre is a major French city located some 50 kilometres west of Rouen on the shore of the English Channel and at the mouth of the Seine. Numerous roads link to Le Havre with the main access roads being the A29 autoroute from Amiens and the A13 autoroute from Paris linking to the A131 autoroute. Administratively, Le Havre is a commune in the Normandy region in the west of the department of Seine-Maritime; the urban area of Le Havre corresponds to the territory of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre which includes 17 communes and 250,000 people. It occupies the south-western tip of the natural region of Pays de Caux where it is the largest city. Le Havre is sandwiched between the coast of the Channel from south-west to north-west and the estuary of the Seine to the south. Le Havre belongs to the Paris Basin, formed in the Mesozoic period; the Paris Basin consists of sedimentary rocks.
The commune of Le Havre consists of two areas separated by a natural cliff edge: one part in the lower part of the town to the south including the harbour, the city centre and the suburbs. It was built on former marshland and mudflats; the soil consists of several metres of silt deposited by the Seine. The city centre was rebuilt after the Second World War using a metre of flattened rubble as a foundation; the upper town to the north, is part of the cauchois plateau: the neighbourhood of Dollemard is its highest point. The plateau is covered with a fertile silt; the bedrock consists of a large thickness of chalk measuring up to 200 m deep. Because of the slope the coast is affected by the risk of landslides. Due to its location on the coast of the Channel, the climate of Le Havre is temperate oceanic. Days without wind are rare. There are maritime influences throughout the year. According to the records of the meteorological station of the Cap de la Heve, the temperature drops below 0 °C on 24.9 days per year and it rises above 25 °C on 11.3 days per year.
The average annual sunshine duration is 1,785.8 hours per year. Precipitation is distributed with a maximum in autumn and winter; the months of June and July are marked by some thunderstorms on average 2 days per month. One of the characteristics of the region is the high variability of the temperature during the day; the prevailing winds are from the southwest sector for strong winds and north-north-east for breezes, snowstorms occur in winter in January and February. The absolute speed record for wind at Le Havre – Cap de la Heve was recorded on 16 October 1987 at 180 kilometres per hour; the main natural hazards are floods and storm surges. The lower town is subject to a rising water table; the lack of watercourses within the commune prevents flooding from overflows. Le Havre's beach may experience flooding known as "flooding from storms"; these are caused by the combination of strong winds, high waves, a large tidal range. Weather Data for Le Havre A study by Aphekom comparing ten large French cities showed that Le Havre is the least polluted urban commune of France.
Le Havre is the third best city in France with more than 100,000 inhabitants for air quality. A Carbon accounting showed i
Olympic sports are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games. The 2016 Summer Olympics included 28 sports, with five additional sports due to be added to the 2020 Summer Olympics program; the number and types of events may change from one Olympiad to another. Each Olympic sport is represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation; the International Olympic Committee establishes a hierarchy of sports and events. According to this hierarchy, each Olympic sport can be subdivided into multiple disciplines, which are mistaken as distinct sports. Examples include swimming and water polo, which are in fact disciplines of the sport of aquatics, figure skating and speed skating, which are both disciplines of the sport of ice skating. In turn, disciplines are subdivided into events. A sport or discipline is included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines it to be practised around the world, that is, the popularity of a given sport or discipline is indicated by the number of countries that compete in it.
The IOC's requirements reflect participation in the Olympic Games – more stringent conditions are applied to men's sports/disciplines and to summer sports/disciplines. Previous Olympic Games included sports that are no longer included in the current program, such as polo and tug of war. Known as "discontinued sports", these have been removed due to either a lack of interest or the absence of an appropriate governing body for the sport; some sports that were competed at the early Games and dropped by the IOC, have managed to return to the Olympic program, for example Archery, which made a come-back in 1972, tennis, reintroduced in 1988. The Olympics have included one or more demonstration sports to promote a local sport from the host country or to gauge interest in an new sport; some such sports, like curling, were added to the official Olympic program. Baseball was discontinued after the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, only to be revived again for the forthcoming 2020 Olympics in Tokyo, which will see the introduction of new disciplines within a number of existing Summer Olympics sports as well as several new sports, such as karate and skateboarding, making their Olympic debuts.
The term "sport" in Olympic terminology refers to all events sanctioned by an international sport federation, a definition that may differ from the common meaning of the word "sport". One sport, by Olympic definition, may comprise several disciplines, which would be regarded as separate sports in common usage. For example, aquatics is a summer Olympic sport that includes six disciplines: swimming, synchronized swimming, water polo, open water swimming, high diving, since all these disciplines are governed at international level by the International Swimming Federation. Skating is a winter Olympic sport represented by the International Skating Union, includes four disciplines: figure skating, speed skating, short track speed skating, synchronized skating; the sport with the largest number of Olympic disciplines is skiing, with six: alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, nordic combined and freestyle skiing. Other notable multi-discipline sports are gymnastics, volleyball, wrestling and bobsleigh.
The disciplines listed here are only those contested in the Olympics—gymnastics has two non-Olympic disciplines, while cycling and wrestling have three each. It should be noted that the IOC definition of a "discipline" may differ from that used by an international federation. For example, the IOC considers artistic gymnastics a single discipline, but the International Federation of Gymnastics classifies men's and women's artistic gymnastics as separate disciplines; the IOC considers freestyle wrestling to be a single discipline, but United World Wrestling uses "freestyle wrestling" for the men's version, classifying women's freestyle wrestling as the separate discipline of "female wrestling". On some occasions, notably in the case of snowboarding, the IOC agreed to add a sport that had a separate international federation to the Olympics on condition that they dissolve their governing body and instead affiliate with an existing Olympic sport federation, therefore not increasing the number of Olympic sports.
An event, by IOC definition, is a competition. Therefore, the sport of aquatics includes a total of 46 Olympic events, of which 32 are in the discipline of swimming, eight in diving, two each in synchronized swimming, water polo, open water swimming; the number of events per sport ranges from a minimum of two to a maximum of 47 in athletics, which despite its large number of events and its diversity is not divided into disciplines. The list of Olympic sports has changed during the course of Olympic history, has increased until the early 2000s, when the IOC decided to cap the number of sports in the Summer Olympics at 28; the only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic program are at