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Olympus Mons

Olympus Mons is a large shield volcano on the planet Mars. The volcano has a height of nearly 22 km as measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Olympus Mons is about two and a half times Mount Everest's height above sea level, it is one of the largest volcanoes, the tallest planetary mountain, the second tallest mountain discovered in the Solar System, comparable to Rheasilvia on Vesta. It is cited as the largest volcano in the solar system. However, by some metrics, other volcanoes are larger. Alba Mons, northeast of Olympus Mons, has 19 times the surface area, but is only about one third the height. Pele, the largest known volcano on Io, is much larger, at 4 times the surface area, but is flat. Additionally, Tharsis Rise, a large volcanic structure on Mars of which Olympus Mons is a part, has been interpreted as an enormous spreading volcano. If this is confirmed, Tharsis would be by far the largest volcano in the solar system. Olympus Mons is the youngest of the large volcanoes on Mars, having formed during Mars's Hesperian Period.

It had been known to astronomers since the late 19th century as the albedo feature Nix Olympica. Its mountainous nature was suspected well; the volcano is located in Mars's western hemisphere at 18.65°N 226.2°E / 18.65. The western portion of the volcano lies in the Amazonis quadrangle and the central and eastern portions in the adjoining Tharsis quadrangle. Two impact craters on Olympus Mons have been assigned provisional names by the International Astronomical Union, they are the 15.6 km - the 10.4 km - diameter Pangboche crater. The craters are notable for being two of several suspected source areas for shergottites, the most abundant class of Martian meteorites; as a shield volcano, Olympus Mons resembles the shape of the large volcanoes making up the Hawaiian Islands. The edifice is about 600 km wide; because the mountain is so large, with complex structure at its edges, allocating a height to it is difficult. Olympus Mons stands 21 km above the Mars global datum, its local relief, from the foot of the cliffs which form its northwest margin to its peak, is nearly 22 km.

The total elevation change from the plains of Amazonis Planitia, over 1,000 km to the northwest, to the summit approaches 26 km. The summit of the mountain has six nested calderas forming an irregular depression 60 km × 80 km across and up to 3.2 km deep. The volcano's outer edge consists of an escarpment, or cliff, up to 8 km tall, a feature unique among the shield volcanoes of Mars, which may have been created by enormous flank landslides. Olympus Mons covers an area of about 300,000 km2, the size of Italy or the Philippines, it is supported by a 70 km thick lithosphere; the extraordinary size of Olympus Mons is because Mars lacks mobile tectonic plates. Unlike on Earth, the crust of Mars remains fixed over a stationary hotspot, a volcano can continue to discharge lava until it reaches an enormous height. Being a shield volcano, Olympus Mons has a gently sloping profile; the average slope on the volcano's flanks is only 5°. Slopes are steepest near the middle part of the flanks and grow shallower toward the base, giving the flanks a concave upward profile.

The shape of Olympus Mons is distinctly asymmetrical—its flanks are shallower and extend farther from the summit in the northwestern direction than they do to the southeast. The volcano's shape and profile have been likened to a "circus tent" held up by a single pole, shifted off center. Due to the size and shallow slopes of Olympus Mons, an observer standing on the Martian surface would be unable to view the entire profile of the volcano from a great distance; the curvature of the planet and the volcano itself would obscure such a synoptic view. An observer near the summit would be unaware of standing on a high mountain, as the slope of the volcano would extend far beyond the horizon, a mere 3 kilometers away; the typical atmospheric pressure at the top of Olympus Mons is 72 pascals, about 12% of the average Martian surface pressure of 600 pascals. Both are exceedingly low by terrestrial standards. So, high-altitude orographic clouds drift over the Olympus Mons summit, airborne Martian dust is still present.

Although the average Martian surface atmospheric pressure is less than one percent of Earth's, the much lower gravity of Mars increases the atmosphere's scale height. The composition of Olympus Mons is 44% silicates, 17.5% iron oxides 7% aluminum, 6% magnesium, 6% calcium, high proportions of sulfur oxide with 7%. These results point to the surface being composed of basalts and other mafic rocks, which would have erupted as low viscosity lava flows and hence lead to the low gradients on the surface of the planet. Olympus Mons is an unlikely landing location for automated space probes in the near future; the high elevations preclude parachute-assisted landings because the atmosphere


Entorrhizomycetes is the sole class in the phylum Entorrhizomycota within the Fungi subkingdom Dikarya along with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. It contains three genera and is are small group of teliosporic root parasites that form galls on plants in the Juncaceae and Cyperaceae families. Prior to 2015 this phylum was placed under the subdivision Ustilaginomycotina. A 2015 study did a "comprehensive five-gene analyses" of Entorrhiza and concluded that the former class Entorrhizomycetes is either a close sister group to the rest of Dikarya or Basidiomycota. Taxonomy based on the work of al.. 2019. Order Talbotiomycetales Riess et al. 2015 Family Talbotiomycetaceae Riess et al. 2015 Genus Talbotiomyces Vánky, Bauer & Begerow 2007 Order Entorrhizales Bauer & Oberwinkler 1997 Family Entorrhizaceae Bauer & Oberwinkler 1997 Genus Juncorrhiza Riess & Piątek 2019 Genus Entorrhiza Weber 1884

HMS Legion (1914)

HMS Legion was a Laforey-class destroyer built for the Royal Navy during the 1910s. The Laforey class were improved and faster versions of the preceding Acasta class, they displaced 965–1,010 long tons. The ships had an overall length of 268 feet 10 inches, a beam of 27 feet 8 inches and a draught of 10 feet 6 inches. Legion was powered by two Parsons direct-drive steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by four Yarrow boilers; the turbines gave a maximum speed of 29 knots. The ships carried a maximum of 280 long tons of fuel oil that gave them a range of 1,750 nautical miles at 15 knots; the ships' complement was 74 ratings. The ships were armed with three single QF 4-inch Mark IV guns and two QF 1.5-pounder anti-aircraft guns. These latter guns were replaced by a pair of QF 2-pounder "pom-pom" anti-aircraft guns; the ships were fitted with two above-water twin mounts for 21-inch torpedoes. They were equipped with rails to carry four Vickers Elia Mk IV mines, although these rails were never used.

Legion was constructed by William Denny and Brothers. She was laid down on 19 September 1912, launched on 3 February 1914 and was completed in July 1914, joining the 3rd Destroyer Flotilla, based at The Nore following commissioning on 15 July, she was served in the North Sea. The ship saw action including the Battle off Texel. Legion was damaged by a German mine on 10 November 1916, it was decided to convert Legion to allow use for minelaying while under repair. Rails were fitted to allow the carrying of up to 40 mines. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Dittmar, F. J. & Colledge, J. J.. British Warships 1914–1919. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0380-7. Friedman, Norman. British Destroyers: From Earliest Days to the Second World War. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-049-9. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. London: Conway Maritime Press.

ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Manning, T. D.. The British Destroyer. London: Putnam. Smith, Peter C.. Into the Minefields: British Destroyer Minelaying 1916–1960. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Maritime. ISBN 1-84415-271-5

Durwood Keeton

Durwood Lee Keeton is a former American football defensive back who played one season with the New England Patriots of the National Football League. He was drafted by the St. Louis Cardinals in the fourth round of the 1974 NFL Draft, he first enrolled at Navarro College before transferring to the University of Oklahoma. Keeton attended Bonham High School in Texas, he was a member of the Southern California Sun and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Keeton played for the Navarro Bulldogs from 1970 to 1971. Keeton transferred to play for the Oklahoma Sooners from 1972 to 1973, he earned All-Big Eight honors while playing in the Blue–Gray and Senior Bowl games. Keeton was selected by the St. Louis Cardinals with the 85th pick in the 1974 NFL draft. Keeton played for the Southern California Sun of the World Football League in 1974, returning one interception for a touchdown. Keeton played in twelve games for the New England Patriots during the 1975 season. Keeton was drafted by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in the 1976 NFL expansion draft.

He was released by the team during training camp. Just Sports Stats

Happy Brothers

Happy Brothers, Their Poor Mother! is an 1887 oil painting by the Serbian artist Uroš Predić. It shows four intoxicated youths walking through their village whilst the mother of one shouts her disapproval from the distance; the painting is said to have been inspired by a frequent sight in Predić's home village of Orlovat—that of drunken youths returning from the pub at dawn. Predić painted the composition hoping, he was disappointed that it not only failed to decrease the incidence of drunkenness in Orlovat, but was well received by the villagers themselves, who were happy to have been depicted. One art historian suggests the painting was influenced by the works of Rosa Bonheur and Gustave Courbet, while another believes it was informed by those of the satirists William Hogarth and Honoré Daumier; the painting's humorous content contributed to its popularity among critics and the public at large, which led to Predić painting two replicas in 1918 and 1922. By 1890, the original was owned by the National Museum of Serbia.

Uroš Predić was one of the most successful 19th- and 20th-century Serbian realists. A native of Orlovat, a village in the Banat region of Austria-Hungary, Predić drew scenes of life in the village throughout his career. One of the more frequent sights during his stays there was of intoxicated young men returning from the pub at dawn and waking up the whole village. In painting the composition, Predić was not only attempting to realistically depict contemporary village life but to convey a message. "I observed this every day", he explained. "I said to myself there must be some way of telling these people to what an unhappy level they have descended and have a moral impact on them, capturing all the bad habits of my compatriots." Predić had expressed disapproval of the villagers' behavior in an earlier work, Clients in Front of a Lawyer's Door. Happy Brothers, Their Poor Mother! referred to as Happy Brothers, is an oil painting that measures 82 by 122 centimetres. "It is a glimpse into village life in early fall", Predić explained.

"The harvest has been gathered and the pigs slaughtered. The fires have been lit, the spits turned, the drinks dispensed and the celebrations under way; the air is filled with the aroma of... cooking meat... and the sounds of music and drunken song that disturb the village's peace." According to Predić, the painting shows four intoxicated youths who have been drinking all night walking rowdily through their village around dawn and waking all their neighbours. They trudge down the middle of the dirt road, keeping their distance from the surrounding houses so as to avoid crashing against a wall and hurting themselves; the gajda player, the most sober of the four, walks ahead of his friends. The one to the left, the youngest of the group, walks barefoot through the mud and props one of his friends up against his shoulder; the man he is propping up, the most intoxicated, paid for the previous night's drinks and bounces between shoulders for support. The man to his right has just realized, his mother, alerted by the young men's laughter and song, emerges from the house and recognizes her son.

She begins to shout at him and threatens to spank him once he returns, but the young man laughs and sends her an acknowledging wave with his hat. A young girl peaks out the bottom pane of the left window of the house to the far right, wondering if her boyfriend is part of the group. A sign above her reads Szeszfőzde. Predić's initials in Cyrillic, У.П. can be found in the bottom-right corner. In his notes, Predić identified the individuals depicted in the painting as "Maks", Nikola Bojić and Nikola Madžarov. Predić described the person to Madžarov's right as "a young man from Orlovat"; the art historian Lilien Filipovitch-Robinson posits that the painting is informed by the progressive style of French realists such as Rosa Bonheur and Gustave Courbet. She concedes that there is no documentary evidence to suggest Predić was influenced by Courbet's depictions of peasant life, but notes that the latter's work was in the public domain at the time Happy Brothers was created and was quite popular throughout Europe.

Filipovitch-Robinson believes that Predić rejected the precision and linearism of both Academic and Biedermeier art, and, as Courbet would have done, used textured brushstrokes to define the roughness of the muddy road. She draws parallels between the painting and Courbet's Peasants of Flagey, shown at the Paris Salon of 1850–51 alongside The Stone Breakers and A Burial At Ornans; the art historian Dejan Medaković once suggested that Predić was imitating the style of satirists William Hogarth and Honoré Daumier. Filipovitch-Robinson writes that if this were so, Predić's attempt at emulation was certainly unsuccessful. "Perhaps this was due to the inherent limitations of his subject", she writes, "the fact that the figures are not caricatured and that the painting is devoid of biting or mocking humor". According to Filipovitch-Robinson, Predić's treatment of Balkan rural life differs in a number of ways from that of his contemporary Paja Jovanović, known for painting similar subjects. Jovanović's paintings were based on careful ethnographic studies of rural costumes and everyday objects, whereas Predić's works lack Jovanović's precision, owing to the artist's tendency not to produce detailed studies of his subjects beforehand.

"The images", Filipovitch-Robinson writes, "are more gestural because of the combination of generous br

East Natuna gas field

The East Natuna gas field is a large natural gas field located in the South China Sea off northern Natuna Island, Indonesia. It is within the disagreed area claimed by China; the field was discovered in 1973 by Agip. In 1980, the Indonesian state-owned oil company Pertamina and Exxon formed a joint venture to develop Natuna D-Alpha. However, due to the high CO2 content the partnership was not able to start production. In 1995, the Indonesian government signed a contract with Exxon but in 2007, the contract was terminated. In 2008, the block was awarded to Pertamina; the new agreement was signed between Pertamina and ExxonMobil in 2010. Correspondingly, the field was renamed East Natuna to be geographically more precise. In 2011, the principal of agreement was signed between Pertamina, ExxonMobil, Total S. A. and Petronas. In 2012, Petronas was replaced by PTT Production; as of 2016, negotiations about the new principal of agreement have not finalized and a production sharing contract is not signed.

The East Natuna gas field is located in the Greater Sarawak Basin about 1,100 kilometres north of Jakarta and 225 kilometres northeast of the Natuna Islands covering 310 square kilometres. The reservoir is at a water depth of 145 metres within the Miocene Terumbu Formation with a crest at 2,658 metres subsea. A maximum column height is 1,638 metres; the thickness of the formation varies between 1,525 metres. The estimated resource in place of the East Natuna field is around 222 trillion cubic feet, of which total proven reserves of natural gas are 46 trillion cubic feet, production is forecast to be around 1.98 billion cubic feet per day. The CO2 content of the resource is about 71%; the development of East Natuna is expected to cost US$20–40 billion. To save costs, the joint development of East Natuna, Tuna block, South Natuna Sea Block B has been proposed. Production is expected to be viable; the production is expected to start not before 2030