The 1928 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The city of Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but was obliged to give way to war-torn Antwerp in Belgium for the 1920 Games and Pierre de Coubertin's Paris for the 1924 Games; the United States won overall medals. The only other candidate city for the 1928 Olympics was Los Angeles, which would be selected to host the Olympics four years later. In preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics, the United States Olympic Committee reviewed the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games; the committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million, giving a negligible loss of US$18,000, a considerable improvement over the 1924 Games. Dutch nobleman Frederik van Tuyll van Serooskerken first proposed Amsterdam as host city for the Summer Olympic Games in 1912 before the Netherlands Olympic Committee was established.
The Olympic Games were cancelled in 1916 due to World War I. In 1919, the Netherlands Olympic Committee abandoned the proposal of Amsterdam in favor of their support for the nomination of Antwerp as host city for the 1920 Summer Olympics. In 1921, Paris was selected for the 1924 Summer Olympics on the condition that the 1928 Summer Olympics would be organized in Amsterdam; this decision, supported by the Netherlands Olympic Committee, was announced by the International Olympic Committee on 2 June 1921. The US request to allocate the 1928 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles was without success in 1922 and again in 1923. Los Angeles was selected as host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics, being the only bidder for that year; these were the first Olympics to be organized under the IOC presidency of Henri de Baillet-Latour. The Olympic Flame was lit for the first time for the duration of the Olympics, a tradition that continues to this day; the torch relay, would not take place until the 1936 Summer Olympics.
For the first time, the parade of nations started with Greece, which holds the origins of the Olympics, ended with the host country, a tradition which has continued since. The Games were opened by Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina, who had authorized her husband to deputise for her; the Queen was unable to attend the opening ceremony as she was on holiday in Norway and did not want to disrupt her trip. This was the second time a head of state had not officiated at an Olympic opening ceremony; the Queen had refused to make an appearance at either the opening or closing ceremony. However, she returned from Norway before the conclusion of the Games, to be present at the closing ceremony, she presented the first prizes at the prize distribution, held beforehand. Athletics events were held on a 400-meter track becoming the standard for athletics tracks; these Games were the first to feature a fixed schedule of sixteen days, still followed since 1984. In previous Olympics, competition had been stretched out over several months.
Johnny Weissmuller, who appeared in several Tarzan movies, won two gold medals in swimming: an individual gold in the men's 100 m freestyle, a team gold in the men's 4 x 200 m freestyle relay. Paavo Nurmi of Finland won his ninth, final, gold medal in the 10,000 m race. Canadian athlete Percy Williams exceeded expectations by winning both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events. South American football made a definite breakthrough, as Uruguay retained its title by defeating Argentina. India took its first gold medal in field hockey, beginning a streak of six consecutive gold medals in the sport. Mikio Oda of Japan won the triple jump event with a result of 15.21 m, becoming the first gold medalist from an Asian country. Algerian-born marathon runner Boughera El Ouafi won a gold medal for France in the men's marathon. Among the participants was Crown Prince Olav, who would become King of Norway. Pat O'Callaghan won the first medal for a newly independent Ireland, taking gold in the hammer throw; the sponsor Coca-Cola made its first appearance at the Olympic Games.
These Games were the first to bear the name "Summer Olympic Games", to distinguish them from the Winter Olympic Games. Germany returned to the Olympic Games for the first time since 1912, after being banned from the 1920 and 1924 Games; the German team finished second in the 1928 medal count. Many cars were expected for the Games, but Amsterdam had no more than 2,000 single car parking spaces. A number of new parking sites were provided and a special parking symbol was launched to show foreign visitors where they could park; the white P on a blue background was to become the international traffic sign for parking, still used today. During the 1928 Summer Olympics, there were 14 sports, 20 disciplines and 109 events in the tournament. In parentheses is the number of events per discipline. Women's athletics and team gymnastics debuted in spite of criticism. Five women's athletics events were added: 100 meters, 800 meters, high jump, 400 meter hurdles. In protest of the limited number of events, British women athletes, boycotted the Games.
Solo Piano is an album of piano music composed and performed by Philip Glass. It was produced by Kurt Munkacsi; the title of five of the seven tracks, "Metamorphosis", refers to and was inspired by the 1915 novella The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka. While all pieces were written in 1988, some were written for a staging of Metamorphosis, while others were for a documentary film called The Thin Blue Line directed by Errol Morris. "Mad Rush" is based on an earlier organ piece. The title of the last composition is a reference to Allen Ginsberg's poem "Wichita Vortex Sutra", was composed, in collaboration with Ginsberg, for both a reading and recording of the poem."Metamorphosis One" is played in an episode of Battlestar Galactica by Kara "Starbuck" Thrace. Within the narrative, her father performed the piece, it is played in the series finale of Person of Interest, Return 0. "Metamorphosis Two" formed the basis of one of the main musical themes in the film The Hours. It is the song that the American rock band Pearl Jam uses as their introduction music to concerts.
Many pianists have recorded this music subsequently, notably Bruce Brubaker, Sally Whitwell, Lisa Moore, Valentina Lisitsa. All tracks arranged by Philip Glass. "Metamorphosis One" – 5:41 "Metamorphosis Two" – 7:22 "Metamorphosis Three" – 5:33 "Metamorphosis Four" – 7:01 "Metamorphosis Five" – 5:10 "Mad Rush" – 13:48 "Wichita Vortex Sutra" – 6:53
Carl Desmond Leone is a Canadian businessman from Windsor, Ontario. Leone was jailed after pleading guilty in a Windsor court to 15 counts of aggravated sexual assault for not informing his sexual partners of his positive HIV status, it is believed he has been charged with exposing more women to the AIDS-causing virus than anyone in Canadian history. In 1997, Leone was told by Windsor Essex County Health Unit workers. Seven years on June 6, 2004, he was arrested. On June 10, police issued a public safety advisory that resulted in more than 100 people seeking HIV tests for having been a partner of Leone or being linked to him. Under Canadian criminal law, people knowing they are HIV positive have a legal duty to disclose their HIV status before engaging in behaviors that put another person at significant risk of serious bodily harm; this is the result of the 1998 ruling by the Supreme Court of Canada in R. v. Cuerrier, which held that a partner cannot give informed consent if the other fails to disclose their HIV status.
Complainants said. Six of the 22 complainants tested positive for HIV with the same rare strain that Leone was infected with; the strain is rare in Canada, the number of local cases represented an unusually high concentration for the country and constituted a public health issue for the Public Health Agency of Canada. Dr. Paul Sandstrom, director of the National HIV & Retrovirology Laboratories, testified that "Windsor cluster" was unique in North America because it is a different HIV strain infection than the one that began spreading across North America in the early-1980s and is more found in Southeast Asia. Leone was refused bail but turned to well-known criminal defence lawyer Edward Greenspan who appealed the decision. Leone was released after posting bail of nearly $800,000. By the time of the trial, Leone was represented by Andrew Bradie. On April 27, 2007, prior to any of the complainants testifying, Leone agreed to plead guilty; the agreement spared the complainants the experience of testifying and marked the first time he publicly acknowledged his HIV-positive status.
On October 23, 2007, the Deputy Attorney General of Ontario approved the Crown attorney's motion to pursue a dangerous offender designation for Leone. Under the Criminal Code, a person designated a dangerous offender may be indefinitely incarcerated so that they do not get released into society if there is a fear they may re-offend due to their violent tendencies. At the time of sentencing, the Windsor Star interviewed detectives Pat Keane and Bill Stibbard, who investigated the case, a pair of Leone's victims who were 17 and 18 at the time of Leone's offences; the detectives and women described how Leone lured the teenage girls through internet chatrooms and online messengers to night clubs, drugged them, took them to other locations, engaged in unprotected sex with their unconscious bodies. The detectives said; the detectives told of a 16-year-old girl and another woman, a virgin when she met Leone, whom he infected with HIV. In trial, Leone's parole officer claimed that Leone informed her that he had purchased date rape drugs from drug dealers.
Leone was sentenced to 18 years in prison with eligibility for parole in six years. The judge said he was unable to designate him a dangerous offender because there was insufficient evidence that he would commit similar offences if released. Criminal transmission of HIV