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On Fairy-Stories

"On Fairy-Stories" is an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien which discusses the fairy-story as a literary form, it was written for presentation by Tolkien as the Andrew Lang lecture at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, on 8 March 1939. In the lecture, Tolkien chose to focus on Andrew Lang’s work as a folklorist and collector of fairy tales, he disagreed with Lang's broad inclusion in his Fairy Books collection, of traveller's tales, beast fables, other types of stories. Tolkien held a narrower perspective, viewing fairy stories as those that took place in Faerie, an enchanted realm, with or without fairies as characters, he disagreed with both Max Müller and Andrew Lang in their respective theories of the development of fairy stories, which he viewed as the natural development of the interaction of human imagination and human language. The essay first appeared in print, with some enhancement, in 1947, in a festschrift volume, Essays Presented to Charles Williams, compiled by C. S. Lewis. Charles Williams, a friend of Lewis's, had been relocated with the Oxford University Press staff from London to Oxford during the London blitz in World War II.

This allowed him to participate in gatherings of the Inklings with Tolkien. The volume of essays was intended to be presented to Williams upon the return of the OUP staff to London with the ending of the war. However, Williams died on 15 May 1945, the book was published as a memorial volume. Essays Presented to Charles Williams received little attention, was out of print by 1955."On Fairy-Stories" began to receive much more attention in 1964, when it was published in Tree and Leaf. Since Tree and Leaf has been reprinted several times, "On Fairy-Stories" itself has been reprinted in other compilations of Tolkien's works, such as The Tolkien Reader in 1966 and The Monsters and the Critics, Other Essays in 1983. "On Fairy Stories" was published on its own in an expanded edition in 2008. The length of the essay, as it appears in Tree and Leaf, is 60 pages, including about ten pages of notes; the essay is significant because it contains Tolkien's explanation of his philosophy on fantasy and thoughts on mythopoiesis.

Moreover, the essay is an early analysis of speculative fiction by one of the most important authors in the genre. Tolkien had not intended to write a sequel to The Hobbit; the Lang lecture was important as it brought him to clarify for himself his view of fairy stories as a legitimate literary genre, one not intended for children. "It is a perceptive commentary on the interdependence of language and human consciousness."Tolkien was among the pioneers of the genre that we would now call fantasy writing. In particular, his stories—together with those of C. S. Lewis—were among the first to establish the convention of an alternative world or universe as the setting for speculative fiction. Most earlier works with styles similar to Tolkien's, such as the science fiction of H. G. Wells or the Gothic romances of Mary Shelley, were set in a world, recognisably that of the author and introduced only a single fantastic element—or at most a fantastic milieu within the author's world, as with Lovecraft or Howard.

Tolkien departed from this. The essay "On Fairy-Stories" is an attempt to explain and defend the genre of fairy tales or Märchen, it distinguishes Märchen from "traveller's tales", science fiction, beast tales, dream stories. In the essay, Tolkien claims that one touchstone of the authentic fairy tale is that it is presented as wholly credible: "It is at any rate essential to a genuine fairy-story, as distinct from the employment of this form for lesser or debased purposes, that it should be presented as'true'.... But since the fairy-story deals with'marvels', it cannot tolerate any frame or machinery suggesting that the whole framework in which they occur is a figment or illusion."Tolkien emphasises that through the use of fantasy, which he equates with imagination, the author can bring the reader to experience a world, consistent and rational, under rules other than those of the normal world. He calls this "a rare achievement of Art," and notes that it was important to him as a reader: "It was in fairy-stories that I first divined the potency of the words, the wonder of things, such as stone, wood, iron.

Tolkien suggests that fairy stories allow the reader to review his own world from the "perspective" of a different world. Tolkien calls this "recovery", in the sense that one's unquestioned assumptions might be recovered and changed by an outside perspective. Second, he defends fairy stories as offering escapist pleasure to the reader, justifying this analogy: a prisoner is not obliged to think of nothing but cells and wardens, and third, Tolkien suggests that fairy stories can provide moral or emotional consolation, through their happy ending, which he terms a "eucatastrophe". In conclusion and as expanded upon in an epilogue, Tolkien asserts that a good and representative fairy story is marked by joy: "Far more powerful and poignant is the effect in a serious tale of Faerie. In such stories, when the sudden turn comes, we get a piercing glimpse of joy, heart's desire, that for a moment passes outside the frame, rends indeed the web of story, lets a gleam come through." Tolkien sees Christianity as partaking in and fulfilling the overarching mythological nature of the cosmos: "I wo

Paul of Tella

Paul, in Syriac Pawlos, was the Syriac Orthodox bishop of Tella and an important translator of Greek works into Syriac. Paul was a native of Tella. By 615 he was a bishop. At some point before 613, he fled Syria for Egypt, he was one of several non-Chalcedonian bishops who fled in 599 amidst the persecution of Domitian of Melitene, nephew of the Emperor Maurice. He is not named by Michael the Syrian among the exiles, but the bishop of Tella is said to have returned to diocese when the persecution ceased. If this was Paul he fled a second time to Egypt during the Persian invasion of Syria in 609–611. In Egypt, Paul lived in a group of monasteries near Alexandria. There he joined with other Syriac scholars, including Tumo of Ḥarqel, to translate Greek texts into Syriac. Working between 613 and 617, Paul was responsible for the Syro-Hexapla, a Syriac translation of Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, based on the version found in Origen's Hexapla, he translated a liturgy for baptism by Severus of Antioch.

His translation work is characterised by close imitation of the Greek morphology and word order. Paul of Tella is sometimes proposed as the translator of the pericope about Jesus and the woman taken in adultery, found in neither the standard Syriac Bible, the Peshitta, nor in Tumo of Ḥarqel's translation of the New Testament, the Ḥarqlean Version, it is attributed to a certain "Abbas Pawla" in the manuscripts, but this is Paul of Edessa. Besides his translations, Paul wrote at least one surviving sedro. There is some question over whether the bishop of Tella named Paul and the translator of the Septuagint of the same name are the same person; the translator is sometimes instead identified with Paul of Nisibis

Rotellenzia lampra

Rotellenzia lampra is a species of small deep water sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Seguenziidae. The height of the shell attains 7.6 mm. The thin, opalescent, smooth shell is faintly reticulated, it has a high concave spire, a sharp apex, an acute carina, an angulated umbilicus, a rhomboidal aperture. Sculpture: The shell is smooth and iridescent, it has ten to twenty faint spiral threads on the upperside of the body whorl. The last of these which joins the lip is much stronger than the others. A little remote and below is a thread forming the keel, below which, nearer, are two other strong threads. Round the umbilicus are two strong threads; the intermediate space on the base is marked with eight to ten impressed spiral striae. The interstices of the spirals are crossed by longitudinals, which are regular, hair-like, but distinct and well parted, their curve on the surface below the suture shows the old sinus. On the base they are radiating and are crowded and irregular, except round the umbilicus, where in the first two or three striae they are sharp and distinct.

On the upper whorls both the spirals and longitudinals are sharper, than on the last. Colour: a greyish, translucent, opalescent white; the spire is raised, with a concave outline. The apex, which consists of the single minute embryonic whorl, is sharp and extends out, it is quite smooth, but the spirals and longitudinals begin immediately below it. The 6 1/2 whorls show a regular increase except the last, which widens rapidly, they are depressed, quite flat, except the last, rounded above, still more concave on the base, with an acute, but still rounded keel. The suture is impressed on the body whorl, but on the upper whorls though marginated below; the aperture is a little oblique, the basal and palatal lines being nearly parallel, while the outer and inner lip diverge downwards. The outer lip is thin, not patulous, not descending, advancing at its junction with the body whorl, retreating so as to form a shallow, open sinus a little below the suture, but roundedly, angulate at the periphery, nearly flat on the base, with a slight nick at the point of the columella, where it joins the inner lip at a obtuse angle.

The pcolumellar lip is straight. It is a little thickened, is porcellanous, it advances a little on the edge of the umbilicus. Below this it is hollowed out by a receding curve, but advances again into a slight rounded projection just above its junction with the outer lip. In its whole direction it inclines to the left; the umbilicus is oblique edged, funnel-shaped, being wide in the mouth and deep, with straight converging sides. It is marked with lines of gi'owtli and a few faint spirals. While all the rest of the shell without and within is brightly opalescent, it is scarcely so at all; this species occurs in the mid Pacific Ocean,east of Japan. To Biodiversity Heritage Library To Encyclopedia of Life To World Register of Marine Species

2008 amendments to the Constitution of Russia

The amendments of 2008, which were proposed in November 2008 and came into force on 31 December 2008, are the first substantial amendments to the Constitution of Russia of 1993 and extended the terms of the President of Russia and the State Duma from four to six and five years, respectively. Earlier only minor adjustments concerning the naming of the federal subjects or their merging were made, which require a much simpler procedure. President Dmitry Medvedev, who succeeded Vladimir Putin earlier that year, made that brief proposal during his first annual address to the Federal Assembly on 5 November 2008: e should increase the constitutional mandates of the President and State Duma to six and five years respectively; these issues have been raised since the 1990s. Discussions on these subjects have gone on for a long time. Many have made reference to history, which abounds with examples of democratic countries changing the terms and mandates of their state bodies. I will not list all of these examples.

These cases are well known. What I want to say is that we are not talking about constitutional reform but about adjustments to the Constitution, about adjustments that are important but are nonetheless no more than clarifications and do not change the political and legal essence of the current institutions; these adjustments provide rather an additional resource for the institutions' stable work. There is no place for a'reforming itch' with regard to the Constitution; the Constitution is effective, it works, its basic provisions should remain unchanged for many years to come. Civic rights and freedoms, the nation’s sovereignty, the state system and federal organisation, the organisation principles of the judicial system and local self-government, the other foundations of our constitutional order have been set for a long-term historical period; as the guarantor of the Constitution, I will protect these fundamental provisions. The change doesn't apply retroactively and shouldn't affect the current terms of the President and the State Duma and will take effect for the next time.

As of 2008, the articles 81.1 and 96.1 of the Constitution of 1993 stipulated that the President and the State Duma should be elected for a term of four years. According to the articles 136 and 108, amendments to the provisions of Chapters 3–8, including the articles 81 and 96, require the same approval as a federal constitutional law, that is, a two-thirds supermajority vote in the State Duma, the lower house and a three-fourths supermajority vote in the Federation Council, the upper house, come into force as they have passed the Regional legislatures of no less than two thirds of the 83 federal subjects; the President formally submitted the bill to the State Duma on 11 November. The State Duma, dominated by pro-government parties after the election of 2007, swiftly approved the proposal in the three required readings on 14 November, 19 November and 21 November. Of the four parties represented in the State Duma, only the Communist Party, represented by 57 members of parliament, opposed the bill.

The United Russia, Liberal Democratic Party and Fair Russia all supported the bill. Viktor Ilyukhin, a Communist legislator, commented during discussions in the State Duma on 14 November: Why are we in such a hurry? A strict authoritarian regime has been established in this country. There is an unprecedented concentration of power in one person's hands; the fractured opposition outside the parliament condemned the proposed changes to the constitution. On 26 November the Federation Council approved the bill with 144 votes in one against. Yulia Latynina, journalist for The Moscow Times, speculated that the reform prefigures Vladimir Putin's return to the Kremlin earlier than in May 2012, when Medvedev's term is set to expire. An unnamed official from the Presidential Executive Office cited by Vedomosti hinted that Medvedev could resign as early as in 2009. According to Vedomosti's source, the alleged plan was masterminded by Vladislav Surkov in 2007. A survey held by VTsIOM on 15–16 November showed 56% support of a longer presidency and extended term of parliament among the Russians.

The support, was lower in big cities. By 18 December the provincial legislatures of all 83 federal subjects of Russia had approved the amendments; the Federation Council reviewed and accepted the approvals on 22 December and on 30 December President Medvedev signed them into law. The amendments were published in Rossiyskaya Gazeta and hence came into force on 31 December 2008

2015–16 NC State Wolfpack women's basketball team

The 2015–16 NC State Wolfpack women's basketball team represents North Carolina State University during the 2015–16 NCAA Division I women's basketball season. The Wolfpack, led by third-year head coach Wes Moore, play their home games at Needham B. Broughton High School with 2 games at PNC Arena due to renovations at Reynolds Coliseum and were members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, they finished the season 10 -- 6 in ACC play to finish in sixth place. They advanced to the quarterfinals of the ACC Women's Tournament to Syracuse. Despite having 20 wins, they were not invited to a postseason tournament. WKNC acts as the home for Wolfpack women's basketball. Patrick Kinas and Rachel Stockdale provide the call for the games. ESPN and the ACC RSN will televise select Wolfpack games during the season. All non-televised home conference games will be shown on ESPN3 using the radio broadcasters for the call. Source 2015–16 NC State Wolfpack men's basketball team

The Farm Vegetarian Cookbook

The Farm Vegetarian Cookbook is a vegan cookbook by Louise Hagler, first published in 1975. It was influential in introducing Americans to tofu, included recipes for making and using tempeh and other soy foods, became a staple in vegetarian kitchens; the Farm is an intentional community founded in 1971 in Tennessee. Their diet is vegan. UNICEF, seeing an opportunity to examine a large group all eating the same diet, sent nutritionists to the community; when the UNICEF experts checked the members' nutritional intake, they found it provided adequate protein but fell short in providing carbohydrates and calories. Recipes were developed to provide community members with guidance in following the experts' advice, collected to become the cookbook; the Farm Vegetarian Cookbook was first published in 1975 by Book Publishing Company, the publishing arm of The Farm, was a commercial success for the community. In 1978 a revised edition titled. In 1982 it was published under the title Soja Total. According to its publisher it was the first vegan cookbook published in the United States.

Louise Hagler wrote several books on soy foods. She became a vegetarian in 1969; the book emphasizes soy products such as soymilk and tempeh, gives guidelines for making them from scratch. Douglas Stevenson in The Farm Then and Now said it was one of the first cookbooks to provide "easy-to-follow, good-tasting" vegan recipes; the Farm leader Stephen Gaskin wrote in the introduction that the cookbook was not intended to be "cultish, faddish, or scare people off" but instead to educate readers and inform them that a vegetarian diet is based on beans. Academic Matthew Roth in Magic Bean:The Rise of Soy in America called it a staple in vegetarian kitchens. Shurtleff and Aoyagi said the book played an important role in introducing soy foods and a vegan diet to Americans, made a major contribution to "westernizing recipes Oriental in origin", encouraged vegetarianism not only as a diet but as a lifestyle. Vegetarian Times said it introduced America to cooking with tofu. Vegetarian historians Karen and Michael Iacobbo said it was instrumental in introducing Americans to tofu and textured vegetable protein in the 1970s.

In 1990 Vegetarian Times called it a staple in vegetarian kitchens and in 1994 named it one of the five best vegan cookbooks. Food historians William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi called it influential; the Vegetarian Journal called it a "famous" cheese-alternative cookbook, noting its recipe for Macaroni and "Cheese" Casserole, which uses nutritional yeast as a cheese substitute. The Fellowship for Intentional Community called it a classic