The kilogram or kilogramme is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units. Until 20 May 2019, it remains defined by a platinum alloy cylinder, the International Prototype Kilogram, manufactured in 1889, stored in Saint-Cloud, a suburb of Paris. After 20 May, it will be defined in terms of fundamental physical constants; the kilogram was defined as the mass of a litre of water. That was an inconvenient quantity to replicate, so in 1799 a platinum artefact was fashioned to define the kilogram; that artefact, the IPK, have been the standard of the unit of mass for the metric system since. In spite of best efforts to maintain it, the IPK has diverged from its replicas by 50 micrograms since their manufacture late in the 19th century; this led to efforts to develop measurement technology precise enough to allow replacing the kilogram artifact with a definition based directly on physical phenomena, now scheduled to take place in 2019. The new definition is based on invariant constants of nature, in particular the Planck constant, which will change to being defined rather than measured, thereby fixing the value of the kilogram in terms of the second and the metre, eliminating the need for the IPK.
The new definition was approved by the General Conference on Weights and Measures on 16 November 2018. The Planck constant relates a light particle's energy, hence mass, to its frequency; the new definition only became possible when instruments were devised to measure the Planck constant with sufficient accuracy based on the IPK definition of the kilogram. The gram, 1/1000 of a kilogram, was provisionally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of ice; the final kilogram, manufactured as a prototype in 1799 and from which the International Prototype Kilogram was derived in 1875, had a mass equal to the mass of 1 dm3 of water under atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of its maximum density, 4 °C. The kilogram is the only named SI unit with an SI prefix as part of its name; until the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, it was the last SI unit, still directly defined by an artefact rather than a fundamental physical property that could be independently reproduced in different laboratories.
Three other base units and 17 derived units in the SI system are defined in relation to the kilogram, thus its stability is important. The definitions of only eight other named SI units do not depend on the kilogram: those of temperature and frequency, angle; the IPK is used or handled. Copies of the IPK kept by national metrology laboratories around the world were compared with the IPK in 1889, 1948, 1989 to provide traceability of measurements of mass anywhere in the world back to the IPK; the International Prototype Kilogram was commissioned by the General Conference on Weights and Measures under the authority of the Metre Convention, in the custody of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures who hold it on behalf of the CGPM. After the International Prototype Kilogram had been found to vary in mass over time relative to its reproductions, the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommended in 2005 that the kilogram be redefined in terms of a fundamental constant of nature.
At its 2011 meeting, the CGPM agreed in principle that the kilogram should be redefined in terms of the Planck constant, h. The decision was deferred until 2014. CIPM has proposed revised definitions of the SI base units, for consideration at the 26th CGPM; the formal vote, which took place on 16 November 2018, approved the change, with the new definitions coming into force on 20 May 2019. The accepted redefinition defines the Planck constant as 6.62607015×10−34 kg⋅m2⋅s−1, thereby defining the kilogram in terms of the second and the metre. Since the second and metre are defined in terms of physical constants, the kilogram is defined in terms of physical constants only; the avoirdupois pound, used in both the imperial and US customary systems, is now defined in terms of the kilogram. Other traditional units of weight and mass around the world are now defined in terms of the kilogram, making the kilogram the primary standard for all units of mass on Earth; the word kilogramme or kilogram is derived from the French kilogramme, which itself was a learned coinage, prefixing the Greek stem of χίλιοι khilioi "a thousand" to gramma, a Late Latin term for "a small weight", itself from Greek γράμμα.
The word kilogramme was written into French law in 1795, in the Decree of 18 Germinal, which revised the older system of units introduced by the French National Convention in 1793, where the gravet had been defined as weight of a cubic centimetre of water, equal to 1/1000 of a grave. In the decree of 1795, the term gramme thus replaced gravet, kilogramme replaced grave; the French spelling was adopted in Great Britain when the word was used for the first time in English in 1795, with the spelling kilogram being adopted in the United States. In the United Kingdom both spellings are used, with "kilogram" having become by far the more common. UK law regulating the units to be used when trading by weight or measure does not prevent the use of either spelling. In the 19th century the French word kilo, a shortening of kilogramme, was imported into the English language where it has been used to mean both kilogram and kilometre. While kilo is acceptable in many generalist texts
2000 Summer Olympics
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event, held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956. Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated; the Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better". James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney", while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead.
Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best". In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did." These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot; the final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco.
The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier. Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, it would be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U. S.-led interference in the vote, the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations. The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms; this includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%. In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion. Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses. In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses, it has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption.
Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not useful beyond their immediate function." In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games. Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not sc
Knurling is a manufacturing process conducted on a lathe, whereby a pattern of straight, angled or crossed lines is rolled into the material. The terms knurl and knurled are from an earlier knur ‘knot in wood’ and the diminutive -le, from Middle English knaur or knarre ‘knot in wood; this descends from Old English cnearra but the vowel in Middle English may have been influenced by Old Norse knǫrr ‘merchant ship’, known as cnearr in Old English. The modern gnarl is a back-formation of gnarled which itself is first attested in Shakespeare’s works and is a variant of knurled; the operation is performed for producing indentations on a part of a workpiece. Knurling allows hands or fingers to get a better grip on the knurled object than would be provided by the smooth metal surface; the knurled pattern is a series of straight ridges or a helix of "straight" ridges rather than the more-usual criss-cross pattern. Knurling may be used as a repair method: because a rolled-in knurled surface has raised areas surrounding the depressed areas, these raised areas can make up for wear on the part.
In the days when labor was cheap and parts expensive, this repair method was feasible on pistons of internal combustion engines, where the skirt of a worn piston was expanded back to the nominal size using a knurling process. As auto parts have become less expensive, knurling has become less prevalent than it once was, is discouraged by performance engine builders. Knurling can be used when a component will be assembled into a low precision component, for example a metal pin into a plastic molding; the outer surface of the metal pin is knurled so that the raised detail "bites" into the plastic irrespective of whether the size of the hole in the plastic matches the diameter of the pin. Tool handles, mechanical pencils, the grips of pistols, barbell bars, the control knobs on electronic equipment are knurled. Knurling is used on the grips of darts and the footpegs of BMX bicycles. Aside from adding functionality to an object, knurling adds a decorative pattern to the material; the knurled nut is one such application, which uses a knurled finish instead of hexagonal or square edges which helps in tightening or loosening the nut without the use of a tool.
The knurled surfaces provide enough grip to hold the nut between the forefinger. Hence it is called a thumb nut, it is used on small diameter bolts. Knurled nuts are used in electrical components, musical instruments and in automobiles. More common than knurl cutting, knurl rolling is accomplished using one or more hard rollers that contain the reverse of the pattern to be imposed, it is possible for a "straight" knurl to be pressed with a single roller, however the material needs to be supported adequately to avoid deformation. A criss-cross pattern can be accomplished using any of: A single roller that contains the reverse of the complete desired pattern; these are available to form either "male" or "female" patterns, A left-handed straight roller followed by a right-handed straight roller, or One or more left-handed rollers used with one or more right-handed rollers. A popular myth is that rolled knurls are somewhat more complicated to design than cut knurls because the outer diameter of the work piece must be chosen to allow the roller to roll an integral number of patterns around the workpiece, in practice if the knurl is applied positively, it will engage with its own impression and create a proper knurl on any diameter of work.
The integer number of knurls for any given diameter varies by three repetitions from the bottom to the top of the pattern. By comparison, for cut knurls, the spacing of the cuts is not preset and can be adjusted to allow an integral number of patterns around the workpiece no matter what the diameter of the workpiece. Hand knurling tools are available; these contain knurling wheels rather than cutting wheels. Three wheels are carried by the tool: two left-handed wheels and one right-handed wheel or vice versa. Cut knurling employs automatic feed, the tooling for cut knurling resembles that for form knurling with the exception that the knurls have sharp edges and are presented to the work at an angle allowing the sharp edges to cut the work, angled and straight knurling are all supported by cut knurling It is impossible to cut knurling "Like coarse pitch threads" both because lathe gear trains will not support such longitudinal speeds and because reasonable cutting speeds would be impossible to achieve.
Annular rings Frequently used. Rings allow for easy mating but ridges make it difficult to pull the components apart. Linear knurl Used with mating plastic pieces, the Linear Knurl allows greater torsion between components. Diamond knurl A hybrid of Annular Rings and Linear Knurling, it is used to provide better grip on components, is the most common type used on everyday objects. Straight Knurling
The deadlift is a weight training exercise in which a loaded barbell or bar is lifted off the ground to the level of the hips lowered to the ground. It is one of the three powerlifting exercises, along with the squat and bench press. Deadlift refers to the lifting such as weights lying on the ground, it is one of the few standard weight training exercises in which all repetitions begin with dead weight. There are several positions one can approach when performing the deadlift, which include the conventional deadlift and sumo-deadlift. In most other lifts there is an eccentric phase followed by the concentric phase. During these exercises, a small amount of energy is stored in the stretched muscles and tendons in the eccentric phase if the lifter is not flexible beyond the range of motion. Although this exercise uses the hips and legs as the primary movers, it can just as be considered a back exercise. Conventional deadlift: The deadlift can be broken down into three parts: The setup, the initial pull or drive, the lockout.
Setup: When performing a deadlift, a lifter will set up in a position that eccentrically loads the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris and semimembranosus while the muscles of the lumbar contract isometrically in an effort to stabilize the spine. Set up behind the bar with it touching or nearly touching the legs. Begin by hinging at the hips and knees, setting one's weight predominantly in the heels while maintaining flat feet. Spine stays long and straight as hips hinge back, taking care not to allow knees to track forward over one’s toes. Gripping the bar outside of the legs, a lifter will depress their shoulders away from their ears in an effort to load the lats and generate force throughout their erectors. Drive: The next section of the deadlift produces the highest amount of force. By pushing down through their heels while pushing up and forward with their hips and maintaining depressed scapula and a long tense spine an individual can remain safe during this motion; this is considered the most difficult part of the entire movement due to the amount of work required to drive the bar off the ground initially.
Keep the muscles of the back contracted in order to maintain a safe posture throughout the motion. Drive up and forward with the hips and legs to stand erect and lift the bar. Take a deep diaphragmatic breath and hold it in during the movement, thus creating an outward pressure on the core to further stabilize the lumbopelvic hip complex and core throughout the motion. Lockout: The finish is the most critical aspect of the motion; this requires being erect with a neutral spine and forceful hip extension to engage the muscles of the lumbar spine and abdomen in unison with the glutes. Finish by driving the hips into the bar and getting as tall as possible. Contract the glutes while shortening the rectus abdominis to finish the movement with the pelvis in a neutral position. Contracting the glutes as well as the abdominal muscles is critical for low back health and safety. Lowering the weight: Finishing a deadlift is performing these same steps in reverse order; as the muscles of the back and core must remain tight throughout the motion, one should hinge at the hips and knees to bring the weight down.
Lowering their chest towards their knees while keeping the bar close is the safest way to complete the motion. There are a few common errors during the performance of the deadlift. Back is rounded or arched: during the deadlift, the back should be flat with the spine neutral. If a lifter arches the back, either rounded or arched, the load shifts and can place too much stress or pressure on the back, which may lead to injury; the head should not be arched or rounded either. Shoulders are protracted: allowing the shoulders to come forward disengages the back muscles which stabilize the spine. Jerking the bar: the slack should be taken from the bar by squeezing the back muscles first and straightening the arms; the bar should be lifted in a smooth motion without jerking. Squatting: the objective of a deadlift is to hinge the hips, knees will be bent in the setup phase, but should not bend so as to be a squat. Too far from the bar: if the load is too far forward, the lifter may compensate by rounding the back or shifting the weight to the front of the foot.
Both could cause injury. Poor lowering of the weight: bending the knees too soon when lowering the weight can put pressure on the lower back. While there should be a slight bend in the knees on the way down, bend the knees more once the bar has passed them on the way down. Deadlifts can be performed using dumbbells, barbells, or kettlebells with one hand or two hands & with one leg or two legs. Other variations are the side deadlift or suitcase deadlift, rack pulls, deadlift lockouts, deficit deadlift or deadlift from a box; each of these variations is called for to address specific weaknesses in a lifter's overall deadlift. For instance if the athlete has difficulty breaking contact at max. weight, deficit deadlifts are performed to strengthen the gluteus maximus and hamstrings due to the greater range of motion required by standing on the low platform or low box. On the other hand, if the lifter has no problem with breaking contact with the floor but has difficulty locking out, they should perform rack pulls to strengthen their upper back, posterior deltoids, trapezius muscles while de-emphasizing the gluteus and hamstrings.
The archaic "dead weight lift", or "dead weight l
Mixed-sex sports known as mixed-gender or coed sports, are sports where the participants are not of a single sex. This can take the form of team sports involving people of different sexes. In organised sports settings, rules dictate the number of people required of each sex in a team; such rules account for the sex differences in human physiology, with males being larger and stronger than females on average. In informal settings, mixed-sex sports involves groups of friends and/or family engaging in sport without regard to the sex of the participants. Sports which are mixed-sex as standard are ones where the differences between the sexes do not affect the ability of the competitor, for example equestrian sports. Sports in which the sex of a competitor affects their ability to compete have single-sex divisions, with mixed-team variants comprising the mixed-sex element of the sport, for example mixed doubles tennis. Mixed-sex sports have been encouraged as a way of boosting female sports participation and improving social harmony between the sexes.
Mixed-sex play and sports is common among young children, among whom differences are less pronounced. It is uncommon in most organised sports to find individuals of different genders competing head-to-head at elite level, principally due to the differences between the sexes. In sports where these differences are less linked to performance, it is standard practice for men and women to compete in mixed-sex fields; these open-class sports prove accommodating to intersex athletes, who challenge the sex-defined rules of both single-sex sport and mixed-sex sports with defined male and female roles. In equestrian sports and female riders compete against each other in eventing and show jumping disciplines. Female jockeys compete alongside male ones in horse racing, though the former constitute a minority of jockeys overall. Beyond the athletes, the horses used for racing are a mixed of male and female, with a 60/40 split at the top level between colts and fillies. In snooker, the professional tour is open to men and women, although only one woman has competed on the tour for a full year, although others have played in individual tournaments.
There is a separate women only tour to encourage female participation in the sport. During an Ultimate game, teams of 7 players play in direct competition with each other, while most people of the same gender mark each other, it is not uncommon to see match ups between people of different gender. A common form of mixed-sex sports involves pairs with one female team member. Sports based on dancing have male/female pairings, such as pair figure skating, ice dancing, ballroom dancing and synchronised swimming duets. In these sports the male and female participants physically work together to produce an artistic and athletic performance. Mixed doubles involves two mixed-sex pairs competing against each other with all four competitors in open play; this is prominent in racket sports, including tennis, table tennis, badminton and racquetball. Mixed pairs and mixed teams events are organised in contract bridge. Pairs may compete in turn-based games, where men and women take turns alternately; this is found in more strategy-based sports, including mixed doubles curling, mixed golf, mixed bowling and mixed team darts.
Separate male and female performances may be combined to produce mixed team results in such sports as diving. Synchronised diving is found in mixed-sex format. Mixed tag team matches are found in professional wrestling, where wrestlers are not explicitly competing in a turn-based manner, but are obliged to only face their opponent of the same sex. In non-vehicular racing sports the physiological differences between the sexes preclude head-to-head competition between people of different sexes at the elite level; as a result, mixed-sex events are most held with a relay race format. In running, a 4 × 400 metres mixed relay race was introduced at the 2017 IAAF World Relays, will be added to the 2019 World Championships in Athletics and 2020 Summer Olympics. In cross-country running, a 4 × 2 km mixed relay race was added at the 2017 IAAF World Cross Country Championships. In swimming, mixed relay races were introduced at the 2014 FINA World Swimming Championships and the 2015 World Aquatics Championships.
The event will debut at the 2020 Summer Olympics. In triathlon, the ITU Triathlon Mixed Relay World Championships mixed relay race has been held since 2009; the triathlon at the Youth Olympic Games has a mixed relay race since 2010. As in standard triathlons, each triathlon competitor must do a segment of swimming and running. In biathlon, a mixed relay race was first held at the Biathlon World Championships 2005 in Khanty-Mansiysk, it was added to the 2014 Winter Olympics; the mixed division is a staple of Ultimate, it is the only division, showcased at both the 2013 World Games and the 2017 World Games. Mixed-sex forms of ball sports involve set numbers of each sex per team, sometimes pre-defined roles in the team which people of that gender can play. Examples include korfball, coed softball and wheelchair rugby. Mixed-sex sport has a long history at the Olympic Games, dating back to the 1900 Summer Olympics, the first in which women participated. Two women competed against men in the equestrian, the croquet competition was mixed-sex, while Hélène de Pourtalès was the sole female sailor and first mixed-sex team champion, being part of a gold medal-winning
Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, deadlift. As in the sport of Olympic weightlifting, it involves the athlete attempting a maximal weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates. Powerlifting evolved from a sport known as "odd lifts", which followed the same three-attempt format but used a wider variety of events, akin to strongman competition. Odd lifts became standardized to the current three. In competition, lifts may be performed equipped or un-equipped. Equipment in this context refers to a supportive bench squat/deadlift suit or briefs. In some federations, knee wraps are permitted in the equipped but not un-equipped division. Weight belts, knee sleeves, wrist wraps and special footwear may be used, but are not considered when distinguishing equipped from un-equipped lifting. Competitions take place across the world. Powerlifting has been a Paralympic sport since 1984 and, under the IPF, is a World Games sport.
Local and international competitions have been sanctioned by other federations operating independently of the IPF. The roots of powerlifting are found in traditions of strength training stretching back as far as ancient Greek and ancient Persian times; the idea of powerlifting originated in Ancient China and Greece, as men lifted stones to prove their strength and manhood. Weightlifting has been an official sport in the Olympic Games since 1896; the modern sport originated in the United States in the 1950s. The weightlifting governing bodies in both countries had recognized various "odd lifts" for competition and record purposes. During the 1950s, Olympic weightlifting declined in the United States, while strength sports gained many new followers. People did not like the Olympic lifts Clean and Press and Clean and Jerk.ref>Unitt, Dennis. "The History of the International Powerlifting Federation". Powerlifting. Sport. </ref> In 1958, the AAU's National Weightlifting Committee decided to begin recognizing records for odd lifts.
A national championship was tentatively scheduled for 1959, but never happened. The first genuine national "meet" was held in September 1964 under the auspices of the York Barbell Company. York Barbell owner Bob Hoffman had been a longtime adversary of the sport, but his company was now making powerlifting equipment to make up for the sales it had lost on Olympic equipment. In 1964, some powerlifting categories were added to the Tokyo Paralympic Games for men with spinal cord injuries. More categories of lifting were added. In the 2000 Paralympic Games in Sydney, women were invited to participate in powerlifting. Both men and women were allowed to compete in all 10 weight classes of powerlifting. During the late 1950s, Hoffman's influence on Olympic lifting and his predominately Olympic-based magazine Strength and Health were beginning to come under increasing pressure from Joe Weider's organization. In order to combat the growing influence of Weider, Hoffman started another magazine, Muscular Development, which would be focused more on bodybuilding and the fast-growing interest in odd lift competitions.
The magazine's first editor was John Grimek. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, various odd lift events developed into the specific lifts of the bench press and deadlift, they were lifted in that order. Hoffman became more and more influential in the development of this new lifting sport and organized the Weightlifting Tournament of America in 1964 the first USA National championships. In 1965, the first named. During the same period, lifting in Britain had factions. In the late 1950s, because members of the ruling body were only interested in the development of Olympic lifting, a breakaway organization called the Society of Amateur Weightlifters had been formed to cater for the interests of lifters who were not interested in Olympic lifting. Although at that time there were 42 recognized lifts, the "Strength Set" soon became the standard competition lifts, both organizations held Championships on these lifts until 1965. In 1966, the Society of Amateur Weightlifters rejoined BAWLA and, in order to fall into line with the American lifts, the biceps curl was dropped and replaced with the deadlift.
The first British Championship was held in 1966. During the late 1960s and at the beginning of the 1970s, various friendly international contests were held. At the same time, in early November of each year and to commemorate Hoffman's birthday, a prestigious lifting contest was held. In 1971, it was decided to make this event the "World Weightlifting Championships"; the event was held on the morning of November 6, 1971, in Pennsylvania. There was no such thing as teams and thus the event consisted of a large group of American lifters, four British lifters, one lifter from the West Indies. All of the referees were American. Weights were in pounds. Lifting order was "rising bar", the first lift was the bench press. There was no such thing as a bench shirt or squat suit, various interpretations were held regarding the use and length of knee wraps and weightlifting belts; the IPF rules system had world records been established. Because of the lack of formalized rules, some disputes occurred. There was 100 kg class, or 125 kg class.
At the first World Championships, one of the American super-heavyweights, Jim Williams, benched 660 lbs