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One country, two systems

"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle describing the governance of Hong Kong and Macau since they became regions of China in 1997 and 1999, respectively. It was formulated in the early 1980s by Deng Xiaoping, the Paramount Leader of China, during negotiations with the United Kingdom over Hong Kong, he suggested that there would be only one China, but that these regions could retain their own economic and administrative systems, while the rest of Mainland China uses the socialism with Chinese characteristics system. Under the principle, each of the two regions could continue to have its own governmental system, legal and financial affairs, including trade relations with foreign countries, all of which are independent from those of the Mainland; the PRC has proposed to apply the principle in the unification it aims for with Taiwan. Hong Kong was a colony of the United Kingdom, ruled by a governor appointed by the monarchy of the United Kingdom, for 156 years from 1841 until 1997, when it was returned to Chinese sovereignty.

China agreed to accept some conditions, as is stipulated in the Sino-British Joint Declaration, such as the drafting and adoption of Hong Kong's "mini-constitution" Basic Law before its return. The Hong Kong Basic Law ensured that Hong Kong will retain its capitalist economic system and own currency, legal system, legislative system, people's rights and freedom for fifty years, as a special administrative region of China for 50 years. Set to expire in 2047, the current arrangement has permitted Hong Kong to function as its own entity under the name "Hong Kong, China" in many international settings; the Chinese Renminbi is not legal tender in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Dollar is not accepted in stores in mainland China. With this arrangement, a permit or special visa is required when passing between the borders of Hong Kong and mainland China, people in Hong Kong hold Hong Kong SAR passports rather than Chinese passports; the official languages are a major factor besides the history of the former colony that has made Hong Kong and mainland China distinct from each other, as Cantonese and English are the most used languages in Hong Kong while Mandarin is the official language of mainland China.

The central government in Beijing maintains control over Hong Kong's foreign affairs as well as the legal interpretation of the Basic Law. The latter has led democracy advocates and some Hong Kong residents to argue that the territory has yet to achieve universal suffrage as promised by the Basic Law, leading to mass demonstrations in 2014. Deng Xiaoping proposed to apply the principle to Hong Kong in the negotiation with the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher over the future of Hong Kong when the lease of the New Territories of Hong Kong to the United Kingdom was to expire in 1997; the same principle was proposed in talks with Portugal about Macau. The principle is that, upon reunification, despite the practice of socialism in mainland China, both Hong Kong and Macau, which were colonies of the UK and Portugal can retain their established system under a high degree of autonomy for up to 50 years after reunification. However, what will happen after 2049 has never been publicly stated.

Chapter 1, Article 5 of the Hong Kong Basic Law, the constitutional document of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, reads: The socialist system and policies shall not be practiced in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the previous capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years. The establishment of these regions, called "special administrative regions", is authorized by Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, which states that the State may establish SARs when necessary, that the systems to be instituted in them shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in light of the specific conditions; the SARs of Hong Kong and Macau were formally established on 1 July 1997 and 20 December 1999 immediately after the People's Republic of China assumed the sovereignty over the respective regions. The two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for their domestic affairs including, but not limited to, the judiciary and courts of last resort and customs, public finance and extradition.

Important cultural effects are exemption of the SARs from mainland laws mandating the use of simplified characters in publishing and Mandarin in public education and most broadcasting. The diplomatic relations and military defense of the two SARs however, is the responsibility of the Central People's Government in Beijing. Hong Kong continues using English common law while Macau continues using the Portuguese civil law system. In Hong Kong, the system has been implemented through the Basic Law of Hong Kong, which serves as the "mini-constitution" of the region, consistent with the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Similar arrangements are in place with Macau. Under the respective basic laws, the SARs have a high degree of autonomy and enjoy executive and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication, they formulate their own monetary and financial policies, maintain their own currencies, formulate their own policies on education, sports, social welfare system, etc. within the framework of the basic laws.

As stipulated by the Basic Law, while the Central People's Government of the PRC is responsible for foreign affairs and defense in relation to the SARs, representatives of the Government of the SARs may participate, as members of delegations of the PRC, in diplomatic nego

Rock Creek State Park

For the park in Washington, D. C. see Rock Creek ParkRock Creek State Park is a state park of Iowa, US. It is located near Kellogg; the 1,697-acre park was dedicated in 1952 and includes numerous boat launches and docks, picnic grounds, camping grounds, trails for horseback riding and hiking. In the winter, the 602-acre lake may freeze over, the park is a popular spot for cross-country skiing and snowmobiling. Grinnell is located 7 miles to the east; the park's proximity to the town as well as a connecting bike path make the park a popular destination for students at Grinnell College. Fishing is a popular thing at Rock Creek, Fish species are Black and White Crappie, Largemouth Bass, White Bass, Channel Catfish, Black Bullhead, Green Sunfish, Freshwater Drum, Walleye. Golden Shiners have a small population here, two large Golden Shiners were caught while fishing for panfish. Rock Creek State Park

Fairfax Field

Fairfax Field was a wartime facility of the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Air Force. The installation was north of Kansas. Used as a pre-war Naval Air Station, the United States Army Air Forces leased the municipal airfield and built an Air Force Plant and modification center for North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber production. Military use of the site continued as late as 1957 by the Strategic Air Command's 3903rd Radar Bomb Scoring Group for bombing practice; the airfield was first used in 1921 for an air meet and became the 1925 Sweeney Airport and the 1928 Fairfax Airport. A naval reserve air base was established at Fairfax Field in 1935. In 1937 Fairfax acted as an "army reserve base" with Douglas O-46 observation planes, by 1938 the airport had four runways, including one 2,700 ft long. Fairfax's "U. S. Naval Reserve aviation base", had a 30-day pre-flight training course in 1940; the "Marine Air Flight Program" established by 1 September 1940 at Fairfax's "Navy Elimination Air Base" used "a physical and mental examination…ten hours of dual instruction…check rides and a fifteen-minute solo flight" for screening candidates to become Naval Aviation Cadets.

A Fairfax "naval flying cadet… crashed into the Missouri river two miles northwest of the Fairfax air base" on 16 June 1942, Fairfax's naval aviation training moved in July to the new United States Naval Aviation Reserve Base at Olathe about 20 miles away. Fairfax still had "Barracks U. S. Navy" in 1946. Survey work for Air Force Plant NC had begun in December 1940, the city of Kansas City, purchased the airport in February 1941; the USAAF leased the Fairfax Airport from the city and the Works Projects Administration sponsored expansion of the four civilian runways. The government purchased a 75 acres alfalfa field for the plant and for right-of-way to the airfield. B-25 production began in December 1941, Fairfax's first B-25D was accepted in February 1942; the Fairfax Modification Center was a dual hangar built May–October 1942 along the south taxiway for altering the new B-25s The 76th AAF Technical Training Detachment activated on 4 February 1943 and administered a 6 week hydraulics course for AAF mechanics under the direction of the Aircraft Accessories Corporation.

About 300 students were admitted before the school was closed in October as a duplicate of a Chanute Field course. The 81st AAF Technical Training Detachment activated 22 February 1943 and designated, effective 30 August, to supervise apprentice crew chiefs at the Modification Center. January AAF policy was for each mechanic selected as a crew chief to be assigned an aircraft as it left the factory, review its modifications at the center, deploy with it to the field unit. B-25 modifications only took a week until the B-25G gunship modifications for Pacific War anti-shipping missions, which took 2–3 months. Peak enrollment was 296 mechanics on 27 June, the apprenticeship program was abandoned Air Transport Command moved the 2d Ferrying Squadron of the 5th Ferrying Group from Dallas Love Field to Fairfax on April 15, 1943, the squadron ferried out 157 B-25s during May Of 1,881 deliveries in 1943 by the Ground Ferrying Squadron all but 129 were B-25s, but at the end of that year Fairfax pilots began ferrying Martin B-26 Marauders from the Omaha modification center and Consolidated B-24 Liberators from a St. Paul facility.

From May-Sep 1944 a detachment of Women Airforce Service Pilots was at Fairfax. The 33d Ferrying Group was designated on 1 April 1944 from the 2d Ferrying Squadron, separated from the 5th Group on 1 January 1944. Womens Air Service Pilots were organized at Fairfax on 1 May 1944, from Fairfax the 33d delivered 6,202 aircraft to CONUS bases and 251 abroad. On 22 September 1944 the 33d Ferrying Group began daily scheduled Military Air Transport flights with military cargo/passengers to Minneapolis and Omaha In October 1944, the modification center became an adjunct to the final assembly line. On 9 November 1944 the 33d Group furnished plane and crew to fly Senator Harry S. Truman from Fairfax to Washington for ceremonies following his election as Vice-President, in early 1945 the 33d controlled ten operating locations.. During the Fairfax transition to P-80 production, the 33d Ferrying Group was discontinued. On 2 March 1945, Military Air Transport moved an air freight terminal to Fairfax from Kansas City and had 362 personnel in June, the largest operating location in the division.

For ferrying, Fairfax became an operating location of Rosecrans Army Airfield on 15 April 1945 with its pilots traveling to Fairfax for sorties. In 1945, 1,044 military transports used the field in July. Plans for B-29 and F-80 aircraft production at Fairfax were never implemented, B-25J production was terminated on August 15, 1945, after a total of 2,290 B-25Ds and 4,318 B-25Js had been built by the plant; the federal Reconstruction Finance Corporation set up a depot in the Fairfax district to liquidate war surplus not sent to depots or elsewhere for government use Seventy-two incomplete but flyable B-25Js were sold to the public. A USAAF C-47 crashed on September 15, 1945 on take off into the north bank of the Missouri River's curve, killing all 24 aboard; the Air Transport Command operating location at Fairfax was discontinued by 6 December 1945 (9 C-47s and

John Leeson

John Leeson is a British actor, known for voicing Bungle in Rainbow and K9 in Doctor Who. RADA trained, Leeson's varied stage and television career spans nearly half a century, it includes work in both repertory and West End productions including Neil Simon's Plaza Suite and Don't Start Without Me and character work across a wide range of television sitcoms and costume dramas from the 1970s onwards, including Dad's Army, Rings on Their Fingers, The Barretts of Wimpole Street, Vanity Fair, Shadow of the Noose, Crown Court Longitude, etc. He embarked on a parallel career in voiceover work, freelancing as a continuity announcer with BFBS Television in Germany, BBC Television, Channel 4. Leeson was brought on as the voice of K-9 for 1977's The Invisible Enemy and producer Graham Williams liked the concept so much that the decision was made to retain him as a regular character to appeal to the younger members of the audience. Tom Baker detested the character of K-9, but luckily got on well with Leeson.

Leeson became frustrated with the limitations of the character, he left the programme after the conclusion of the 16th season in 1979. He was seen on-screen that season as the character Dugeen during the serial The Power of Kroll. David Brierly took over for four stories the following year; when John Nathan-Turner took over as producer of the series for season 18 in 1980, he tempted Leeson back, with the promise that the character would be'killed off' that year. Although the character was written out, rather than "killed", Leeson agreed to return. Leeson agreed to return to voice K-9 in K-9 and Company, a spin-off from Doctor Who, not picked up after the airing of its pilot episode, he voiced K-9 for a cameo appearance in the 20th anniversary episode of Doctor Who, The Five Doctors, has since reprised K-9's voice in two BBV and several Big Finish audio dramas including Zagreus and the Gallifrey series. He voiced K-9 for its return in the 2006 Doctor Who episode "School Reunion" its cameo in the pilot episode of The Sarah Jane Adventures.

Leeson's voice was heard in the Doctor Who episode "Journey's End" once more as K-9. The most recent occasion of Leeson voicing K-9 is in the spin-off television series K-9. Leeson voiced K-9 in a Doctor Who-themed episode of The Weakest Link, he did not reprise his role as K-9 in Lego Dimensions as he was unavailable at the time, so archive audio was used instead. Leeson's vocal contributions to Doctor Who can be heard as other characters in the serials The Invisible Enemy and Remembrance of the Daleks. Leeson played the role of "Prosecutor 2" in the 2005 stage production of The Trial of Davros and has compiled a one-man show, A Dog's Life, directed by Richard Fawkes. In November 2013, Leeson appeared in the one-off 50th anniversary comedy homage The Five Doctors Reboot. Other credits include appearances in Blake's 7. Notably in children's programmes, ITV's Rainbow from 1972 as the original Bungle, the BBC's Jigsaw in which he voiced Jigg, the show's "mascot" and played the giant Biggum, so tall only his feet were seen and his voice heard.

His film credits are few but included the Hunt Secretary in the film of Tarka the Otter, a TV interviewer in the film version of Whoops Apocalypse. His radio work includes the comedy serial All That Jazz in which he played the character of Mike and additionally provided the scripted continuity link at the beginning. Leeson has read extensively for the audio book charity Calibre Audio Library, is the narrator/character voices behind The Space Gypsy Adventures on Children's UK hospital radio. In 2010 John appeared in a character role in the independent film Rebels Without A Clue with actor Rik Barnett. Away from stage and screen he was heard as continuity announcer on Channel 4 when his warm tones proved a distinct contrast to the K-9 voice. A lively interest in both classical music and wine, led him to develop a longstanding parallel career as a wine educator. Under his birth name he is an accredited tutor for the Wine & Spirit Education Trust, he is a member both of the Association of Wine Educators and the Circle of Wine Writers.

He is a freelance lecturer in wine both on land and in cruises at sea, is a regular tutor for The Wine Education Service Ltd. Leeson's autobiography, entitled Flight of the Budgerigar, was published by Hirst in October 2011, it was superseded by an updated and expanded version entitled Tweaking the Tail, published in July 2013 by Fantom Films. A book of favourite recipes collected across the years, Dog's Dinners published by Fantom, was published in May 2014. An enthusiastic cook, he contributed a chapter on teaching wine tasting to Educated Tastes: Food and Connoisseur Culture, edited by Jeremy Strong, published by the University of Nebraska Press. Family Life: In 1969 he married his wife Judy, their having met at a party to which neither of them had been invited, their son Guy Ducker is a film editor and director. Now statutorily retired, he served as a local Justice of the Peace for over 25 years, having served as Deputy Chairman of his local Bench for six years across the period. In 2002, 2010 he stood as a candidate for the Liberal Democrats in the district of Perivale in the local council elections for Ealing London Borough Council, b

German submarine U-87 (1941)

German submarine U-87 was a Type VIIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 18 April 1940 at the Flender Werke at Lübeck as yard number 283 and launched on 21 June 1941, she was commissioned on 21 June under the command of Kapitänleutnant Joachim Berger. U-87 trained with 6th U-boat Flotilla until 1 December 1941. U-87 sank five ships in her one-year career, she was sunk off the coast of Leixões in Portugal during her fifth combat patrol, in March 1943, by warships of the Canadian Navy. German Type VIIB submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIA submarines. U-87 had a displacement of 753 tonnes when at the 857 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 66.50 m, a pressure hull length of 48.80 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.50 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8-276 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged.

She had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 8 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 90 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-87 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, one 2 cm anti-aircraft gun The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty. U-87 sailed from Kiel on 24 December 1941, headed out into the Atlantic via the North Sea. On the evening of 31 December, the boat encountered the Cardita, straggling behind convoy HX 166, bound for Shellhaven. A single torpedo hit the vessel; the thirty-three survivors were picked up on 3 January by HMS Sabre. Meanwhile, U-87 completed her voyage around the British isles and crossed the Atlantic, where on 17 January, the submersible struck again; the Norwegian vessel Nyholt was nearing the completion of convoy ON-52's journey from Reykjavík to New York. While passing the Newfoundland coast, Nyholt was struck amidships after she left the safety of her convoy, harassed by U-86 and U-553 over the previous two days.

Attempting to divert further from their course to reach Newfoundland, U-87 reacted poorly to the movement and four subsequent torpedoes missed. Another two hits failed to sink the tanker, U-87 was forced to surface for its crew to fire the deck gun as the ship's crew took to their lifeboats, not to be rescued for another nine days. U-87 was damaged by gunfire from the tanker, re-crossed the Atlantic, to arrive at La Pallice in France on 30 January 1942 after 38 days at sea. U-87 sailed on 22 February 1942 for a second trip to the east coast of North America, but was held in the Western Approaches to support an attack by the German battleship Tirpitz on convoy PQ 12. Neither Tirpitz nor U-87 sank any ships. U-87 laid a field of 15 TMB mines off Boston. No ships were lost in the minefield. After reloading her tubes with torpedoes, U-87 sank the 8,400-ton British freighter SS Port Nicholson and the 5,900-ton American cargo liner Cherokee from convoy XB 25 on 15 June. Eighty-six military personnel drowned.

The Port Nicholson was documented to be carrying about 1,707,000 troy ounces of platinum. On 22 June U-87 was damaged off Halifax Harbour, by depth charges from Lockheed Hudson aircraft of 11 Squadron Royal Canadian Air Force; the boat returned to port on 8 July. U-87 sailed on 31 August 1942 to patrol off Freetown, where she sank the 7,400-ton British freighter Agapenor before docking in Brest on 20 November 1942. U-87 sailed on 9 January 1943, was sunk by depth charges from Canadian warships, the corvette HMCS Shediac and the destroyer HMCS St. Croix during an unsuccessful 4 March attack on convoy KMS 10G. On this last patrol she had 50 crewmen on none of whom survived the sinking. U-87 took part in five wolfpacks, namely. Zieten Westwall Iltis Delphin II Rochen Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIB boat U-87". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 2 February 2015. Hofmann, Markus. "U 87". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de. Retrieved 2 February 2015

Titan FC 28

Titan FC 28: Brilz vs. Davis was a mixed martial arts event, held on May 16, 2014 at the First Council Casino Hotel in Newkirk, Oklahoma. Mike Ricci was slated to take on George Sotiropoulos, but Ricci suffered an injury and the bout was called off and rescheduled for June 6th; the event was scheduled to be headlined by a light heavyweight bout between former UFC vets Vinny Magalhaes and Jason Brilz, However Magalhaes pulled out of the fight and was replaced with Bellator vet Raphael Davis. Former UFC vet Daniel Roberts took on Brock Jardine in lightweight fight as the co main event. Former King of the Cage Junior Welterweight Champion & TUF contestant Ricky Legere faced Todd Moore in a welterweight clash. Dave Herman was scheduled to fight former Bellator & WSOF vet D. J. Linderman, however Linderman was replaced by Kalib Starnes. Titan Fighting Championships List of Titan FC events Titan FC events