The 1920 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, Belgium's bid to host the 1920 Summer Olympics was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time; the 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were cancelled due to World War I. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Hungary, Austria and the Ottoman Empire were banned from competing in the Games. Germany did not return to Olympic competition until 1928 and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922; the United States won overall medals.
The sailing events were held in Ostend and two in Amsterdam, Netherlands. In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, the bid on the behalf of Belgium to host the 1920 Summer Olympics, it was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time; the organising committee was created on 9 August 1913. It had four presidents: Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee Henri de Baillet-Latour, member of the IOC Robert Osterrieth, president of the Royal Yacht Club of Belgium Charles Cnoops, vice-president of the Belgian Fencing AssociationAmong the 22 vice-presidents of the committee were people with a military or industrial background, further people from sports organizations like Paul Havenith, president of the football and athletics club K. Beerschot V. A. C. and Nicolaas Jan Cupérus, president of the Belgian Gymnastics Federation. The first action of the committee was to send an official letter to the IOC in Paris, confirming Antwerp as the city for the Belgian Olympic bid.
On 13 September 1913, Pierre de Coubertin, president of the IOC, visited the grounds of the future Olympic Stadion in Beerschot. In 1914, a 109-page brochure was created to promote the idea of Antwerp as a host city for the Olympics: Aurons-nous la VIIème Olympiade à Anvers?. It was sent to all IOC members and was used during the 6th Olympic Congress in Paris in 1914, where the candidacies of Amsterdam, Antwerp and Rome were discussed. Despite a slight preference at the time for Budapest, no final choice was made, the outbreak of World War I soon afterwards prevented any further progress. In 1915, Lyon made a bid for the 1920 games, but after some discussion, they agreed to support Antwerp and postpone their bid until 1924 if Antwerp was liberated in time to organize the games; the support for Belgium by cousin country France the leading country of the IOC meant that Amsterdam, Budapest, in an enemy state, made no chance for the 1920 games against Antwerp. New candidacies from American cities did not have that disadvantage and bids were received from Cleveland and Atlanta, Cuba planned a bid for Havana.
But shortly after the armistice in November 1918, the IOC decided to give Antwerp the first choice, if they still wanted to host the 1920 Games. In March 1919, the Belgian Olympic Committee decided to go ahead with the organization, on 5 April 1919, in a meeting in Lausanne, Antwerp was declared the host city for the games of the VIIth Olympiad. An executive committee was established on 17 April 1919, with Henri de Baillet-Latour as chairman and Alfred Verdyck, the secretary of the Belgian Union of Football Clubs, as general secretary. Seven commissions were created, to deal with finances, press relations, schedules and festivities. Finances and scheduling proved to be the two hardest parts to tackle: the program of events only was published in February 1920, six months before the official start of the Games. Between 23 and 30 April 1920, an ice hockey tournament marked the early start of the Games. Held in the "Palais de Glace" or Ice Palace in Antwerp, it was the first time that ice hockey was an Olympic sport.
The first stone of the new Olympic Stadium at Beerschot was laid on 4 July 1919 by Jan De Vos, mayor of Antwerp, inaugurated less than a year on 23 May 1920 with a gymnastics demonstration. The nautical stadium or Stade Nautique d'Antwerp was built at the end of the Jan Van Rijswijcklaan, using the city ramparts there as a spectator's stand. Other events, like shooting and equestrian sports, were held at pre-existing locations in and around Antwerp and as far away as Ostend; these Olympics were the first in which the Olympic Oath was voiced, the first in which doves were released to symbolize peace, the first in which the Olympic Flag was flown. The USA won 41 gold, 27 silver, 27 bronze medals, the most won by any of the 29 nations attending. Sweden, Great Britain and Belgium rounded out the five most successful medal-winning nations; the Games featured a week of winter sports, with figure skating appearing for the first time since the 1908 Olympics, ice hockey making its Olympic debut. Nedo Nadi won 5 gold medals in the fencing events.
At the age of 72, Sweden's 100 metre running deer double-shot event champion Oscar Swahn, who had participated in the 1908 and 1912 Games, came in se
Prejudice plus power is a stipulative definition of racism used by anti-racist educators, including the American pastor Joseph Barndt. The definition was first proposed by Patricia Bidol, who, in a 1970 book, defined it as "prejudice plus institutional power." According to this definition, two elements are required in order for racism to exist: racial prejudice, social power to codify and enforce this prejudice into an entire society. Reasons cited in support of this definition include that power is responsible for the creation of racial categories, that people favor their own racial groups over others; the reaction of students to this definition tends to be mixed, with some thinking that it makes sense, others perceiving it as an unfair redefinition of racism to portray whites in an unfairly negative light. In 2004, Beverly Tatum wrote that many of her white students find it difficult to relate to this definition on a personal level, because they do not perceive themselves either as prejudiced or as having power.
The definition has been criticized by some academics for relying on the assumption that power is a zero-sum game, for not accounting for the lack of uniformity in prejudicial attitudes. Critics have noted that this definition is belied by the fact that except in absolutist regimes, however disadvantaged they may be, are not powerless, because power is organized into multiple levels
A Quiet Normal Life: The Best Of Warren Zevon is a greatest hits album by American musician Warren Zevon released in 1986. Zevon's second album Warren Zevon included three songs "Hasten Down the Wind", "Carmelita" and "Poor Poor Pitiful Me", that gained popularity from Linda Ronstandt's cover versions; the album, although it achieved critical acclaim and sold better than his solo debut, lingered at the bottom of the pop charts. Warren Zevon broke through with the song "Werewolves of London" from his third album Excitable Boy. Although Excitable Boy sold well, Zevon had a difficult time capitalizing on the success of the album; the follow-up album Bad Luck Streak in Dancing School features Zevon's cover of Ernie K-Doe's "A Certain Girl" and while the single did chart, it was not included on A Quiet Normal Life. Bad Luck Streak in Dancing School peaked at #20. Albums fared worse with the album The Envoy peaking at #93 in the Billboard Charts; that album is represented here by three songs including "Looking for the Next Best Thing".
Zevon's last album under his Warner contract was represented by this Best of collection, mastered by Barry Diament. This set was superseded in 1996 by I'll Sleep When I'm Dead, a 2-disc anthology of hits, album tracks and rarities and by a single disc Genius: The Best of Warren Zevon. All songs written by Warren Zevon. "Werewolves of London" – 3:29 "Excitable Boy" – 2:39 "Play It All Night Long" – 2:50 "Roland the Headless Thompson Gunner" – 3:47 "The Envoy" – 3:12 "Mohammed's Radio" – 3:41 "Desperados Under the Eaves" – 4:45 "Johnny Strikes Up the Band" – 2:48 "I'll Sleep When I'm Dead" – 2:56 "Lawyers and Money" – 2:56 "Ain't That Pretty at All" – 3:34 "Poor Poor Pitiful Me" – 3:04 "Accidentally Like a Martyr" – 3:39 "Looking for the Next Best Thing" – 3:39