A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area. The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems and cast a "shadow" of dryness behind them. Wind and moist air is drawn by the prevailing winds towards the top of the mountains, where it condenses and precipitates before it crosses the top; the air, without much moisture left, advances across the mountains creating a drier side called the "rain shadow". The condition exists because warm moist air rises by orographic lifting to the top of a mountain range; as atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude, the air has expanded and adiabatically cooled to the point that the air reaches its adiabatic dew point. At the adiabatic dew point, moisture condenses onto the mountain and it precipitates on the top and windward sides of the mountain; the air descends on the leeward side, but due to the precipitation. Descending air gets warmer because of adiabatic compression down the leeward side of the mountain, which increases the amount of moisture that it can absorb and creates an arid region.
There are regular patterns of prevailing winds found in bands round the Earth's equatorial region. The zone designated the trade winds is the zone between about 30° N and 30° S, blowing predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere; the westerlies are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude, blowing predominantly from the southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere. The strongest westerly winds in the middle latitudes can come in the Roaring Forties between 30 and 50 degrees latitude. Examples of notable rain shadowing include: Eastern Side of Sahyadri ranges on Deccan e.g. Northern Karnataka & Solapur, Osmanabad, Vidharba Plateau and eastern side of Kerala India. Gilgit and Chitral are rainshadow areas; the peaks of the Caucasus Mountains to the west and Hindukush and Pamir to the east rain shadow the Karakum and Kyzyl Kum deserts east of the Caspian Sea, as well as the semi-arid Kazakh Steppe.
The Dasht-i-Lut in Iran is in the rain shadow of the Elburz and Zagros Mountains and is one of the most lifeless areas on Earth. The Himalaya and connecting ranges contribute to arid conditions in Central Asia including Mongolia's Gobi desert, as well as the semi-arid steppes of Mongolia and north-central to north western China; the Ordos Desert is rain shadowed by mountain chains including the Kara-naryn-ula, the Sheitenula, the Yin Mountains, which link on to the south end of the Great Khingan Mountains. The Thar desert is bounded and rain shadowed by the Aravalli ranges to the south-east, the Himalaya to the northeast, the Kirthar and Sulaiman ranges to the west. Eastern Side of Sahyadri ranges on Deccan e.g. Northern Karnataka & Solapur, Osmanabad, Vidharba Plateau and eastern side of Kerala India; the central region of Myanmar is in the rain shadow of the Arakan Mountains and is semi-arid with only 750 millimetres of rain as against as much as 5.5 metres on the Rakhine State coast. The Tokyo, Japan plain in the winter months experiences less precipitation than the rest of the country by virtue of surrounding mountain ranges, including the "Japan Alps", blocking prevailing northwesterly winds originating in Siberia.
The Verkhoyansk Range in eastern Siberia is the coldest place in the Northern Hemisphere, because the moist southeasterly winds from the Pacific Ocean lose their moisture over the coastal mountains well before reaching the Lena River valley, due to the intense Siberian High forming around the cold continental air during the winter. One of the evident effects in the Sakha Republic are the regions of Yakutsk and Oymyakon, all of which have their average temperature in the coldest month being lower than −38 °C, have been places of veritable synonyms for extreme severe winter cold; the High Peaks of Mount Lebanon rain-shadow the northern parts of the Beqaa Valley and Anti-Lebanon mountains. The Judaean Desert, the Dead Sea and the western slopes of the Moab Mountains on the opposite side are rain-shadowed by the Judaean Mountains; the Atacama Desert in Chile is the driest non-polar desert on Earth because it is blocked from moisture on both sides. Cuyo and Eastern Patagonia is rain shadowed from the prevailing westerly winds by the Andes range and is arid.
The aridity of the lands next to eastern piedmont of the Andes decreases to the south due to a decrease in the height of the Andes with the consequence that the Patagonian Desert develop more at the Atlantic coast contributing to shaping the climatic pattern known as the Arid Diagonal. The Argentinian wine region of Cuyo and Northern Patagonia is completely dependent on irrigation, using water drawn from the many rivers that drain glacial ice from the Andes; the Guajira Peninsula in northern Colombia is in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and despite its tropical latitude is arid, receiving no rainfall for seven to eight months of the year and being incapable of cultivation without irrigation. On the largest scale, the entirety of the North American Interior Plains are shielded from the prevailing Westerlies carrying moist Pacific weather by the North American Cordillera. More pronounced effects are observed, however, in particular valley regions within the Cordillera, in the
Glines Canyon Dam
Glines Canyon Dam known as Upper Elwha Dam, built in 1927, was a 210-foot high concrete arch dam built on the Elwha River within Olympic National Park, Clallam County, Washington. It was located 13 miles upstream from the mouth of the Elwha River at the Strait of Juan de Fuca, about 8 miles upriver from the Elwha Dam, it impounded Lake Mills reservoir. The dam was demolished in 2014 as part of the Elwha River ecosystem restoration project; the dam was built to generate electricity for industries and major military installations on the Olympic Peninsula, including lumber and paper mills in Port Angeles. The Glines Canyon Hydroelectric Power Plant historic district, a 7 acres area comprising the dam, the powerhouse, the water conveying system, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. Lacking passage for migrating salmon, Glines Canyon Dam blocked access by anadromous salmonids to the upper 38 miles of mainstem habitat and more than 30 miles of tributary habitat; the Elwha River watershed once supported salmon runs of more than 400,000 adult returns on more than 70 miles of river habitat.
By the early 21st-century, fewer than 4,000 adult salmon returned each year. Numerous groups lobbied Congress to remove the two dams on the river and restore the habitat of the river and its valley; the Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act of 1992 authorized the US Federal Government to acquire the Elwha Dam and Glines Canyon Dam hydroelectric power projects for decommissioning and demolition for habitat restoration. The Elwha Ecosystem Restoration project started in September 2011 as work to demolish the nearby Elwha Dam began downstream; the final piece of the Glines Canyon Dam was removed Aug. 26, 2014. Now that the dam has been removed, the area, under Lake Mills is being revegetated and its banks secured to prevent erosion and to speed up ecological restoration. Elwha Dam Grossman, Elizabeth. Watershed: The Undamming of America, Basic Books, ISBN 1-58243-108-6. Mapes, Lynda V.. "Elway: Roaring Back to Life," The Seattle Times. Http://projects.seattletimes.com/2016/elwha/ Glines Canyon Dam Removal Process - animation Glines Canyon Dam webcam and time lapse movie of removal project "Demolition dam: Why dismantle a huge river barrier?", BBC video Elwha River Restoration, National Park Service Mapes, Lynda V. "Elwha: Roaring back to life", The Seattle Times
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Lake Quinault is a lake on the Olympic Peninsula in western Washington state. It is located in the glacial-carved Quinault Valley of the Quinault River, at the southern edge of Olympic National Park in the northwestern United States. One of the most dominant features of Lake Quinault is its location within the Quinault Rain Forest, a temperate rain forest. Lake Quinault is owned by the Quinault Indian Nation; the area is accessible from U. S. Route 101. Area activities include fishing, scenic drives, hiking; the southern side of the lake features a system of short hiking trails maintained by the U. S. Forest Service that are accessible to casual day hikers; the southern side of the lake is home to the historic Lake Quinault Lodge and the Rain Forest Resort Village and is encompassed by the Olympic National Forest. The Quinault Loop Trail on the south side of the lake and the nearby Quinault Rain Forest Interpretive Trail connecting campgrounds and the lodge, with excellent temperate rainforest viewing.
Each trail was designated a National Recreation Trail in 1979. The north side of the lake is bordered by private homes and some small resorts located in Olympic National Park. Lake Quinault receives an average of 332.92 centimeters of precipitation per year. "History of Lake Quinault". Retrieved 2006-06-18. "Quinault Rain Forest". Retrieved 2006-06-18. "Quinault Rain Forest". Retrieved 2009-06-19
Ozette Lake is the largest unaltered natural lake in Washington state at 29.5 km². The Makah name for Lake Ozette was Kahouk meaning "large lake." Eight miles long and three miles wide, Ozette Lake is contained within the northern boundary of the Olympic National Park's coastal strip. It is drained by the Ozette River in the north end. Ozette, lies at the north end of the lake. At 331 feet deep, its bottom lies more than 300 feet below sea level. There are three islands on Ozette Lake: Tivoli, Garden Island, Baby Island. Tivoli's sandy shore is a kayaking and canoeing destination for overnight tent campers willing to make the long trip down the lake; the Erickson's Bay campground is the only boat in campground in Olympic National Park. Ozette Lake features several trails leading to the Pacific Coast Marine Sanctuary. Three of these trails are continuous cedar boardwalks maintained by the Olympic National Park Service; the two most traveled trails depart from the Olympic National Park information kiosks and restrooms at the north end of Ozette Lake.
The northern trail is a cedar boardwalk leading to Cape Alava. There are 54 petroglyphs found there. There is a shorter boat-in only, well-maintained trail that heads out to the wild ocean beaches from Erickson's Bay on the northwestern side of Ozette Lake. Longer coastal hiking trails include the Ozette Loop, connecting the Sand Point and Cape Alava trails by hiking up or down the beach to the next trail head. Two other trails are known to locals and Scout groups: one heading to the beach just south of the Park-maintained trail from Erickson's, a trail from Allen's Bay out to Kayostla Beach. Both trails are undeveloped and known to be muddy; the National Park Service maintains 15 sites at the main campground at the north end of the lake. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Ozette Lake
Cape Alava, in Clallam County, Washington, U. S. is the westernmost point in the contiguous 48 states. The westernmost point is located in the Makah Indian Reservation. Cape Alava is accessible via a 3-mile boardwalk hike from a ranger station in the park. Cape Alava Trail was designated a National Recreation Trail in 1981; the cape was named after the Spaniard Don José Manuel de Álava for his role as commissioner during the solution of the conflict of Nootka in 1794. Cape Alava is the westernmost point in the contiguous United States, with a longitude of 124° 44′ 11.8″ W. Nearby Cape Flattery and Cape Blanco in southern Oregon are very close longitudinally to being the westernmost points in the contiguous 48 states. In early 1834, a Japanese ship, the Hojun Maru, made landfall at Cape Alava after a 14-month drift on the Pacific Ocean, it was supposed to bring rice to Edo, but was carried away by a storm. At the time of arrival near Cape Alava, only three of its crew were alive, they were looked after, enslaved by, the Makah.
The Cape became the western terminus of the newly created Pacific Northwest Trail with the passage of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. The beaches surrounding the trail terminus are composed of a variety of different rock types and formations; the rich mixture is a result of the combined erosive power of the ocean and recent glacial activity. According to the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, the area's sediments are classified as Unconsolidated Deposition, translating to the geological equivalent of a grab bag. More finely, the deposits are listed as "Quaternary Sediments, Dominantly Glacial Drift, includes alluvium"; the Quaternary time period dates to the end of the most recent ice age 10,000 to 14,000 BCE. A shows the unique nature of such sediments being exposed to the full grinding force of the Pacific Ocean. There are many such areas scattered about the Puget Sound, yet few areas on the unprotected Washington coast. Cape Alava is the western terminus of the Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail.
Cape Alava from WTA.org
Fort Worden and accompanying Fort Worden Historical State Park are located in Port Townsend, along Admiralty Inlet in Washington state. It is on 433 acres, a United States Army installation to protect Puget Sound. Fort Worden was named after U. S. Navy Rear Admiral John Lorimer Worden, commander of USS Monitor during its famous battle during the American Civil War. Constructed between 1898 and 1920, Fort Worden was one of the largest Endicott system forts to be built and a "rare example" of a post built according to the precepts of the Endicott Board on land not occupied by an older fortification, it was the only one within sight of a potential enemy fortification, a British military post on Vancouver Island in Canada. The fort was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976. Fort Worden was an active US Army base from 1902 to 1953, it was purchased by the State of Washington in 1957 to house a juvenile detention facility. In 1971, use was transferred to the Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission and Fort Worden State Park was opened in 1973.
In the 1890s, Admiralty Inlet was considered strategic to the defense of Puget Sound in that three forts -- Fort Worden, Fort Flagler, Fort Casey -- were built at the entrance with their powerful artillery creating a "Triangle of Fire" to thwart any invasion attempt by sea. Fort Worden, on the Quimper Peninsula, at the extreme northeastern tip of the Olympic Peninsula, sits on a bluff near Port Townsend, anchoring the northwest side of the triangle; the three posts were designed to prevent a hostile fleet from reaching such targets as the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and the cities of Seattle and Everett. The forts never fired the guns were removed during World War I for use in Europe. Subsequently, Fort Worden was used for training a variety of military personnel and for other defense purposes. Construction on Fort Worden began in 1897 and continued in one form or another until the fort was closed in 1953. Designed as part of the massive modernization program of U. S. seacoast fortifications initiated by the Endicott Board, construction work on the initial fortifications above Point Wilson were delayed until July 1897.
The property was owned and the government had to clear title to the land through condemnation proceedings. The Army Corps of Engineers took charge of building the construction dock, a tramway to haul concrete for the gun emplacements from the dock to the mixing plant. To meet construction needs, the Army laid a pipeline from Port Townsend and pumped water into large storage tanks inside the fort; the arrival of wet winter weather slowed progress on the batteries. It took 200 men three years to complete the excavation and concrete work for the gun emplacements. In March 1900, the fort was ready for installation of the initial armaments. Sixteen artillery pieces, shipped from the armory at Columbus, arrived from Tacoma by barge. A special tramway was constructed to haul the heavy artillery pieces from the dock area to top of the bluff. In March 1901 the guns were moved to their assigned positions and mounted in the batteries, ready for test firing. Fort Worden was activated in 1902; the 126th Coast Artillery Company, consisting of 87 soldiers, commanded by Captain Manus McCloskey, was the first detachment assigned to Fort Worden.
They arrived from Seattle on board the steamer SS Majestic on May 3, 1902, were quartered in tents pending the completion of the barracks. Twenty-three permanent buildings were under construction at a cost of $59,450. A communication system, connecting the three forts by cable, was installed in 1903. On September 4, 1904, the headquarters of the Harbor Defense Command of Puget Sound was transferred from Fort Flagler to Fort Worden along with the 6th Artillery Band. Once work on the main batteries and army post had been completed, more troops were assigned there. By the fall of 1905, Fort Worden was staffed with four Coast Artillery companies, the harbor defense system, costing $7.5 million, was considered complete and operational. The initial armaments consisted of six gun emplacements: Batteries Ash, Brannon, Quarles and Vicars. Between 1905 and 1910, six additional gun emplacements were added: Batteries Tolles, Benson, Putnam and Kinzie; when completed, Fort Worden had 41 artillery pieces, completing its part of the "Triangle of Fire": two 12-inch disappearing guns, two 12-inch barbette guns, two 10-inch disappearing guns, five 10-inch barbette guns, eight 6-inch disappearing guns, two 5-inch balanced pillar guns, four 3-inch pedestal guns, sixteen 12-inch mortars.
During World War I, the complement at Fort Worden was expanded as soldiers arrived for training prior to being sent to European battlefields. To keep up with the demand, construction of new barracks and buildings continued throughout the war. Thirty-six of the fort's 41 artillery pieces were shipped to European battlefields. After World War I, the fort's staffing was reduced to 884 enlisted men. Aircraft and balloons began to claim an important role in Puget Sound's defensive strategy, diminishing the role of coastal artillery. In the 1920s, a balloon hangar was built at Fort Worden at a cost of $85,000. During this time, some of the batteries were modernized and made "bomb-proof." During World War II, Fort Worden remained the headquarters of the Harbor Defense Command and it was jointly operated by the Army and Navy. The fort was home to the 14th Coast Artillery Regiment of the U. S. Army, the 248th Coast Artillery Regiment of the Washington National Guard, the 2nd Amphibious Engineers, miscellaneous U.
S. Navy personnel; the Army operated radar sites and coordinated Canadian and U. S