Lake Cushman is a 4,010-acre lake and reservoir on the north fork of the Skokomish River in Mason County, Washington. The lake was a long narrow broadening of the Skokomish River formed in a glacial trough and dammed by a terminal moraine from the last ice age, during the Vashon stade; the lake was expanded after construction of the Cushman Dam No. 1. The lake provides electrical power to the Tacoma Power system; as a popular retreat for hiking, fishing and kayaking, Lake Cushman's shoreline is dotted with resorts and rental cabins. The lake is notable for its beautiful crystal clear blue water and the huge round rocks surrounding it, as well as thick stands of hemlock and cedar trees. Lake Cushman was named in honor of Orrington Cushman, who served as interpreter for Governor Isaac Stevens during the Treaty of Point Elliott negotiations with Puget Sound Natives in 1854. There is a town near Lake Cushman known as Lake Cushman, Washington, or Cushman, Washington. Still unincorporated, it is the fastest-growing community in Mason County.
Lake Levels and River Flows, Cushman Project Settlement, Tacoma Power Lake Cushman on the Official Tourism Web Site for Mason County Photograph of Lake Cushman circa 1899 from the Lick Observatory Records Digital Archive, UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections
Manhattan Project National Historical Park
Manhattan Project National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park commemorating the Manhattan Project, run jointly by the National Park Service and Department of Energy. The park consists of three units: one in Oak Ridge, one in Los Alamos, New Mexico and one in Hanford, Washington, it was established on November 10, 2015 when Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell and Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz signed the memorandum of agreement that defined the roles that the two agencies had when managing the park. The Department of Energy had owned and managed most of the properties located within the three different sites. For over ten years, the DoE worked with the National Park Service and federal and local governments and agencies with the intention of turning places of importance into a National Historical Park. After several years of surveying the three sites and five other possible alternatives, the two agencies recommended a historical park be established in Hanford, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge.
The Department of Energy would continue to manage and own the sites while the National Park Service would provide interpretive services, visitor centers and park rangers. After two unsuccessful attempts at passing a bill in Congress authorizing the park in 2012 and 2013, the House and Senate passed the bill in December 2014, with President Obama signing the National Defense Authorization Act shortly thereafter which authorized the Manhattan Project National Historical Park; the Manhattan Project National Historical Park protects many structures associated with the Manhattan Project, but only some are open for touring. B Reactor National Historic Landmark – bus tours are available by advance reservation the previous Hanford High School in the former Town of Hanford and Hanford Construction Camp Historic District Bruggemann's Agricultural Warehouse Complex White Bluffs Bank and Hanford Irrigation District Pump House The Los Alamos visitor center for the Manhattan Project NHP is located at 475 20th Street in downtown Los Alamos.
This location is open daily 9-4 staffing permitting. It is in the Los Alamos Community Building on the front left as you face the building from the street. At the visitor center, visitors can learn about the Manhattan Project and related sites in the vicinity. There are 3 locations of park; these locations are not open to the public: Gun Site Facilities: three bunkered buildings, a portable guard shack. V-Site Facilities: TA-16-516 and TA-16-517 V-Site Assembly Building Pajarito Site: TA-18-1 Slotin Building, TA-8-2 Battleship Control Building, the TA-18-29 Pond Cabin; the American Museum of Science and Energy provides bus tours of several buildings in the Clinton Engineer Works including the: X-10 Graphite Reactor Buildings 9731 and 9204-3 at the Y-12 complex East Tennessee Technology Park, located on the site of the K-25 Building Official National Park Service website: Manhattan Project National Historical Park Official Department of Energy website: Manhattan Project National Historical Park
Lake Crescent is a deep lake located within Olympic National Park in Clallam County, United States 17 miles west of Port Angeles, Washington on U. S. Route nearby to the small community of Piedmont. At an official maximum depth of 624 feet the maximum depth of the depth sounder used to find that depth, it is the second deepest lake in Washington. Unofficial depth measurements of more than 1,000 feet have been rumored in the region for years, although this figure has been proven false after a lake-wide bathymetric survey was performed from 2013 to 2014 by Eian Ray and Jeff Enge; the results of this survey showed the maximum depth as being 596 feet. Using GIS statistical analysis, this survey showed the lake contains 0.5 cubic miles of fresh water. Lake Crescent is known for its brilliant blue waters and exceptional clarity, caused by a lack of nitrogen in the water which inhibits the growth of algae, it is located in a popular recreational area, home to a number of trails, including the Spruce Railroad Trail, Pyramid Mountain trail, the Barnes Creek trail to Marymere Falls.
The Spruce Railroad Trail follows the grade of what was once the tracks of a logging railroad along the shores of the lake. Following this trail on the north side of the lake, one can find the entrance to an old railroad tunnel as well as "Devils Punch Bowl", a popular swimming and diving area; the lake was formed. The Lake Crescent valley drained into the Indian Creek valley and into Elwha River. Anadromous fish such as steelhead and coastal cutthroat trout migrated into the valley from lower waters. 8,000 years ago, a great landslide from one of the Olympic Mountains dammed Indian Creek and the deep valley filled with water. Many geologists believe that Lake Crescent and nearby Lake Sutherland formed at the same time, but became separated by the landslide; this theory is supported by Klallum tribe legend which tells a story of Mount Storm King being angered by warring tribes and throwing a boulder to cut Lake Sutherland in two, resulting in Lake Crescent. The results of the landslide are visible from the summit of Pyramid Mountain.
The water found an alternative route out of the valley, spilling into the Lyre River, over the Lyre River Falls, out to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The anadromous fish populations in the lake became landlocked, because those fish could not ascend Lyre River Falls, making a barrier in that direction. Over time, two different subspecies of fish evolved in the lake: the endemic Beardslee trout, a relative of rainbow trout, spawns in the Lyre River above the falls, while the Crescenti Cutthroat Trout spawns in Barnes Creek. In the early 1960s, the U. S. Navy did a survey of the lake using a Furuno depth sounder, they were not able to verify the maximum depth on their equipment. During a 1970 depth survey conducted by the students of the fisheries program at Peninsula College in Port Angeles, students used instruments that could not record measurements beyond a depth of 624 feet, which thus became the "official" depth of the lake as recorded by the National Park Service. However, when power cable was being laid in the lake in the 1980s, instruments showed depths in excess of 1000 feet, the maximum range of the equipment used.
The Lake Crescent Bathymetric Survey: In 2013 and 2014 geographic data scientists Eian Ray and Jeff Enge performed a lake-wide bathymetric survey, taking over 5,000 depth soundings. GIS statistical analysis showed the lake contains 0.5 cubic miles of fresh water. The deepest spot was shown to be 596 feet deep. Much of the shoreline of the lake drops off steeply, in many cases. During the Lake Crescent Bathymetric Survey it was speculated that the erroneous depth record of 1000 feet from the 1980s was a result of the sonar signal reflecting off the steep underwater slopes near the shore, it is not certain whether the lake was named for its crescent shape or for its proximity to Crescent Bay, named by Henry Kellett in 1846. In 1849 two British–Canadian fur trappers, John Sutherland and John Everett, forged inland from Crescent Bay; the two lakes they found became known as Everett Lake. Everett Lake was renamed Lake Crescent, it has been known as Big Lake and Elk Lake. In 1890, while the Port Crescent Improvement Company was promoting its townsite near the lake, M.
J. Carrigan started the Port Crescent Leader to help boost the town, he wrote of the beautiful lake, which he called Lake Crescent, the name soon became well established. In 1929, Russell and Blanch Warren disappeared, their whereabouts remained unknown until 2002, when their 1927 Chevrolet automobile was found over 160 feet beneath the surface of Lake Crescent. In 1937, a waitress named Hallie Illingworth went missing, was found three years by local fishermen, she was weighted down, over time her restraints had decayed, allowing her corpse to float to the surface. The corpse was preserved by the near-freezing lake temperature, her skin had turned into a substance described as "ivory soap,", caused by minerals in the lake water interacting with Illingworth's body fat in a process called saponification. Her husband, Montgomery J. "Monty" Illingworth, was convicted of the murder. He served nine years in prison, until he was paroled in 1951. Steamboats of Lake Crescent, Washington Barnes Point Kloshe Nanitch Lookout Amundson, Mavis.
"Lady of the Lake". HistoryLink: The Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History. Retrieved 2015-11-28. Ollikai
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
Sequim is a city in Clallam County, United States. The 2010 census counted a population of 6,606. With the surrounding area, the population is about 28,000. Sequim is located along the Dungeness River near the base of the Olympic Mountains; the population served by the Sequim School District population was over 26,000 in 2018. Sequim lies within the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains and receives on average less than 16 inches of rain per year — about the same as Los Angeles, California — leading it to give itself the nickname of Sunny Sequim. However, the city is close to some of the wettest temperate rainforests of the contiguous United States; this climate anomaly is sometimes called the blue hole of Sequim. Fogs and cool breezes from the Juan de Fuca Strait make Sequim's climate more humid than would be expected from the low average annual precipitation; some places have luxuriant forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western red cedar. Black cottonwood, red alder, bigleaf maple, Pacific madrone, lodgepole pine, Garry oak can be large.
Much of the area was an open oak-studded prairie supported by somewhat excessively drained gravelly sandy loam soil, though agriculture and development of the Dungeness valley have changed this ecosystem. Most soils under Sequim have been placed in a series, named after the city; this "Sequim series" is one of the few Mollisols in western Washington and its high base saturation, a characteristic of the Mollisol order, is attributed to the minimal leaching of bases caused by low annual rainfall. The city and the surrounding area are known for the commercial cultivation of lavender, supported by the unique climate, it makes rivaled only in France. The area is known for its Dungeness crab. Sequim is pronounced as one syllable, with the e elided: "skwim"; the name developed from the Klallam language. The local news publications consist of the community newspaper Sequim Gazette and the Peninsula Daily News. Sequim is served by several radio stations. KSQM, FM 91.5 is a non-commercial station staffed by community volunteers featuring a variety of music.
Z-104.9 FM, KZQM is a commercial station featuring classic hits. Sequim's sister city is Hyōgo, Japan. Sequim and Shiso have an exchange student program set up through Sequim High School and Sequim Middle School. Fossils discovered in the late 1970s at a dig near Sequim - by Carl Gustafson, an archaeologist at Washington State University - known as the Manis Mastodon Site included a mastodon bone with an embedded bone point, evidencing the presence of hunters in the area about 14,000 years ago. According to Michael R. Waters, an archaeologist at Texas A&M University, this is the first hunting weapon found that dates to the pre-Clovis period; the S'Klallam tribe had inhabited the region prior to the arrival of the first Europeans. S'Klallam means "the strong people"; the band of S'Klallam Indians disbanded into their own individual federally recognized tribes in the early 1900s. The local tribe is the Jamestown S'Klallam tribe, named after one of their early leaders, Lord James Balch. According to other tales, the town Sequim in S'Klallam means "a place for going to shoot", which represents the abundance of game and wildlife of the area.
Manuel Quimper and George Vancouver explored the region's coast in the 1790s. The first European settlers arrived in the Dungeness Valley in the 1850s, settling nearby Dungeness, Washington. While the lands along the river became fertile farmlands, the remainder of the area remained arid prairie, known as "the desert". Irrigation canals first brought water to the prairie in the 1890s, allowing the expansion of farmlands. Sequim was incorporated on October 31, 1913. For many decades small farms dairy farms, dotted the area around the small town. Near the end of World War I, Sequim became a stop for a railway that passed through from Port Angeles to Port Townsend, built to carry wood products from the forests of the western Olympic Peninsula. Sequim holds an Irrigation Festival every May; as of 2018, it is in its 123rd year. Sequim is home to a herd of Roosevelt elk; the herd crosses US 101 just to the southeast of the town. Radio collars on some members of the herd trigger warning lights for motorists.
Over the past two decades, Sequim has become known for growing lavender and holds the annual Sequim Lavender Weekend. The Museum and Arts Center features both natural and cultural exhibits, including a mastodon mural mounted with the remaining mastodon bones, a video on the excavation; the Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge is located just north of the city, near the mouth of the Dungeness River. It includes the Dungeness Spit and a five-mile hike to the New Dungeness Lighthouse at the end of the spit. To the east along Highway 101 is Sequim Bay, a 4-mile long inlet from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Along the western stretch is the Sequim Bay State Park; the inlet is a popular birdwatching area. Sequim is located at 48°4′41″N 123°6′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.37 square miles, of which 6.31 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Sequim experiences a mediterranean climate, sometimes classified as an oceanic climate owing to the cool temperatures.
Despite its low rainfall, extreme summer temperatures are marginally more moderate than nearby wet towns like Forks, owing to the coastal fog. Winters are mild with little snowfall. Many years there is no snow at all; the highest tem
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is an agency of the US Federal Government within the US Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish and natural habitats. The mission of the agency is "working with others to conserve and enhance fish, wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people." Aurelia Skipwith is Trump's nominee. Among the responsibilities of the FWS are enforcing federal wildlife laws. Sub-units of the FWS include: National Wildlife Refuge System—560 National Wildlife Refuges and thousands of small wetlands and other special management areas covering over 150 million acres Division of Migratory Bird Management Federal Duck Stamp National Fish Hatchery System—70 National Fish Hatcheries and 65 Fish and Wildlife Conservation Offices Endangered Species program—86 Ecological Services Field Stations International Affairs Program National Conservation Training Center USFWS Office of Law Enforcement Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory Landscape Conservation CooperativesThe vast majority of fish and wildlife habitat is on non-federal state or private land.
Therefore, the FWS works with private groups such as Partners in Flight and Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council to promote voluntary habitat conservation and restoration. The FWS employs 9,000 people and is organized into a central administrative office in Falls Church, eight regional offices, nearly 700 field offices distributed throughout the United States; the FWS originated in 1871 as the United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries, more referred to as the United States Fish Commission, created by the United States Congress with the purpose of studying and recommending solutions to a noted decline in the stocks of food fish. Spencer Fullerton Baird was appointed its first commissioner. In 1903, the Fish Commission was reorganized as the United States Bureau of Fisheries. In 1885–1886, the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy was established within the United States Department of Agriculture. In 1896 it became the Division of Biological Survey, its early work focused on the effect of birds in controlling agricultural pests and mapping the geographical distribution of plants and animals in the United States.
Clinton Hart Merriam headed the Bureau for 25 years and became a national figure for improving the scientific understanding of birds and mammals in the United States. Jay Norwood Darling was appointed Chief of the new Bureau of Biological Survey in 1934. Under Darling's guidance, the Bureau began an ongoing legacy of protecting vital natural habitat throughout the country; the FWS was created in 1940, when the Bureaus of Fisheries and Biological Survey were combined after being moved to the Department of the Interior. In 1959, the methods used by FWS's Animal Damage Control Program were featured in the Tom Lehrer song "Poisoning Pigeons in the Park"; the FWS governs six US National Monuments: Hanford Reach National Monument in Washington state. Pursuant to the eagle feather law, Title 50, Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service administers the National Eagle Repository and the permit system for Native American religious use of eagle feathers.
These exceptions only apply to Native Americans that are registered with the federal government and are enrolled with a federally recognized tribe. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the FWS began to incorporate the research of tribal scientists into conservation decisions; this came on the heels of Native American traditional ecological knowledge gaining acceptance in the scientific community as a reasonable and respectable way to gain knowledge of managing the natural world. Additionally, other natural resource agencies within the United States government, such as the USDA, have taken steps to be more inclusive of tribes, native people, tribal rights; this has marked a transition to a relationship of more co-operation rather than the tension between tribes and government agencies seen historically. Today, these agencies work with tribal governments to ensure the best conservation decisions are made and that tribes retain their sovereignty. Federal law enforcement in the United States Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini