The onager known as hemione or Asiatic wild ass, is a species of the family Equidae native to Asia. A member of the subgenus Asinus, the onager was described and given its binomial name by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1775. Five subspecies have been recognized, one of, extinct; the Asiatic wild ass is larger than the African wild ass at about 290 kg and 2.1 m. They are reddish-brown or yellowish-brown in color and have broad dorsal stripe on the middle of the back. Unlike most horses and donkeys, onagers have never been domesticated, they are among the fastest mammals. The onager is related to the African wild ass, as they both shared the same ancestor; the kiang considered a subspecies of Equus hemionus, diverged from the Asiatic wild ass and has been acknowledged as a distinct species. The onager had a wider range from southwest and central to northern Asian countries, such as Israel, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Afghanistan and Siberia. During early 20th century, the species lost most of its ranges in the Middle Eastern Asia.

Today, onagers live in deserts and other arid regions of Iran, Pakistan and Mongolia, including in Central Asian hot and cold deserts of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and China. Other than deserts, it lives in grasslands, plains and savannahs. Like many other large grazing animals, the onager's range has contracted under the pressures of poaching and habitat loss. Listed as Endangered, onagers have been classified as Near Threatened by IUCN in 2015. Of the five subspecies, one is extinct, two are endangered, two are near threatened. Persian onagers are being reintroduced in the Middle East as replacements for the extinct Syrian wild ass in the Arabian Peninsula and Jordan; the specific name is Ancient Greek ἡμίονος, from ἡμι-, ὄνος, donkey. The term onager comes from the ancient Greek ὄναγρος, again from ὄνος, ἄγριος, wild; the species was known as Asian wild ass, in which case the term onager was reserved for the E. h. onager subspecies, more known as the Persian onager. Until this day, the species share onager.

The onager is a member of the subgenus Asinus, belonging to the genus Equus and is classified under the family Equidae. The species was described and given its binomial name Equus hemionus by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1775; the Asiatic wild ass, among Old World equids, existed for more than 4 million years. The oldest divergence of Equus was the onager followed by the onwards. A new species called the kiang, a Tibetan relative, was considered to be a subspecies of the onager as E. hemionus kiang, but recent molecular studies indicate it to be a distinct species, having diverged from the closest relative of the Mongolian wild ass's ancestor less than 500,000 years ago. Five recognized subspecies of the onager include: A sixth possible subspecies, the Gobi khulan has been proposed, but may be synonymous with E. h. hemionus. Debates over the taxonomic identity of the onager occurred until 1980; as of today, four living subspecies and one extinct subspecies of the Asiatic wild ass have been recognized.

The Persian onager was known as Equus onager, as it was thought to be a distinct species. Onagers are the most horse-like of wild asses, they are short-legged compared to horses, their coloring varies depending on the season. They are reddish-brown in color during the summer, becoming yellowish-brown or grayish-brown in the winter, they have a black stripe bordered in white. The belly, the rump, the muzzle are white in most onagers, except for the Mongolian wild ass that has a broad black dorsal stripe bordered with white. Onagers are larger than donkeys at 2.1 to 2.5 m in head-body length. Male onagers are larger than females; the genus Equus, which includes all extant equines, is believed to have evolved from Dinohippus via the intermediate form Plesippus. One of the oldest species is Equus simplicidens, described as zebra-like with a donkey-shaped head; the oldest fossil to date is about 3.5 million years old from Idaho, USA. The genus appears to have spread into the Old World, with the aged Equus livenzovensis documented from western Europe and Russia.

Molecular phylogenies indicate the most recent common ancestor of all modern equids lived around 5.6 million years ago. Direct paleogenomic sequencing of a 700,000-year-old middle Pleistocene horse metapodial bone from Canada implies a more recent 4.07 Mya for the most recent common ancestor within the range of 4.0 to 4.5 Mya. The oldest divergencies are the Asian hemiones, followed by the African zebras. All other modern forms including the domesticated horse belong to the subgenus E. which diverged about 4.8 Mya. The onagers' favored habitats consist of desert plains, oases, arid grasslands, shrublands, mountainous steppes, mountain ranges; the Turkmenian kulan and Mongolian wild asses are known to live in colder deserts. The IUCN estimates. During the late Pleistocene era around 4

Leandro Taub

Leandro Taub is an Argentinan actor and author, born in May 5, 1983 in Buenos Aires and raised in Bariloche. As actor he debuted as the poet Enrique Lihn in Alejandro Jodorowsky's film Endless Poetry, he wrote one of them is Sabiduría Casera. Leandro Taub comes from a polish-jewish family, he got his degrees as Bachelor in Economics and Master in Finance in the University of CEMA and after a life crisis he left Argentina and traveled around the globe before finding his purpose in life. He studied Numerology, Kabbalah, Shamanism and Alchemistry; the Dream of the Guest: with the actors Amanda Plummer, Jean-Marc Barr, John Robinson, Lizzie Brocheré and Udo Kier, co-produced by the german producer Peter Rommel. In 2011 he worked with the Argentinean musician Fito Páez for the music video London Town. Taub gave lectures in Argentina and Chile about his books and work. In 2015 he was the boyfriend of the Argentinean actress Celeste Cid. Official website Leandro Taub on IMDb

The Scarecrow (2013 film)

The Scarecrow is a 2013 animated short film and advertisement by the American restaurant chain Chipotle Mexican Grill. The film features Fiona Apple singing a cover version of "Pure Imagination" performed by Gene Wilder as Willy Wonka in the 1971 film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory. In a dystopian world named the City of Plenty, the main character, starts work at the "smoke-spewing" Crow Foods Factory, he sees a tube extracting a substance labeled "100% Beef-ish", but being marketed to consumers as "all natural". He witnesses a robotic crow named a Crowbot, injecting a chicken with green fluid to promote expansion, followed by cows being held captive in small metal boxes while machines continuously milk the cows forcefully at Downtown Plenty. Scarecrow returns to his small farm upset by what he witnessed during the workday, he picks a red pepper, which inspires him to harvest other vegetables and open a burrito stand in the city. Above his stand is a banner that reads "Cultivate a Better World".

The computer-animated film features a cover version of "Pure Imagination" by Fiona Apple, a song performed by Gene Wilder as Willy Wonka in the film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, itself an adaptation of Roald Dahl's book and the Chocolate Factory. According to the Los Angeles Times, Apple's performance "scores scenes of dark devastation" and offers "stark contrast between the world of pure imagination of the lyrics" and the animals being processed. In the film, when Scarecrow returns home from work and picks a red pepper, the song transitions from "mournful" and "menacing" to a "happier" tone. Apple released the recording on iTunes, with proceeds benefiting the nonprofit organization, Chipotle Cultivation Foundation; the Scarecrow ends with a brief teaser for a mobile app game available for iPhones and iPads, where the player can take down the fictional Crow Foods Factory. In a different version, a singer sings a parody of the song talking about the film as an advertisement and how they made it.

Chipotle described the film as a "companion" piece to the game. Chief Marketing Officer Mark Crumpacker stated that because his company "is on a mission to change the way the world thinks of and eats fast food," they wished to inform the public about how the food they eat is raised. Brand Voice Lead William Espey added that they wanted to create "this experience, this film and mobile game that would help us support that mission." Crumpacker stated that the film depicts the "elaborate facade that's been created by the industrial food producers," who have done a "very good job of creating a rosy picture of their industry." The film reflects Chipotle's marketing strategy of avoiding television advertising. The Scarecrow was animated by Moonbot Studios, a small firm co-founded by William Joyce and Brandon Oldenburg that won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film in 2012. Moonbot liked Chipotle's food and ethos and created a video centered around scarecrows, which "normally protect food," but in this film they protect "something we call food, but it's something that overproduced on a dramatic scale..., not that far from the truth."

Co-directors Oldenburg and Limbert Fabian found inspiration from Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, as well as from Fritz Lang's 1927 film Metropolis. Chipotle selected Frank Ocean to perform "Pure Imagination" for the commercial, but he asked to be removed after the chain declined to remove its logo from the spot, he was replaced by Fiona Apple. In March 2014, Chipotle sued Ocean for the $212,500 advance that they had paid him to perform in the commercial; the lawsuit was dismissed that month after Ocean repaid the advance in full. The short film was released on September 11, 2013. By September 19, it had been viewed 5.5 million times on YouTube. The Scarecrow has been praised as a "beautiful" work of art. AdWeek felt that the effective animation and Apple's voice "connects the viewer to the story," but felt that it was "not quite as magical" as Chipotle's similarly-themed "Back to the Start" video; the Los Angeles Times' Randall Roberts called the film surreal, direct and "visually magnetic", wrote that "the song as covered by Apple is gorgeous, filled with electronic flourishes and rococo arrangements.

The images imbue her version with a melancholy, taken on its own, the song shimmers." Slate's Matthew Yglesias complimented the film's animation and music, called the scene in which cows are seen in small crates "the most poignant moment you've witnessed in fast food marketing". He wrote that, if Chipotle's goal was to create "high-quality high-impact stuff that gets attention and is designed to be memorable", the company was successful. Marketing reporter Bruce Horovitz, contributing for USA Today, named it the fifth best advertisement of the year; the film won the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding New Approaches – Original Daytime Program or Series and for Outstanding Directing in an Animated Program at the 41st Daytime Emmy Awards. It won the Grand Prix at the Cannes Lions in June 2014; the Scarecrow on IMDb Watch video on AdForum Watch video on YouTube