Omnipotence paradox

The omnipotence paradox is a family of paradoxes that arise with some understandings of the term omnipotent. The paradox arises, for example, if one assumes that an omnipotent being has no limits and is capable of realizing any outcome logically contradictory ideas such as creating square circles. A no-limits understanding of omnipotence such as this has been rejected by theologians from Thomas Aquinas to contemporary philosophers of religion, such as Alvin Plantinga. Atheological arguments based on the omnipotence paradox are sometimes described as evidence for atheism, though Christian theologians and philosophers, such as Norman Geisler and William Lane Craig, contend that a no-limits understanding of omnipotence is not relevant to orthodox Christian theology. Other possible resolutions to the paradox hinge on the definition of omnipotence applied and the nature of God regarding this application and whether omnipotence is directed toward God himself or outward toward his external surroundings.

The omnipotence paradox has medieval origins, dating at least to the 12th century. It was addressed by Averroës and by Thomas Aquinas. Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite has a predecessor version of the paradox, asking whether it is possible for God to "deny himself"; the most well-known version of the omnipotence paradox is the so-called paradox of the stone: "Could God create a stone so heavy that He could not lift it?" This phrasing of the omnipotence paradox is vulnerable to objections based on the physical nature of gravity, such as how the weight of an object depends on what the local gravitational field is. Alternative statements of the paradox that do not involve such difficulties include "If given the axioms of Euclidean geometry, can an omnipotent being create a triangle whose angles do not add up to 180 degrees?" and "Can God create a prison so secure that he cannot escape from it?". A common modern version of the omnipotence paradox is expressed in the question: "Can create a stone so heavy that it cannot lift it?"

This question generates a dilemma. The being can either create a stone it can not lift. If the being can create a stone that it cannot lift it is not omnipotent because there is a weight threshold beyond its own power to lift. If the being cannot create a stone it cannot lift there is something it cannot create, is therefore not omnipotent. In either case, God is not omnipotent. A related issue is whether the concept of "logically possible" is different for a world in which omnipotence exists than a world in which omnipotence does not exist; the dilemma of omnipotence is similar to another classic paradox—the irresistible force paradox: "What would happen if an irresistible force were to meet an immovable object?" One response to this paradox is to disallow its formulation, by saying that if a force is irresistible by definition there is no immovable object. Some claim that the only way out of this paradox is if the irresistible force and immovable object never meet, but this is not a way out, because an object cannot in principle be immovable if a force exists that can in principle move it, regardless of whether the force and the object meet.

Peter Geach rejects four levels of omnipotence. He defines and defends a lesser notion of the "almightiness" of God. "Y is omnipotent" means that "Y" can do anything that can be expressed in a string of words if it is self-contradictory: "Y" is not bound by the laws of logic." "Y is omnipotent" means "Y can do X" is true if and only if X is a logically consistent description of a state of affairs. This position was once advocated by Thomas Aquinas; this definition of omnipotence solves some of the paradoxes associated with omnipotence, but some modern formulations of the paradox still work against this definition. Let X = "to make something that its maker cannot lift." As Mavrodes points out, there is nothing logically contradictory about this. A man could, for example, make a boat. "Y is omnipotent" means "Y can do X" is true if and only if "Y does X" is logically consistent. Here the idea is to exclude actions that are inconsistent for Y to do but might be consistent for others. Again sometimes it looks.

Here Mavrodes' worry about X= "to make something its maker cannot lift" is no longer a problem, because "God does X" is not logically consistent. However, this account may still have problems with moral issues like X = "tells a lie" or temporal issues like X = "brings it about that Rome was never founded." "Y is omnipotent" means whenever "Y will bring about X" is logically possible "Y can bring about X" is true. This sense does not allow the paradox of omnipotence to arise, unlike definition #3 avoids any temporal worries about whether an omnipotent being could change the past. However, Geach criticizes this sense of omnipotence as misunderstanding the nature of God's promises. "Y is almighty" means that Y is not just more powerful than any creature. In this account nothing like the omnipotence paradox arises, but, because God is not taken to be in any sense omnipotent. On the other hand, Anselm of Canterbury seems to think that almightiness is one of the things that make God count as omnipotent.

Augustine of Hippo in his City of God writes "God is called omnipotent on account of His doing what He wills" and thus proposes the definition that "Y is omnipotent" means "If Y wishes to do X Y can and does do X". The notion of omnipotence can be applied to an entity in different ways. An omnipotent being is an enti


KHCA "Angel 95" is a Contemporary Christian Music formatted radio station licensed to Wamego, Kansas. It broadcasts to the Wamego, Junction City, Topeka areas broadcasting on 95.3 MHz with an ERP of 6,000 watts. The station is managed by Jerry "Q" Hutchinson. KHCA programming includes a combination of Contemporary Christian Music, local programming, a variety of syndicated Christian programs. Programs include material from Focus on the Family, Christian Author Joni Eareckson Tada's program "Joni and Friends", author and Christian Comedian Ken Davis, a weekly Christian Top 20 countdown; the license for 95.3 MHz in Wamego, was first issued under the call letters KAWQ in September 1985. The original licensee intended to use the Wamego license to operate a Top 40 radio station in the Manhattan, market. To that end, the station's transmitter was located just outside Wamego but the studios and sales offices were situated in downtown Manhattan. Due to construction delays, another station, KQLA, beat KAWQ to the airwaves as a Top 40 station in February 1986.

KQLA gained the top rated spot in the market and with another station using "Q" in its moniker, KAWQ applied for call sign change to KSKT, meaning "Kansas Kat", named for the local Kansas State University Wildcats. The station was unable to generate enough sales revenue or find a buyer before inevitable bankruptcy and went "dark", or stopped broadcasting. In 1990, the Heartland Christian Association purchased the license and studios and resumed broadcasting as a commercially licensed Contemporary Christian formatted station; the station is now managed by Jerry Hutchinson, President of KHCA, Inc.. Official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KHCA Radio-Locator information on KHCA Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KHCA

Friedrich L├╝bker

Friedrich Heinrich Christian Lübker was a German educator and philologist. He studied philology and theology at the University of Kiel, receiving his doctorate in 1832. In 1835 he was named school conrector in Schleswig, in 1848 was appointed rector of the provisional government school in Flensburg, In 1851 he relocated to Parchim as director of its high school, he moved to Braunschweig in order to spend time pursuing literary interests. In 1864 he returned to Flensburg, he was the author of many works, including a popular dictionary of classical antiquity, issued in numerous editions spanning several decades. He was published a number of biographical works on various theological figures — Rhabanus Maurus, the martyrs victimized by Nero, Dionysius Areopagita, Hugo Grotius, to name a few; the following are a list of his principal works: Die Sophokleische Theologie und Ethik, 1851-1855 - Sophoclean theology and ethics. Gesammelte schriften zur philologie und paedagogik, 1852 - Collected papers on philology and pedagogy.

Reallexikon des classischen Alterthums für Gymnasien. Handwörterbuch der lateinischen Sprache, - Dictionary of the Latin language. Beiträge zur Theologie und Ethik des Euripides, 1863 - Contributions to the theology and ethics of Euripides. Vorträge über Bildung und Christenthum, 1863 - Lectures on education and Christianity