HOK, formerly Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, is an American worldwide design, architecture and urban planning firm. As of 2016, HOK is the largest U. S. -based architecture-engineering firm, the firm maintains more than 1,800 professional staff across a global network of 23 offices and is active in all major architectural specialties. Its senior leaders are located in different locations across the world. HOK was established in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1955, the design firm started with 26 employees and its three founders. The practices first building designs were schools in St. Louis suburbs, another prominent school they designed was the Saint Louis Priory School. Also in 1968, HOK launched its interior design practice, HOK expanded into Washington, DC, after winning the commission to design the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. In 1973, HOK established a presence in New York by acquiring Kahn & Jacobs, in 1979, George Kassabaum was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician.
In 1983, HOK formed HOK Sport Venue Event, which became a leader in designing sport stadiums, arenas, in January 2009, the Board of HOK Group, Inc. and managers of HOK Sports Facilities, LLC transferred ownership of HOK Sport to leaders of that practice. The company became an independent firm, and rebranded itself as Populous, HOKs first office outside the United States opened in Hong Kong in 1984. In 1987, the opened a London office and then, in 1995. In November 1994, HOK acquired CRSS Architects, Inc. based in Houston, adding offices in Houston, HOK established its first offices in Canada in 1997 with the acquisition of Urbana Architects. In 2004, George Hellmuths nephew, William Hellmuth, was named president of the firm, by 2007, international work represented more than 40% of HOKs annual revenue. In 2008, HOK opened an office in Mumbai, India, in 2010, it established an office in Seattle, Washington. In 2012, HOK Chairman Bill Valentine retired after 50 years with the firm, HOK Chief Executive Officer Patrick MacLeamy, FAIA, assumed the role of chairman.
In 2013, HOK acquired the New York and Shanghai offices of hospitality design firm BBG-BBGM, bBG-BBGMs office in Washington, D. C. continues to operate as BBGM. In 2014, ORO Editions published “HOK Tall Buildings, ” a 300-page book exploring the design of the contemporary high-rise, the acquisition enabled HOK to launch a new global Sports + Recreation + Entertainment design practice and to open new offices in Kansas City and Columbus, Ohio. In January 2016, HOK announced that Bill Hellmuth, the president, would succeed Patrick MacLeamy as CEO. MacLeamy continued to serve as chairman of HOK, in 1983, HOK introduced HOK Draw, computer-aided drafting software products that specialized in conceptual architectural design
25 Cabot Square
25 Cabot Square is a 17-floor office building occupied by Morgan Stanley in the Canary Wharf development in London, England. The architect on the project was Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, and it is 81 metres tall with a floorspace of 41,666.00 m². For several years,25 Cabot Square was connected at the first floor level to neighbouring 20 Cabot Square by a pedestrian footbridge. This pedestrian link was removed in early 2010 when Morgan Stanley moved out of 20 Cabot Square, Canary Wharf Morgan Stanley From skyscrapernews. com Black and white photograph by Sheena Woodhead
Kuhn, Loeb & Co.
Kuhn, Loeb & Co. was a bulge bracket investment bank founded in 1867 by Abraham Kuhn and Solomon Loeb. Under the leadership of Jacob H. P, in the years following Schiffs death in 1920, the firm was led by Otto Kahn and Felix Warburg, men who had already solidified their roles as Schiffs able successors. The firm lost its independence in 1977 when it merged with Lehman Brothers, creating Lehman Brothers, the combined firm was itself acquired in 1984 by American Express, forming Shearson Lehman/American Express and with that, the Kuhn, Loeb name was lost. Kuhn, Loeb & Co. was an investment bank located in New York City and it was founded in 1867, by Abraham Kuhn and Solomon Loeb. Kuhn and Loeb had created a merchandising business in Cincinnati, Ohio. Company records indicate that by the time Kuhn and Loeb established their partnership, on January 1,1875, Jacob Schiff, Solomon Loebs son-in-law, joined the firm. He eventually became its leader and grew the firm into the second most prestigious investment bank in the United States behind J.
Pierpont Morgans J. P. Morgan & Co, the firm grew to prominence during the railroad era in the United States. Much like the internet boom which struck America in the 1990s, Americans saw great hope and promise in the railroad era, Loeb, like all investment banks, brought capital together with commercial opportunity. Schiff was instrumental in the reorganization of the Union Pacific in 1897, in 1901, with Kuhn, Loebs financial support, E. H. Harriman famously battled James Jerome Hill and J. P. Morgan to acquire control of the Northern Pacific Railroad. The firm enjoyed respect as a trusted adviser overseas, providing services to foreign governments, including the governments of Austria, Mexico. It acted as the investment house for John D. Rockefeller, through the guidance of his investment adviser. Overseas ventures that Rockefeller got involved with included the loans to the Chinese. The firm joined a partnership with Rockefeller in 1911 to gain control of the Equitable Trust Company, which was to merge and become the Chase Bank.
Famous partners of the firm included Otto Kahn, Paul Warburg, Felix Warburg, Mortimer Schiff, Benjamin Buttenwieser, Lewis Strauss, in its early years, intermarriage among the German-Jewish elite was common. Consequently, the partners of Kuhn, Loeb were closely related by blood and marriage to the partners of J & W Seligman, Sachs & Co. Lehman Brothers and other prominent German-Jewish firms. Later on, following World War II, their cousin Sigmund Warburg would briefly continue this relationship as a partner, the firms fortunes began to fade in the years following World War II. Wall Street was changing and shifting away from relationship banking, when asked how many people worked at Kuhn, one partner famously quipped, about half. Such was life at Kuhn, resting on its laurels, in 1977, facing a capital crisis, the firm succumbed and merged with Lehman Brothers, to form Lehman Brothers, Loeb Inc
/ˈliːmən/ was a global financial services firm. Lehman was operational for 158 years from its founding in 1850 until 2008, Lehmans bankruptcy filing is the largest in US history, and is thought to have played a major role in the unfolding of the late-2000s global financial crisis. On September 16,2008, Lehman filed for bankruptcy, Global markets immediately plummeted, and systemic risk was uncorked. This market collapse gave support to the Too Big To Fail doctrine, on September 20,2008, a revised version of that agreement was approved by U. S. Bankruptcy Judge James M. Peck. The deal became effective on October 13,2008, in 1844, 23-year-old Henry Lehman, the son of a Jewish cattle merchant, emigrated to the United States from Rimpar, Bavaria. He settled in Montgomery, where he opened a dry-goods store, in 1847, following the arrival of his brother Emanuel Lehman, the firm became H. Lehman and Bro. With the arrival of their youngest brother, Mayer Lehman, in 1850, during the 1850s, cotton was one of the most important crops in the United States.
Capitalizing on cottons high market value, the three began to routinely accept raw cotton from customers as payment for merchandise, eventually beginning a second business trading in cotton. Within a few years this grew to become the most significant part of their operation. Following Henrys death from fever in 1855, the remaining brothers continued to focus on their commodities-trading/brokerage operations. By 1858, the center of cotton trading had shifted from the South to New York City, Lehman opened its first branch office at 119 Liberty Street, and 32-year-old Emanuel relocated there to run the office. In 1862, facing difficulties as a result of the Civil War, following the war the company helped finance Alabamas reconstruction. The firms headquarters were moved to New York City, where it helped found the New York Cotton Exchange in 1870. The firm dealt in the market for railroad bonds. Lehman became a member of the Coffee Exchange as early as 1883, in 1899, it underwrote its first public offering, the preferred and common stock of the International Steam Pump Company.
Despite the offering of International Steam, the real shift from being a commodities house to a house of issue did not begin until 1906. In that year, under Emanuels son Philip Lehman, the firm partnered with Goldman, Sachs & Co. to bring the General Cigar Co. to market, followed closely by Sears and Company. During the following two decades, almost one hundred new issues were underwritten by Lehman, many times in conjunction with Goldman, among these were F. W. Woolworth Company, May Department Stores Company, Gimbel Brothers, Inc
1 Cabot Square
1 Cabot Square is a 21 floor office building occupied by Credit Suisse in the Canary Wharf development in London, England. Original plans called for a skyscraper on this site for CSFB, the architect on the project was Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, and the building was completed in 1991. It is 89 metres tall with a floorspace of 50,166 square metres, the building has large, open plates on the floor that range in size from 64,500 square foot to 24,000 square foot in the executive offices. It is internally connected to the west, to 20 Columbus Courtyard, Canary Wharf Credit Suisse From skyscrapernews. com
Canary Wharf is a major business district located in Tower Hamlets, East London. Canary Wharf contains around 16,000,000 square feet of office and retail space, Morgan, KPMG, MetLife, Morgan Stanley, RBC, S&P Global, State Street, and Thomson Reuters. Canary Wharf is located on the West India Docks on the Isle of Dogs, from 1802 to 1939, the area was one of the busiest docks in the world. After the 1960s, the industry began to decline, leading to all the docks being closed by 1980. Canary Wharf itself takes its name from No.32 berth of the West Wood Quay of the Import Dock and this was built in 1936 for Fruit Lines Ltd, a subsidiary of Fred Olsen Lines for the Mediterranean and Canary Islands fruit trade. The Canary islands were so named after the dogs found there by the Spanish and as it is located on the Isle of Dogs. The Canary Wharf of today began when Michael von Clemm, former chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston, further discussions with G Ware Travelstead led to proposals for a new business district.
The first buildings were completed in 1991, including One Canada Square, which became the UKs tallest building at the time, by the time it opened, the London commercial property market had collapsed, and Olympia and York Canary Wharf Limited filed for bankruptcy in May 1992. Initially, the City of London saw Canary Wharf as an existential threat and it modified its planning laws to expand the provision of new offices in the City of London, for example, creating offices above railway stations and roads. The resulting oversupply of office space contributed to the failure of the No 1 Canada Square project, in 1997, some residents living on the Isle of Dogs launched a lawsuit against Canary Wharf Ltd for private nuisance because the tower interfered with television signals. In December 1995 an international consortium, backed by the owners of Olympia & York and other investors. The new company was called Canary Wharf Limited, and became Canary Wharf Group, recovery in the property market generally, coupled with continuing demand for large floorplate Grade A office space, slowly improved the level of interest.
A critical event in the recovery was the start of work on the Jubilee Line Extension. At the peak of property prices in 2007, the HSBC building sold for a record £1.1 billion, in March 2014 planning permission was granted for the second residential building on the Canary Wharf estate, a 58-storey tower including 566 apartments plus shops and a health club. In July 2014 Canary Wharf Group was granted planning permission for a major expansion of the Canary Wharf estate. The plans include the construction of 30 buildings comprising a total of 4.9 million square feet, construction is planned to commence in autumn 2014 with the first buildings to be occupied at the end of 2018. In 2014, Singapore listed Oxley Holdings, together with developer Ballymore UK, have a joint venture to set up a new waterfront township of Royal Wharf with 3385 new homes housing over 10,000 people. This table lists completed buildings in Canary Wharf that are over 60 metres tall, the Canary Wharf developers played a pro-active role in improving transport links, which they recognised as essential to the success of the project
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
One Canada Square
One Canada Square, often referred to simply as Canary Wharf, is a skyscraper in Canary Wharf, London. It was the tallest building in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2010, standing at 770 feet above ground level, in late 2010, it was surpassed by the Shard. The building is clad with stainless steel rather than natural stone. One of the predominant features of the building is the roof, which contains a flashing aircraft warning light. The distinctive pyramid pinnacle is 800 feet above sea level, One Canada Square is primarily used for offices, though there are some retail units on the lower ground floor. It is a location for offices and as of November 2015 was 100% let. The building is recognised as a London landmark, and it has gained attention through film, television. The original plans for a district on Canary Wharf came from G Ware Travelstead. He proposed three 260 m towers, Travelstead was unable to find the money for his project, so he sold the plans to Olympia & York in 1987. Olympia & York grouped all three towers into a known as Docklands Square, and the main tower was designated DS7 during planning.
Docklands Square was renamed Winston Square before finally being renamed as Canada Square, the architects chosen to design One Canada Square were Cesar Pelli & Associates, Adamson Associates, and Frederick Gibberd Coombes & Partners. They designed the tower with a shape to Three World Financial Center, New York City. The shape was reminiscent of Big Ben. To comply with air safety regulations, the architects took five floors off the tower. The final height of 824 feet was permitted, the developers would have had to dismantle what was necessary to fit the height restriction, the design of the tower received a fair share of criticism. According to Cesar Pelli, the most damaging criticism came from Prince Charles, other criticisms came from former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who said that the building was not quite stunning. Construction on the began in 1988. Lehrer McGovern contracted out most of the work to Balfour Beatty because the Canary Wharf Tower was a building to build
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
The Crossroads Group was a Dallas-based private equity fund of funds firm focusing on venture capital investments. The firm was founded in 1981 and acquired by Lehman Brothers in October 2003, since Lehman Brothers 2008 bankruptcy, Crossroads has been a part of Neuberger Berman. Crossroads was an investor in secondary interests in existing private equity partnerships. At the time of its acquisition in 2003, Crossroads managed approximately $2 billion of capital on behalf of its investors, over its 22-year history, the firm raised 16 Crossroads Funds, and invested with more than 200 private equity firms. In 1999, Crossroads acquired a $340 million portfolio of investments in large- to mid-cap companies from Electronic Data Systems. Crossroads Group Lehman Brothers Fund of Funds, History