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One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power prevent the opposition from winning the elections. One-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned; the Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle, absent in Soviet society, so the Soviet Union only had one party, namely the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition such as a popular front. However, these parties are or subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the People's Republic of China under the United Front, the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Others may allow non-party members to run for legislative seats, as was the case with Taiwan’s Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union. Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are referred to as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Most one-party states have been ruled by parties forming in one of the following three circumstances: an ideology of Marxism–Leninism and international solidarity some type of nationalist or fascist ideology parties that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule.

One-party systems arise from decolonization because a single party gains an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles. One-party states are considered to be authoritarian, to the extent that they are totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule; some amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, therefore make all political parties illegal. The term "communist state" is sometimes used in the West to describe states in which the ruling party subscribes to a form of Marxism–Leninism. However, such states may not use that term themselves, seeing communism as a phase to develop after the full maturation of socialism, instead use descriptions such as "people's republic", "socialist republic", or "democratic republic". One peculiar example is Cuba where, despite the role of the Communist Party being enshrined in the constitution, no party, including the Communist Party, is permitted to campaign or run candidates for elections.

Candidates are elected on an individual referendum basis without formal party involvement, although elected assemblies predominantly consist of members of the Communist Party alongside non-affiliated candidates. As of 2020 the following countries are constituted as one-party states: As of 2020 the following countries are one-party states in practice: Ban on factions in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Political organisation Dominant-party system Political factionalism Outline of democracy Multi-party system Two-party system List of political party songs Map of One Party States, 1945-95 One-party states in Africa BBC List of One-Party Regimes

Eastchester (town), New York

Eastchester is a town in southern Westchester County, New York, United States. The population was 32,363 at the 2010 census, 32,964 as of 2018's census estimates. There are two villages within the town: Tuckahoe; the town contains a census-designated place named Eastchester, the whole town of Eastchester excluding Bronxville and Tuckahoe. The town, now called Eastchester began settlement in 1664 when ten families migrated from Fairfield, Connecticut. Thomas Pell, who at that time owned the territory, now New Rochelle and Pelham, granted a deed to the group to "settle down at Hutchinsons'," where the home of Anne Hutchinson had stood some twenty years before; the ten original families were shortly joined by another 26. Laws for the region were established the following year, in 1665, under an agreement called the "Eastchester Covenant"; the covenant was a rare document for this period. It contained 26 provisions, including such items as education of children and upkeep of property, support of a minister.

Confirmation of their 1664 land patent was granted by Governor Richard Nicolls in 1666 after the occupation of the area by the English. A controversy arose in 1700; the tract of land involved was known as "Long Reach" because of its odd geographical makeup. The sites included are the present Bronxville, a section of northwest Mount Vernon; the dispute over the ownership of the land involved the towns of New Rochelle and the Pell family. When a decision was reached in favor of Eastchester, England's Queen Anne granted a second patent in 1708. Eastchester was a farming community at the outbreak of the American Revolution. Although no major battles were fought here, as the heart of the Neutral Ground it saw constant fighting for over 13 years, being harassed by both sides as well as by the cowboys and skinners. Eastchester's rural makeup began to change with the coming of the railroad in the 1840s. An area of 370 acres of land was incorporated as the village of Mount Vernon in 1853 by a group of New York businessmen.

Today, Eastchester is bounded by Scarsdale on the north, New Rochelle on the east, Yonkers on the west, Mount Vernon on the south. The town covers five square miles, including Bronxville and Tuckahoe. Babe Ruth was a member of Leewood Country Club; the Marble Schoolhouse and Tuckahoe High School are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1899, the University system of New York State granted a charter to the Waverly Union School, located in present day Eastchester, which housed grades kindergarten through twelve; this charter marks the beginnings of the Eastchester Union Free District. Waverly was the center of the Eastchester educational community, until Eastchester High School was completed in 1927. Waverly continued to serve as an elementary school until 1983. In 1990, it was opened as the Waverly Early Childhood Center; the Wilmot School near the corner of White Plains Road and Wilmot Road was a K-8 school that serviced the north end of town after 1909. When the Greenvale elementary school was erected in 1936, the Wilmot School was converted into Eastchester's Town Hall.

In 1964, the clubhouse of the Oak Ridge Country Club was converted into the present Town Hall, the Wilmot School was torn down. The Cooper School, located in the northern end of town, was an elementary school built in the 1920s, it was demolished in the land sold to a private housing developer. The original schoolyard lives on as Cooper Field, leased to the town of Eastchester at the rate of one dollar per year; the park is referred to as Vaccaro Park, as it was donated by Carmela Vaccaro the matriarch of one of the largest and longest standing families in Eastchester. The Anne Hutchinson School, another elementary school, was built in 1953, additional classrooms constructed several years later. A primary wing was built at the Greenvale School in the 1950s. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which 4.9 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 2.00%, is water. Village of Bronxville: Bronxville Heights Lawrence ParkVillage of Tuckahoe: Waverly Bronxville Manor CrestwoodEastchester, unincorporated hamlet: Lake Isle Twin Lakes California Ridge Hickory Hills Huntley Estates Chester Heights The North End The Industrial Sector Green Knolls Garth Road Waverly Heights Bronxville Manor As of the census of 2000, there were 31,318 people, 12,626 households, 8,408 families residing in the town.

The population density was 6,376.3 people per square mile. There were 13,035 housing units at an average density of 2,653.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 87.35% White, 5.80% Black or African American, 0.07% Native American, 3.85% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.40% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.48% of the population. There were 12,626 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.09. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 1

National Communications System

The National Communications System was an office within the United States Department of Homeland Security charged with enabling national security and emergency preparedness communications using the national telecommunications system. The NCS was disbanded by Executive Order 13618 on July 6, 2012; the genesis of the NCS began in 1962 after the Cuban Missile Crisis when communications problems among the United States, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, foreign heads of state threatened to complicate the crisis further. After the crisis, President John F. Kennedy ordered an investigation of national security communications, the National Security Council formed an interdepartmental committee to examine the communications networks and institute changes; this interdepartmental committee recommended the formation of a single unified communications system to serve the President, Department of Defense and intelligence activities, civilian leaders. In order to provide better communications support to critical government functions during emergencies, President Kennedy established the National Communications System by a Presidential Memorandum on August 21, 1963.

The NCS mandate included linking and extending the communications facilities and components of various Federal agencies, focusing on interconnectivity and survivability. On April 3, 1984, President Ronald Reagan signed Executive Order 12472 which broadened the NCS' national security and emergency preparedness capabilities and superseded President Kennedy's original 1963 memorandum; the NCS expanded from its original six members to an interagency group of 23 federal departments and agencies, began coordinating and planning NS/EP telecommunications to support crises and disasters. With the addition of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence on September 30, 2007, the NCS membership stands at 24 members; each NCS member organization is represented on the NCS through the Committee of Principals – and its subordinate Council of Representatives. The COP, formed as a result of Executive Order 12472, provides advice and recommendations to the NCS and the National Security Council through the President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board on NS/EP telecommunications and its ties to other critical infrastructures.

The NCS participates in joint industry-Government planning through its work with the President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee, with the NCS's National Coordinating Center for Telecommunications and the NCC's subordinate Information Sharing and Analysis Center. After nearly forty years with the Secretary of Defense serving as its Executive Agent, President George W. Bush transferred the National Communications System to the Department of Homeland Security; the NCS was one of 22 federal agencies transferred to the department on March 1, 2003, in accordance with Executive Order 13286. A revised Executive Order 12472 reflects the changes of E. O. 13286. On November 15, 2005, the NCS became part of the department's Directorate for Preparedness after nearly two years under the Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Directorate. In March 2007 the NCS became an entity of the National Programs Directorate; the DHS Under Secretary for Programs Directorate served as the NCS Manager.

On July 6, 2012, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13618, which replaced Executive Order 12472, thus eliminating the NCS as a separate organization. A ceremony to retire the colors of the NCS and to celebrate the legacy of the organization was held on August 30, 2012 in Arlington, VA. Upon establishment of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency the OEC was renamed the Emergency Communications Division; the President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee helps strengthen United States national security, enhancing cybersecurity, maintaining the global communications infrastructure, assuring communications for disaster response, addressing critical infrastructure interdependencies and dependencies. On September 29, 2017, President Donald Trump renewed several committees including the President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee. In fulfillment of their mission to enable emergency communications, the NCS has created a number of different services.

NS/EP Priority Telecommunications Government Emergency Telecommunications Service - provides emergency access and priority processing in the local and long distance segments of the public switched wireline network. Used in an emergency or crisis situation during which the probability of completing a call over normal or other alternate telecommunication means has decreased. Telecommunications Service Priority - provides service vendors with a Federal Communications Commission mandate for prioritizing service requests by identifying those services critical to NS/EP. A telecommunications service with a TSP assignment is assured of receiving full attention by the service vendor before a non-TSP service. Wireless Priority Service - provides priority cellular network access; the WPS was approved by the FCC for NS/EP requirements on a call-by-call priority basis. The NCS executes the program on behalf of the Executive Office of the President. Only individuals in NS/EP key leadership positions are authorized use of WPS.

National Coordinating Center for Telecommunications Alerting and Coordination Network - The Alerting and Coordination Network prov