On the Waterfront is a 1954 American crime drama film, directed by Elia Kazan and written by Budd Schulberg. It stars Marlon Brando and features Karl Malden, Lee J. Cobb, Rod Steiger, Pat Henning, Eva Marie Saint in her film debut; the soundtrack score was composed by Leonard Bernstein. The film was suggested by "Crime on the Waterfront" by Malcolm Johnson, a series of articles published in November–December 1948 in the New York Sun which won the 1949 Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting, but the screenplay by Budd Schulberg is directly based on his own original story; the film focuses on union violence and corruption amongst longshoremen, while detailing widespread corruption and racketeering on the waterfronts of Hoboken, New Jersey. On the Waterfront was a critical and commercial success, it received twelve Academy Award nominations and won eight, including Best Picture, Best Actor for Brando, Best Supporting Actress for Saint, Best Director for Kazan. In 1997, it was ranked by the American Film Institute as the eighth-greatest American movie of all time.
It is Bernstein's only original film score not adapted from a stage production with songs. In 1989, On the Waterfront was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. Mob-connected union boss Johnny Friendly gloats about his iron-fisted control of the waterfront; the police and the Waterfront Crime Commission know that Friendly is behind a number of murders, but witnesses play "D and D", accepting their subservient position, rather than risking the danger and shame of informing. Terry Malloy is a dockworker. Terry had been a promising boxer until Friendly instructed Charley to have Terry deliberately lose a fight so that Friendly could win money by betting against him. Terry coaxes Joey Doyle, a popular dockworker, into an ambush, preventing Joey from testifying against Friendly before the Crime Commission. Terry assumed that Friendly's enforcers were only going to "lean" on Joey to pressure him into silence, is surprised when Joey is killed.
Joey's sister Edie, angry about her brother's death, shames "waterfront priest" Father Barry into fomenting action against the mob-controlled union. Friendly sends Terry to attend and inform on a dockworkers' meeting Father Barry holds in the church, broken up by Friendly's men. Terry helps Edie escape the violence, is smitten with her. Another dockworker, Timothy J. "Kayo" Dugan, who agrees to testify after Father Barry promises unwavering support, ends up dead after Friendly arranges for him to be crushed by a load of whiskey in a staged accident. Although Terry resents being used as a tool in Joey's death, despite Father Barry's impassioned "sermon on the docks" reminding the longshoremen that Christ walks among them and that every murder is a crucifixion, Terry is at first willing to remain "D and D" when subpoenaed to testify. However, when Edie, unaware of Terry's role in her brother's death, begins to return Terry's feelings, Terry is tormented by his awakening conscience and confesses the circumstances of Joey's death to Father Barry and Edie.
Horrified, Edie breaks up with him. As Terry leans toward testifying, Friendly decides that Terry must be killed unless Charley can coerce him into keeping quiet. Charley tries bribing Terry, offering him a good job where he can receive kickbacks without any physical work, threatens Terry by holding a gun against him, but recognizes that he has failed to sway Terry, who blames his own downward spiral on his well-off brother. In what has become an iconic scene, Terry reminds Charley that had it not been for the fixed fight, Terry's prizefighting career would have bloomed. "I coulda' had class. I coulda' been a contender. I could've been somebody", laments Terry to his brother, "Instead of a bum, what I am – let's face it." Charley gives Terry the gun, advises him to run. Terry flees to Edie's apartment, where she first refuses to let him in, but admits her love for him. Friendly, having had Charley watched, has Charley murdered that night near the apartment and his body hung in an alley as bait to lure Terry out to his death, but Terry and Edie both escape the attempt on Terry's life.
After finding Charley's body, Terry sets out to shoot Friendly, but Father Barry prevents it by blocking Terry's line of fire and convincing Terry to fight Friendly by testifying in court instead. Terry proceeds to give damaging testimony implicating Friendly in Joey's murder and other illegal activities, causing Friendly's mob boss to cut him off and Friendly to face indictment. After the testimony, Friendly announces that Terry will not find employment anywhere on the waterfront. Terry is shunned by his former friends and by a neighborhood boy who had looked up to him. Refusing Edie's suggestion that they move far away from the waterfront together, Terry shows up during recruitment at the docks; when he is the only man not hired, Terry confronts Friendly, calling him out and proclaiming that he is proud of what he did. The confrontation develops into a vicious brawl, with Terry getting the upper hand until Friendly's thugs gang up on Terry and nearly beat him to death; the dockworkers, who witness the confrontation, show their support for Terry by refusing to work, unless Terry is working and pushing Friendly into the river.
Encouraged by Father Barry and Edie, the badly injured Terry forces himself to his feet and enters the dock, followed by the other workers. A soaking wet and face-scarred Friendly, now left with
Loch Duich is a sea loch situated on the western coast of Scotland, in the Highlands. In 1719, British forces burned many homesteads along the loch’s shores in the month preceding the Battle of Glen Shiel. Eilean Donan Castle stands at the meeting point of Loch Duich, Loch Long, Loch Alsh. A legend connected with Loch Duich states that three brothers who went fishing at the loch one night became enraptured by three seal-maidens who had thrown off their furs, assumed the likeness of humans, danced in the moonlight on the sands; the brothers stole their furs. The youngest brother, moved by the seal-girl’s distress, returned her seal-skin. For his kindness, the girl’s father allowed the youngest brother to visit the maiden every ninth night; as for the other two brothers, the middle brother lost his wife after the seal-maiden he had captured found her stolen fur, while the eldest brother burnt his wife’s fur as a preventative measure, only to burn her accidentally in the process. The infamous "McRae film" connected with the Loch Ness Monster was shot as a close-up of not only "Nessie" in its habitat of Loch Ness, but a second film shows a similar animal in Loch Duich.
Both films are, according to most sources, held in a secret trust, few people have seen either film. It is still a mystery as to whether the films exist at all, but are accepted by several Loch Ness researchers. Loch Duich, along with the neighbouring sea lochs of Loch Long and Loch Alsh, was together designated as a Nature Conservation Marine Protected Area in 2014; the designation is in place to protect their flame shell beds. Folklore and Legends of Britain, 444
William Roark Ratliff, is a Texas politician who served as a member of the Texas State Senate from 1988 to 2004. Between 2000 and 2003 he served as the 40th Lieutenant Governor of Texas, after previous Lieutenant Governor Rick Perry succeeded to the governorship to replace George W. Bush who resigned to become President of the United States. Bill Ratliff was educated at Sonora High School in Sonora in Sutton County in West Texas and at the University of Texas at Austin, where he studied civil engineering. Ratliff, along with brothers Jack, was a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, he worked as a civil engineer for thirty years. He was first elected in 1988 as a Republican to the Texas State Senate. In 1992, he was appointed chairman of the Senate Education Committee by Lieutenant Governor Bob Bullock. From 1997 to 1998, he served as President Pro Tempore of the Texas Senate. Ratliff and his wife, the former Sally Sandlin, have eight grandchildren. Son Bennett Ratliff of Coppell, a civil engineer, served nine years as a Coppell ISD School Board Trustee and was elected in 2012 to represent District 115 in the Texas House of Representatives.
Another son, Robert Thomas Ratliff of Mt. Pleasant, is the Republican Vice-Chairman of the Texas State Board of Education. Ratliff announced in 2003 that he would not run for reelection to the State Senate in 2004. Instead he soon resigned the Senate seat and was succeeded in a special election by Republican Kevin Eltife of Tyler. In 2005, Ratliff was awarded the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award for "the example he has set of courage and principle in American public life". In 2000, for the first time in Texas history, the Texas State Senate was called upon to choose a new lieutenant governor after the election of George W. Bush as President of the United States and the resultant succession of lieutenant governor Rick Perry to become governor. In accordance with a 1984 amendment to the Texas Constitution of 1876, the Texas Senate chooses one of its own members to fill a vacancy in the position of lieutenant governor. In the election for lieutenant governor, Ratliff defeated rival David Sibley of Waco.
In 2001, Ratliff first announced that he would be a candidate for election to a full four-year term to the office of Lieutenant Governor in the 2002 state elections, he received the endorsement of several prominent Republican legislators. However, he withdrew from the race, the position went to David Dewhurst, the Texas land commissioner. Ratliff is regarded as a moderate, he has taken bipartisan stands on a number of issues. While in the Texas Senate, he supported controversial reforms that transferred funds from richer to poorer school districts for more equitable funding, he argued in favor of "patients' rights" in medical malpractice cases during a debate on tort reform, in 2003 criticized other members of the State Senate for failing to raise taxes in order to prevent large budget cuts. In early 2003, Ratliff was the only dissenting member of his party who joined with Democratic state senators in opposing a redistricting proposal of Texas's thirty-two seats in the United States House of Representatives that he felt would lead to the under-representation of rural voters.
In cooperation with ten Democrats, he signed a letter refusing to bring the matter to the Senate floor, which, by virtue of Texas Senate traditions that require a two-thirds vote of those present and voting to allow a bill to be debated, prevented the proposal from being passed. A plan suitable to Republicans was enacted in the third of three special legislative sessions called in 2003 by Governor Perry. Under that plan, by 2011, Republicans held twenty-three U. S. House seats from Texas compared to nine for Democrats. Appearances on C-SPAN