Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
Hendrik Petrus Berlage
Hendrik Petrus Berlage was a prominent Dutch architect. Berlage was born in Amsterdam, he studied architecture at the Zurich Institute of Technology between 1875 and 1878 after which he traveled extensively for 3 years through Europe. In the 1880s he formed a partnership in the Netherlands with Theodore Sanders which produced a mixture of practical and utopian projects. A published author, Berlage held memberships in various architectural societies including CIAM I. Berlage was influenced by the Neo-Romanesque brickwork architecture of Henry Hobson Richardson and of the combination of structures of iron seen with brick of the Castle of the Three Geckos of Domènech i Montaner; this influence is visible in his design for the Amsterdam Commodities Exchange, for which he would draw on the ideas of Viollet-le-Duc. The load-bearing bare brick walls and the notion of the primacy of space, of walls as the creators of form, would be the constitutive principles of the'Hollandse Zakelijkheid'. A visit Berlage made to the U.
S. in 1911 affected his architecture. From on the organic architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright would be a significant influence. Lectures he gave when returned to Europe would help to disseminate Wright's thoughts in Germany. A notable overseas commission was the 1916 Holland House, built as offices for a Dutch shipping company in Bury Street in the City of London. Considered the "Father of Modern architecture" in the Netherlands and the intermediary between the Traditionalists and the Modernists, Berlage's theories inspired most Dutch architectural groups of the 1920s, including the Traditionalists, the Amsterdam School, De Stijl and the New Objectivists, he received the British RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 1932. Berlage died at The Hague in 1934. In 1970, the IAU named the lunar crater Berlage after him. Among the public collections holding works by Hendrik Petrus Berlage are: Museum de Fundatie, Netherlands Gemeentemuseum Den Haag Kröller-Müller Museum Berlage Institute Sergio Polano, Giovanni Fanelli, Vincent Van Rossem: Hendrik Petrus Berlage, Phaidon Press, ISBN 1-904313-11-6 Hendrik Berlage: Hendrik Petrus Berlage: Thoughts on Style, 1886-1909, The Getty Center For The History Of Art, ISBN 0-89236-334-7 Kohlenbach: H.
P. Berlage: Schriften zur Architektur, Birkhäuser Basel. P. Berlage. Idea and style; the quest for modern architecture, Haentjens Dekker & Gumbert Dennis Sharp: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Architects and Architecture, Watson-Guptill, ISBN 0-8230-2539-X, ISBN 978-0-8230-2539-8 Biography and works of Berlage Gemeentemuseum Den Haag National Library of the Netherlands - dossier Berlage
Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was prince consort of the Netherlands as the husband of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. He was the longest-serving consort of the Netherlands. Heinrich Wladimir Albrecht Ernst of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was born on 19 April 1876 in Schwerin, he was the youngest son of Frederick Francis II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, his third wife, Princess Marie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. He was created Prince of the Netherlands on 6 February 1901, married Queen Wilhelmina on 7 February 1901, in The Hague. Although the queen was devoted to her spouse at the time of their marriage, it proved in the long run to be an unhappy one that did little more than meet its obligation by producing an heir, they had one child, Juliana, in whose favor Wilhelmina abdicated on 4 September 1948. He was the 279th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword in Portugal and the 1,157th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1924, he died, on 3 July 1934 in The Hague, Netherlands.
He merged the two Dutch Boy Scout organisations Nederlandse Padvinders Organisatie and the Nederlandse Padvinders Bond on 11 December 1915 to form De Nederlandse Padvinders. He became the Royal Commissioner of that organisation and he asked Jean Jacques Rambonnet to become chairman in 1920. Prince Henry was known to have had numerous extra-marital affairs, at least one of which resulted in illegitimate offspring. Mein Abbo-Wenneker, gave birth to a total of six children. Abbo, but rumored to have been fathered by Prince Henry. By a widow, Mein in 1918 gave birth to Prince Henry’s acknowledged son, Albrecht Willem. In 1919, Mein married a former aide-de-camp to Prince Henry. A grant of one hundred thousand guilders was arranged for Lt. Lier Winch from the State by police chief François van't Sant, whom Queen Wilhelmina engaged to verify the facts of her husband’s extramarital relationships and children. This, plus a monthly allowance to the Lt from the state of one thousand guilders, was in return for his commitment to "the three children of HRH.”
The male parent of the remaining three children was not verified as being either Prince Henry or Lt. Lier Winch. Subsequent to their birth, no additional allowance was settled on the family, it is rumored that, Prince Henry fathered between three and ten illegitimate children, but firm proof remains elusive. 19 April 1876 – 7 February 1901: His Highness Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 7 February 1901 – 3 July 1934: His Royal Highness The Prince of the Netherlands German decorations Foreign decorations Prince Henry of the Netherlands PEC Zwolle, football club named in his honour Newspaper clippings about Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the game date back to the Middle Ages in Pakistan; the game can be played on grass, water turf, artificial turf or synthetic field as well as an indoor board surface. Each team plays with eleven players, including the goalie. Players use sticks made out of wood, carbon fibre, fibre glass or a combination of carbon fibre and fibre glass in different quantities to hit a round, plastic ball; the length of the stick depends on the player's individual height. Only one face of the stick is allowed to be used. Goalies have a different kind of stick, however they can use an ordinary field hockey stick; the specific goal-keeping sticks have another curve at the end of the stick, this is to give them more surface area to save the ball. The uniform consists of shin guards, shorts, a mouth guard and a jersey. Today, the game is played globally in parts of Western Europe, South Asia, Southern Africa, New Zealand and parts of the United States.
Known as "hockey" in many territories, the term "field hockey" is used in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular. In Sweden, the term "landhockey" is used and to some degree in Norway where it is governed by Norway's Bandy Association. During play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body, while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. If the ball is touched with the rounded part of the stick, it will result in a penalty. Goal keepers cannot play the ball with the back of their stick. Whoever scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout, depending on the competition's format. There are many variations to overtime play that depend on the tournament play. In college play, a seven-aside overtime period consists of a 10-minute golden goal period with seven players for each team.
If a tie still remains, the game enters a one-on-one competition where each team chooses 5 players to dribble from the 25-yard line down to the circle against the opposing goalie. The player has 8 seconds to score on the goalie keeping it in bounds; the play ends after a goal is scored, the ball goes out of bounds, a foul is committed or time expires. If the tie still persists extra rounds thereafter until one team has scored; the governing body of field hockey is the International Hockey Federation, with men and women being represented internationally in competitions including the Olympic Games, World Cup, World League, Champions Trophy and Junior World Cup, with many countries running extensive junior and masters club competitions. The FIH is responsible for organizing the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the game. A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the primary principles of hockey. Indoor hockey is a 5-a-side variant, with a field, reduced to 40 m × 20 m.
With many of the rules remaining the same, including obstruction and feet, there are several key variations: Players may not raise the ball unless shooting on goal, players may not hit the ball, the sidelines are replaced with solid barriers which the ball will rebound off. In addition, the regulation guidelines for the indoor field hockey stick require a thinner, lighter stick than an outdoor stick. There is a depiction of a field hockey-like game in Ancient Greece, dating to c. 510 BC, when the game may have been called Κερητίζειν because it was played with a horn and a ball. Researchers disagree over, it could have been one-on-one activity. Billiards historians Stein and Rubino believe it was among the games ancestral to lawn-and-field games like hockey and ground billiards, near-identical depictions appear both in the Beni Hasan tomb of Ancient Egyptian administrator Khety of the 11th Dynasty, in European illuminated manuscripts and other works of the 14th through 17th centuries, showing contemporary courtly and clerical life.
In East Asia, a similar game was entertained, using a carved wooden stick and ball prior, to 300 BC. In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have for about 1,000 years been playing beikou, a game with some similarities to field hockey. A similar field hockey or ground billiards variant, called suigan, was played in China during the Ming dynasty. A game similar to field hockey was played in the 17th century in Punjab state in India under name khido khundi. In South America, most in Chile, the local natives of the 16th century used to play a game called chueca, which shares common elements with hockey. In Northern Europe, the games of hurling and Knattleikr, both team balls games involving sticks to drive a ball to the opponents' goal, date at least as far back as the Early Middle Ages. By the 12th century, a team ball game called la soule or choule, akin to a chaotic and sometimes long-distance version
Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax known as AFC Ajax, Ajax Amsterdam or Ajax, is a Dutch professional football club based in Amsterdam, that plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Ajax has been the most successful club in the Netherlands, with 33 Eredivisie titles and 18 KNVB Cups, it has continuously played in the Eredivisie, since its inception in 1956 and, along with Feyenoord and PSV, it is one of the country's "big three" clubs that have dominated that competition. Ajax has been one of the most successful clubs in the world. According to the IFFHS, Ajax were the seventh-most successful European club of the 20th century and The World's Club Team of the Year in 1992. According to German magazine Kicker, Ajax were the second-most successful European club of the 20th century; the club is one of the five teams that has earned the right to keep the European Cup and to wear a multiple-winner badge. In 1972, they completed the continental treble by winning the Eredivisie, KNVB Cup, the European Cup.
It won the first organized UEFA Super Cup in 1972 against Glasgow Rangers. Ajax's last international trophies were the 1995 Intercontinental Cup, 1995 UEFA Super Cup and the 1995 Champions League, where they defeated Milan in the final. In 1995, Ajax was crowned as World Team of the Year by World Soccer magazine. Ajax is one of four teams to win the continental treble and the Intercontinental Cup or Club World Cup in the same season/calendar year. Ajax, Bayern Munich and Manchester United are the five clubs to have won all three major UEFA club competitions, they have won the Intercontinental Cup twice, the 1991–92 UEFA Cup, as well as the Karl Rappan Cup, a predecessor of the UEFA Intertoto Cup in 1962. Ajax plays at the Johan Cruyff Arena, which opened as the Amsterdam ArenA in 1996 and was renamed in 2018, they played at De Meer Stadion and the Amsterdam Olympic Stadium. Ajax was founded in Amsterdam on 18 March 1900; the club achieved promotion to the highest level of Dutch football in 1911 and had its first major success in 1917, winning the KNVB Beker, the Netherlands' national cup.
The following season, Ajax became national champion for the first time. The club defended its title in 1918–19, becoming the only team to achieve an unbeaten season in the Netherlands Football League Championship. Throughout the 1920s, Ajax was a strong regional power, winning the Eerste Klasse West division in 1921, 1927 and 1928, but could not maintain its success at national level; this changed in the 1930s, with the club winning five national championships, making it the most successful Dutch team of the decade. Ajax won its second KNVB Cup in 1942–43, an eighth Dutch title in 1946–47, the last season the club was managed by Englishman Jack Reynolds, who, up to this point, had overseen all of its national championship successes as well as its 1917 KNVB Cup win. In 1956, the first season of the Netherlands' new professional league, the Eredivisie, was played with Ajax participating as a founding member; the Amsterdam club became the first national champions under the new format and made its debut in the European Champion Clubs' Cup the following year, losing to Hungarian champions Vasas SC 6–2 on aggregate at the quarter-final stage.
The team were again Eredivisie champions in 1960 and won a third KNVB Cup in 1961. In 1965, Rinus Michels, who had played for the club between 1946 and 1958, was appointed manager of Ajax, implementing his philosophy of Total Football, to become synonymous with both Ajax and the Netherlands national team. A year earlier, Johan Cruyff, who would go on to become the greatest Dutch footballer of all-time, made his debut. Between them and Cruyff led Ajax through the most successful period in its history, winning seven Eredivisie titles, four KNVB Cups and three European Cups. Ajax won the Dutch championship in 1966, 1967 and 1968, reached the 1969 European Cup final, losing to Milan. During the 1966–67 season, Ajax scored a record 122 goals in an Eredivisie season and won the KNVB Cup to achieve its first league and cup double. In 1969–70, Ajax won a fourth Dutch league championship and second league and cup double in five seasons, winning 27 out of 34 league matches and scoring 100 goals; the 1970–71 season saw Ajax retain the KNVB Cup and reach the 1971 European Cup final, where they defeated Panathinaikos 2–0 with goals from Dick van Dijk and Arie Haan to become continental champions for the first time, with Cruyff being named European Footballer of the Year.
After this success, Michels departed to become manager of Barcelona and was replaced by the Romanian Ștefan Kovács. In Kovács' first season, Ajax completed a treble of the European Cup, the Eredivisie and a third consecutive KNVB Cup; the following season, the team beat Argentine club Independiente to win the 1972 Intercontinental Cup and retained their Eredivisie and European Cup titles, becoming the first club to win three consecutive European Cups since Real Madrid in the 1950s. In 1973, Michels' Barcelona broke the world transfer record to bring Cruyff to Catalonia. Kovács departed to become manager of the France national team, signalling the end of this period of international success. In 1976–77, Ajax won its first domestic championship in four seasons and recorded a double of the Eredivisie and KNVB Cup two years later; the early 1980s saw the return of Johan Cruyff to the club, as well as the emergence of young players Marco van Basten and Frank Rijkaard. The team won back-to-back Eredivisie ti
1954 Tour de France
The 1954 Tour de France was the 41st edition of the Tour de France, taking place from 8 July to 1 August 1954. It consisted of 23 stages over 4,656 km; the race was won by the second of his three consecutive wins. As was the custom since the 1930 Tour de France, the 1954 Tour de France was contested by national and regional teams. Seven national teams were sent, with 10 cyclists each from France, the Netherlands, Spain and Luxembourg/Austria. France additionally sent five regional teams from 10 cyclists each, divided into Center-North East France, West France, South East France, Ile de France and South West France; the combined team Luxembourg/Austria consisted of six Luxembourgian cyclists, three Austrian cyclists and one from Liechtenstein. In total, 110 cyclists started the race. Notable absents were the Italian cyclists. In Italy, new sponsors had entered the market, named "extra-sportives" because they did not sell a product directly related to the sport. During the 1954 Giro d'Italia, this caused the Bernina strike.
After this, the Italian federation decided not to send a team to the 1954 Tour de France. The teams entering the race were: The 1954 Tour de France was the first time that the Tour had started outside France, as it started in Amsterdam. New was the team time trial. Although around 1930 the Tour had seen stages in which the teams started separately, in 1954 the team time trial format was reintroduced in a way that only the team time counted; the split stages were reintroduced. Stage 4 was divided into two parts: the team time trial of 10.4 km, a regular stage of 131 km, both run on the same day. Stage 21 was divided into a regular stage of 134 km and an individual time trial of 72 km both run on the same day. There were two rest days, in Lyon. In the first stage, Wout Wagtmans won the sprint, took the yellow jersey, he would remain the leader until the team time trial in stage 4, when the French team won back enough time on the Dutch team for Bobet to take over the lead. In that time trial, over 10.4 km, the winning team was decided by adding the times of the three best cyclists per team.
For the general classification, every cyclist got. In the second part of the fourth stage, former winner Jean Robic hit a photographer during the sprint, fell down and had to give up. In the eighth stage, Wagtmans had joined a breakaway, which won enough time on Bobet for Wagtmans to take back the yellow jersey. Wagtmans fell down in the eleventh stage, although he managed to keep his lead until the start of the twelfth stage, he continued without morale. In the twelfth stage in the Pyrénées, three important riders attacked: Bauvin and Malléjac, they stayed ahead, Bauvin jumped to the first position in the general classification. Bobet was not far behind these three, moved into the second place. In that twelfth stage, Hugo Koblet had fallen down, lost 27 minutes, his chances to win the Tour de France a second time. In the next stage, Koblet gave up. In the fourteenth stage, the Swiss cyclists were fighting back, they were riding as fast as they could, the leading group was getting smaller. Bauvin could not keep up with that group because he had a flat tire, finished 8 minutes behind, losing the leading position.
Bobet however could keep up with the Swiss pace, took over the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification. In the sixteenth stage, Bauvin lost another 20 minutes, dropped to sixth place; the Swiss cyclists had attacked Bobet where they were unable to gain time on him. They had moved into third place of the general classification. In the eighteenth stage, Bobet dominated, dropped all of the other contenders, he won by a margin of one minute and 49 seconds, his margin in the general classification was 12 minutes 49 seconds, which would be large enough for the victory. Bobet won the individual time trial, thereby increased his margin more; the Swiss cyclists could not attack Bobet anymore in the last stages, so Bobet won his second Tour de France. The Swiss team had performed well though, capturing the second and third place in the general classification, winning the team classification and having Kübler win the points classification; the time that each cyclist required to finish each stage was recorded, these times were added together for the general classification.
If a cyclist had received a time bonus, it was subtracted from this total. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey. Of the 110 cyclists that started the 1954 Tour de France, 69 finished the race; the points classification was calculated in the same way as in 1953, following the calculation method from the Tours de France from 1905 to 1912. Points were given according to the ranking of the stage: the winner received one points, the next cyclist two points, so on; these points were added, the cyclist with the least points was the leader of the points classification. In 1954, this was won by Ferdinand Kübler. Points for the mountains classification were earned by reaching the mountain tops first; the system was the same as in 1953: there were two types of mountain tops: the hardest ones, in category 1, gave 10 points to the first cyclist, the easier ones, in category 2, gave 6 points to the first cyclist, the easiest ones, in category 3, gave 3 points.
Federico Bahamontes won this classification. The team classification was calculated as the sum of the daily team classifications, the daily team classification was calculated by adding the times in the stage result of the best three cyclis
Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands
Willem-Alexander is the King of the Netherlands, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013. Willem-Alexander was born in Utrecht as the oldest child of Princess Beatrix and diplomat Claus van Amsberg, he became Prince of Orange as heir apparent upon his mother's accession as queen on 30 April 1980, succeeded her following her abdication on 30 April 2013. He went to public primary and secondary schools, served in the Royal Netherlands Navy, studied history at Leiden University, he married Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti in 2002 and they have three daughters: Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Alexia, Princess Ariane. Willem-Alexander is interested in international water management issues; until his accession to the throne, he was a member of the International Olympic Committee, chairman of the Advisory Committee on Water to the Dutch Minister of Infrastructure and the Environment, chairman of the Secretary-General of the United Nations' Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation.
Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand was born on 27 April 1967 in the Utrecht University Hospital, Now the University Medical Center Utrecht in Utrecht, Netherlands. He is the first child of Princess Beatrix and Prince Claus, the first grandchild of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard, he was the first male Dutch royal baby since the birth of Prince Alexander in 1851, the first immediate male heir since Alexander's death in 1884. From birth, Willem-Alexander has held the titles Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer of Amsberg, he was baptised as a member of the Dutch Reformed Church on 2 September 1967 in Saint Jacob's Church in The Hague. His godparents are Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, Gösta Freiin von dem Bussche-Haddenhausen, Ferdinand von Bismarck, former Prime Minister Jelle Zijlstra, Jonkvrouw Renée Röell, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, he had two younger brothers: Prince Constantijn. He lived with his family at the castle Drakensteyn in the hamlet Lage Vuursche near Baarn from his birth until 1981, when they moved to the larger palace Huis ten Bosch in The Hague.
His mother Beatrix became Queen of the Netherlands in 1980. He received the title of Prince of Orange as heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Willem-Alexander attended Nieuwe Baarnse Elementary School in Baarn from 1973 to 1979, he went to three different secondary schools: the Baarns Lyceum in Baarn from 1979 to 1981, the Eerste Vrijzinnig Christelijk Lyceum in The Hague from 1981 to 1983, the United World College of the Atlantic in Wales, the UK, from which he received his International Baccalaureate. After his military service from 1985 to 1987, Willem-Alexander studied History at Leiden University from 1987 onwards and received his MA degree in 1993, his final thesis was on the Dutch response to France's decision under President Charles de Gaulle to leave the NATO's integrated command structure. Willem-Alexander speaks English, Spanish and German in addition to his native Dutch. Between secondary school and his university education, Willem-Alexander performed military service in the Royal Netherlands Navy from August 1985 until January 1987.
He received his training at the Royal Netherlands Naval College and the frigates HNLMS Tromp and HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen, where he was an ensign. In 1988 he became a lieutenant; as a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Navy, Willem-Alexander was promoted to Lieutenant Commander in 1995, Commander in 1997, Captain at Sea in 2001, Commodore in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Army, he was made a Major in 1995, was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1997, Colonel in 2001, Brigadier General in 2005; as a reservist for the Royal Netherlands Air Force, he was made Squadron Leader in 1995 and promoted to Air Commodore in 2005. As a reservist for the Royal Marechaussee, he was made Brigadier General in 2005. Before his investiture as king in 2013, Willem-Alexander was honorably discharged from the armed forces; the government declared that the head of state cannot be a serving member of the armed forces, since the government itself holds supreme command over the armed forces. As king, Willem-Alexander may choose to wear a military uniform with royal insignia, but not with his former rank insignia.
Since 1985, when he became 18 years old, Willem-Alexander has been a member of the Council of State of the Netherlands. This is chaired by the head of state. King Willem-Alexander is interested in water management and sports issues, he was an honorary member of the World Commission on Water for the 21st century and patron of the Global Water Partnership, a body established by the World Bank, the UN, the Swedish Ministry of Development. He was appointed as the Chairperson of the United Nations Secretary General's Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation on 12 December 2006. On 10 October 2010, Willem-Alexander and Máxima went to the Netherlands Antilles' capital, Willemstad, to attend and represent his mother, the Queen, at the Antillean Dissolution ceremony, he was a patron of the Dutch Olympic Games Committee until 1998 when he was made a member of the International Olympic Committee. After becoming King, he relinquished his membership and received the Gold Olympic Order at the 1