A hawker is a vendor of merchandise that can be transported. In most places where the term is used, a hawker sells handicrafts, or food items. Whether stationary or mobile, hawkers advertise by loud street cries or chants, conduct banter with customers, to attract attention and enhance sales; when accompanied by a demonstration or detailed explanation of the product, the hawker is sometimes referred to as a demonstrator or pitchman. The terms peddler and hawker are used synonymously. Social commentator Henry Mayhew wrote, "Among the more ancient of the trades carried on in England, is that of the hawker or pedlar", he notes, "the hawker dealt, in the old times, more in textile fabrics than in anything else." In several passages of his work, Mayhew categorises hawkers and peddlers as a single group of itinerant salesman, claims that he is unable to say what distinction was drawn between a hawker and a huckster. Mayhew estimated the number of licensed pedlars in 1861 as 14,038 in England, 2,561 in Scotland, 624 in Wales.
In many African metropolitan areas, hawkers referred to as vendors are a usual sight. They sell a wide range of goods such as fish, vegetables and books. In suburban areas, they go around announcing themselves from house to house. While in more commercial areas they have stands or lay their goods on the ground. In the afternoons you'll find many of them selling commercial goods on the more crowded parts of the cities, while at night they sell juices and snack items, they sell goods at lower prices than shops making them an attractive shopping stop to people of low income. According to the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, there are 10 million street vendors in India, with Mumbai accounting for 250,000, Delhi has 200,000, more than 150,000, Ahmedabad, 100,000. Most of them are immigrants or laid-off workers, work for an average 10–12 hours a day, remain impoverished. Though the prevalent license-permit raj in Indian bureaucracy ended for most retailing in the 1990s, it continues in this trade.
Inappropriate license ceiling in most cities, like Mumbai which has a ceiling 14,000 licenses, means more vendors hawk their goods illegally, which makes them prone to the bribery and extortion culture under local police and municipal authories, besides harassment, heavy fines and sudden evictions. In Kolkata, the profession was a non-bailable offense. Over the years the street vendors have organized themselves into trade unions and associations, numerous NGO's have started working for them. In fact, The National Association of Street Vendors of India based in Delhi, is a federation of 715 street vendor organizations, trade unions and non-governmental organizations. Kolkata has two such unions, namely the Bengal Hawkers Association and the Calcutta Hawkers' Men Union. In September, 2012, long-awaited Street Vendors Act was introduced in the Lok Sabha aimed at providing social security and livelihood rights, regulated the prevalent license system; the Bill was passed in the Lok Sabha on 6 September 2013 and by the Rajya Sabha on 19 February 2014.
The bill received the assent of the President of India on 4 March 2014. Only three states have implemented the bill as of April 2017; the bill handed governance over public space and vendors over to municipalities. Although, one of the main purposes of the Street Vendors Act was to allow the vendors to have a voice in governance, the bill made conditions more difficult for vendors as they have become more scrutinized. In the capital city of Dhaka, street vendors such as small tea stalls, popular food stalls along the public spaces have a significant role to cater to the urban population. Street vendors are a source of food security to the poorer section of the urban population. Street vending is significant portion of Dhaka's informal economy, an employment opportunity for better livelihoods of the urban poor. Balut is a popular dish sold by hawkers in the Philippines, Laos and Vietnam. In both China and Hong Kong, hawkers' inventories include fish ball, beef ball, roasted chestnuts, stinky tofu.
In Singapore and Malaysia, these stands have become so successful that many have chosen to set up shop more permanently in a hawker center. Across Asia, stalls have been set up with little to no government monitoring. Due to health concerns and other liability problems, the food culture has been challenged in Indonesia, though without marked success. However, in Hong Kong, the lease versus licensed hawker restrictions have put a burden on this mobile food culture; the term Jau Gwei has been used to describe vendors running away from local police. The costermongers of London, England were at their peak in the 19th century. Organised, yet semi-obvious, they were ubiquitous, their street cries could be heard everywhere. Street vendors in Latin America are known in local Spanish and Portuguese variously as vendedores ambulantes or ambulantes, a term used in Italy. In Argentina they are known as manteros. In Brazil, they are known as "camelôs"; some ambulantes set up in a fixed location. Some ambulantes sell their goods door-to-door.
Puestos are market stands. Street vendors face various fees. There are sometimes disputes between established ambulantes. Bribes are a problem. Many vendors operate illegally. In order to avoid ov
An anthology series is a radio, television or book series that presents a different story and a different set of characters in each episode or season. These have a different cast each week, but several series in the past, such as Four Star Playhouse, employed a permanent troupe of character actors who would appear in a different drama each week; some anthology series, such as Studio One, began on radio and expanded to television. Medieval Greek anthologiā, collection of epigrams, from Greek, flower gathering, from anthologein, to gather flowers: antho-, antho- + logos, a gathering. Many popular old-time radio programs were anthology series. On some series, such as Inner Sanctum Mysteries, the only constant was the host, who introduced and concluded each dramatic presentation. One of the earliest such programs was The Collier Hour, broadcast on the NBC Blue Network from 1927 to 1932; as radio's first major dramatic anthology, it adapted stories and serials from Collier's Weekly in a calculated move to increase subscriptions and compete with The Saturday Evening Post.
Airing on the Wednesday prior to each week's distribution of the magazine, the program soon moved to Sundays in order to avoid spoilers with dramatizations of stories appearing in the magazine. Radio drama anthology series include: Academy Award Theater Arch Oboler's Plays The Campbell Playhouse Cavalcade of America CBS Radio Workshop Earplay Four Star Playhouse Lux Radio Theater The Mercury Theatre on the Air The Screen Guild Theater Stars over Hollywood Radio anthology series provided a format for science fiction, horror and mystery genres: Mystery House The Witch's Tale Lights Out The Hermit's Cave Famous Jury Trials Dark Fantasy Inner Sanctum Mysteries The Whistler Suspense The Mysterious Traveler Creeps by Night Mystery Playhouse The Strange Dr. Weird The Haunting Hour The Sealed Book Mystery in the Air The Weird Circle Quiet, Please! Escape The Unexpected The Hall of Fantasy 2000 Plus Dimension X ABC Mystery Theater, anthology and mystery series Sleep No More Theater 10:30 X Minus One The final episode of Suspense was broadcast on September 30, 1962, a date that has traditionally been seen as marking the end of the old-time radio era.
However, genre series produced since 1962 include: The Black Mass The Creaking Door Beyond Midnight The Zero Hour Mystery Theater Nightfall The Cabinet of Dr. Fritz 2000X The Twilight Zone In the history of television, live anthology dramas were popular during the Golden Age of Television of the 1950s with series such as The United States Steel Hour and The Philco Television Playhouse. Dick Powell came up with an idea for an anthology series, Four Star Playhouse, with a rotation of established stars every week, four stars in all; the stars would own the studio and the program, as Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz had done with Desilu studio. Powell had intended for the program to feature himself, Charles Boyer, Joel McCrea, Rosalind Russell; when Russell and McCrea backed out, David Niven came on board as the third star. The fourth star was a guest star. CBS liked the idea, Four Star Playhouse made its debut in fall of 1952, it ran on alternate weeks only during the first season, alternating with Andy.
It was successful enough to be renewed and became a weekly program from the second season until the end of its run in 1956. Ida Lupino was brought on board as the de facto fourth star, though unlike Powell and Niven, she owned no stock in the company. American television networks would sometimes run summer anthology series which consisted of unsold television pilots. Beginning in 1971, the long-run Masterpiece Theatre drama anthology series brought British productions to American television. In 2011, American Horror Story debuted a new type of anthology format in the U. S; each season, rather than each episode, is a standalone story. Several actors have appeared in the various seasons, but playing different roles—in an echo of the Four Star Playhouse format; the success of American Horror Story has spawned other season-long anthologies such as American Crime Story and Feud. The 20th Century Fox Hour ABC Movie of the Week ABC Stage 67 Academy Theatre Actors Studio Alcoa-Goodyear Theatre The Alcoa Hour Alcoa Premiere American Crime American Crime Story American Horror Story American Film Theatre American Playhouse The American Playwrights Theater: The One Acts Th
The Last Flight (The Twilight Zone)
"The Last Flight" is episode 18 of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. Part of the production was filmed on location at Norton Air Force Base in San Bernardino, California; the vintage 1918 Nieuport 28 biplane was both owned and flown by Frank Gifford Tallman, had appeared in many World War I motion pictures. Flight Lieutenant William Terrance "Terry" Decker of 56 Squadron Royal Flying Corps lands his Nieuport biplane on an American airbase in France, after flying through a strange cloud, he is taken into custody and questioned by the American base commander, Major General Harper, his provost marshal, Major Wilson. Decker identifies himself and his squadron and claims that the date is March 5, 1917, he is informed that it is March 5, 1959. Decker tells the officers that he and his comrade Alexander "Old Leadbottom" Mackaye were fighting seven German aircraft; the Americans tell him that Mackaye is alive and is an Air Vice Marshal in the Royal Air Force, a war hero from World War II who saved hundreds, if not thousands of lives by shooting down German bombers over London.
The American officers add that Air Vice Marshal Mackaye, in addition to being alive and well, is coming to the base that day for an inspection. Major Wilson tries to help Decker remember. Decker confesses that he has avoided combat throughout his service, that he deliberately abandoned the outnumbered Mackaye when the two were attacked by the German fighters, he refuses to believe. When Wilson suggests that someone else helped Mackaye, Decker realizes that he has been given a second chance, he tells the American officer that there was no one within fifty miles who could have come to Mackaye's aid, so if Mackaye survived, it had to be because Decker went back himself. Knowing he cannot have much time to go back to 1917, Decker pleads with Wilson to release him from custody; when Wilson refuses, Decker escapes. Running outside, he locates his plane, punches a mechanic who tries to get in his way, starts the plane's engine, he is about to take off when Wilson puts a pistol to his head. Decker tells Wilson he will have to shoot him to stop him, as he would rather die than remain a coward.
After hesitating, Wilson allows him to escape and Decker flies his plane into white clouds and vanishes. Major Wilson is rebuked by Major General Harper for believing such a fantastic story and for allowing Decker to escape; when Mackaye arrives, Wilson asks he. Mackaye, says Decker saved his life. In March 1917, Mackaye and Decker were attacked. Decker flew off into a cloud, Mackaye believed at first that Decker had abandoned him. Decker came diving out of the cloud, proceeded to shoot down three of the German planes before being shot down himself. General Harper shows Mackaye Decker's badge and personal effects, startling Mackaye, who remarks that those items had never been returned by the Germans. Major Wilson suggests that "Old Leadbottom"—a nickname known only by Mackaye's comrades back in World War I—sit down while it is explained how these items came into the Americans' possession; this was the first episode of The Twilight Zone scripted by Richard Matheson. Rod Serling had adapted the episode "And When the Sky Was Opened" from a short story of Matheson's.
The United States Air Force major general refers to Mackaye as "sir", suggests that he is a superior officer inspecting the air base. However, Mackaye is ranked as an air vice marshal, a Royal Air Force rank equivalent to major general, thereby making the two officers equals – unless the American general was junior in rank by date of commission; the Royal Flying Corps never flew the Nieuport 28, which did not enter service until 1918. The death of Georges Guynemer is mentioned by Decker but Guynemer died in September 1917, six months after Decker's last flight. 56 Squadron was not deployed until April 1917, at which point it flew the S. E.5 aircraft. The rank of flight lieutenant existed in the Royal Naval Air Service and in the RAF but it never was used in the Royal Flying Corps. However, the only reference to "flight lieutenant" is during Mr. Serling's introduction. However, "Second lieutenant" the most junior commissioned officer rank is equal to a "Pilot Officer" in the RAF. Flight Lieutenant is equal to the Army rank of Captain.
DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 "The Last Flight" on IMDb
Murray Hamilton was an American stage and television character actor who appeared in such films as Anatomy of a Murder, The Hustler, The Graduate, The Amityville Horror and Jaws. Born in Washington, North Carolina, Hamilton displayed an early interest in performing during his days at Washington High School just before America's entry into World War II. Bad hearing kept him from enlisting, so he moved to New York City as a 19-year-old to find a career on stage. In an early role, he performed on stage with Henry Fonda in the classic wartime story Mister Roberts as a replacement, playing Ensign Pulver. In 1950, he was onstage again with Fonda in Critic's Choice. Hamilton was teamed once more with Fonda in 1968 for the drama film The Boston Strangler, his best known performance is as Larry Vaughn, the obdurate mayor of Amity, in the Steven Spielberg thriller Jaws. Hamilton reprised the role in the sequel, Jaws 2 in 1978, he was approached to reprise his role in Jaws: The Revenge, but died in 1986 aged 63.
Other notable big-screen appearances include the critically acclaimed 1959 film Anatomy of a Murder with James Stewart, in which he played the bartender Al Pacquette, who gives testimony in the murder of Barney Quill. He worked again with Stewart in The Spirit of The FBI Story; the actor made dozens of TV guest appearances. In 1955, Hamilton guest-starred on the NBC legal drama Justice, based on case files of the Legal Aid Society of New York. Hamilton appeared in the Perry Mason episode "The Case of the Deadly Double" as the shadowy boyfriend of a woman with a split personality whose brother is Mason's client. In 1959, he appeared in a few episodes of the crime drama The Untouchables, as well as co-starring in the second episode of Rod Serling's television series The Twilight Zone, "One for the Angels", playing Mr. Death opposite Ed Wynn. Hamilton portrayed Calhoun, on of Gunsmoke, which aired in April, 1959, his character is swindled in a land deal along with other members of a wagon train & his wife tries to leave Calhoun with the swindler.
In the 1959-60 television season, Hamilton co-starred with William Demarest, Jeanne Bal, Stubby Kaye in the NBC sitcom Love and Marriage. He played attorney Steve Baker, who resides in an apartment with his wife, two daughters and a father-in-law, he soon appeared as a guest star on another sitcom, The Real McCoys, starring Walter Brennan, on ABC. In 1961, he appeared in another science fiction series, Way Out, hosted by Roald Dahl, with fellow guest stars Doris Roberts and Martin Huston. In 1986, he played Curtis "Big Daddy" Hollingsworth, Blanche Devereaux's father, in a first-season episode of The Golden Girls. Hamilton complained in a newspaper article about being typecast, stating "After I was first cast as a heavy on The Untouchables, I couldn't persuade them that I could do something else." While comic roles were rare for Hamilton during his Hollywood career, he had one opposite Andy Griffith in the 1958 military comedy No Time for Sergeants, as well as an appearance in Steven Spielberg's raucous comedy, 1941 released in 1979.
He appeared in a comedic guest spot on Mama's Family in the second-season episode, "Mama Cries Uncle", as Uncle Roy. He was more cast in dramatic works, such as the stark science-fiction drama Seconds, which starred Rock Hudson. In two of his most distinctive performances, Hamilton appeared with Paul Newman in The Hustler, playing Findley, a wealthy billiards player who gambles for high stakes, in The Graduate as Mr. Robinson, husband of the seductress Mrs. Robinson. In 1975, Hamilton appeared again with Newman in The Drowning Pool, he worked with Robert Redford in a pair of films, The Way We Were and Brubaker. For many years both before and during his film career, Hamilton was a prominent dramatic stage actor, earning a Tony Award nomination for his role in the 1965 production of Absence of a Cello. New York Times theater critic Brooks Atkinson praised his work in the play Stockade, based on a part of the James Jones novel From Here to Eternity: "Murray Hamilton is an ideal Prewitt. Modest in manner, pleasant of voice, he has a steel-like spirit that brings Prewitt to life."
When the actor was suffering from cancer and found film roles harder to come by, his old co-star George C. Scott helped out by getting him a part in the made-for-television movie The Last Days of Patton. Hamilton died of lung cancer at age 63, is interred at Oakdale Cemetery in his native Washington, North Carolina, he and his wife, Terri DeMarco Hamilton, had David. Murray Hamilton on IMDb Murray Hamilton at the Internet Broadway Database Murray Hamilton at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Murray Hamilton at Find a Grave
A Stop at Willoughby
"A Stop at Willoughby" is episode 30 of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone. Rod Serling cited this as his favorite story from the first season of the series. Gart Williams is a contemporary New York City advertising executive who has grown exasperated with his career, his overbearing boss, Oliver Misrell, angered by the loss of a major account, lectures him about this "push-push-push" business. Unable to sleep properly at home, he drifts off for a short nap on the train during his daily commute through the November snow, he wakes to find the train stopped and his car now a 19th-century railway car, deserted except for himself. The sun is bright outside, as he looks out the window, he discovers that the train is in a town called Willoughby and that it's July 1888, he learns that this is a "peaceful, restful place, where a man can slow down to a walk and live his life full measure." Being jerked back awake into the real world, he asks the conductor if he has heard of Willoughby, but the conductor replies, "Not on this run...no Willoughby on the line."
That night, he has another argument with his shrewish wife Jane. Selfish and uncaring, she makes him see that he is only a money machine to her, he tells her about his dream and about Willoughby, only to have her ridicule him as being "born too late", declaring it her "miserable tragic error" to have married a man "whose big dream in life is to be Huckleberry Finn." The next week, Williams again dozes off on the train and returns to Willoughby where everything is the same as before. As he is about to get off the train carrying his briefcase, the train begins to roll, returning him to the present. Williams promises himself to get off at Willoughby next time. Experiencing a breakdown at work, he calls his wife. On his way home, once again he falls asleep to find himself in Willoughby; this time, as the conductor warmly beckons him to the door, Williams intentionally leaves his briefcase on the train. Getting off the train, he is greeted by name by various inhabitants who welcome him while he tells them he's glad to be there and plans to stay and join their idyllic life.
The swinging pendulum of the station clock fades into the swinging lantern of a train engineer, standing over Williams' body. The 1960 conductor explains to the engineer that Williams "shouted something about Willoughby", before jumping off the train and was killed instantly. Williams' body is loaded into a hearse; the back door of the hearse closes to reveal the name of the funeral home: Son. The "Stamford" and the "Westport/Saugatuck" stops called out by the conductor in the episode exist in real life – Metro-North Railroad stops in Fairfield County, include Stamford and the Westport station serves the town of Westport, where series creator Rod Serling once lived. Gart Williams' home phone number of Capital 7-9899 is a legitimate telephone exchange in Westport. "Beautiful Dreamer", a popular song in Ohio at the time, can be heard being played by a band in the episode. The 2000 TV movie For All Time starring Mark Harmon was based on this episode. Willoughby, Ohio, is the only town with that name in all of the United States, but there is a street called'Willoughby Avenue' within the greater Hollywood area, only a few miles from the Sony Pictures Studios where nearly all Twilight Zone episodes were shot.
Willoughby, Ohio calls its annual neighborhood festival "Last Stop: Willoughby" in honor of the episode. One of the last episodes of Thirtysomething pays homage to this episode, it has the same title, in it Michael experiences a crisis similar to that of Williams, though it does not end tragically. The character Willoughby in Richard Linklater's Everybody Wants Some!!, is a Twilight Zone fanatic and owns every episode on VHS. He pays homage to the episode as he is 30 years old and skips from college to college under the false name of Willoughby so he can keep playing baseball and live the college lifestyle; the British electronic music outfit Funki Porcini sampled audio portions of “A Stop At Willoughby” on the song “The Deep” from their 1995 debut CD'Hed Phone Sex' on Shadow Records. In the TV series Stargate Atlantis episode, The Real World, Dr. Elizabeth Weir awakens in the Acute Care Unit of Willoughby State Hospital, a psychiatric hospital, she is told her memories of the last 2 years off-world was a fantasy and that she had imagined the Stargate project.
Matthew Weiner, creator of the TV series Mad Men, acknowledged the influence of The Twilight Zone on his work. Weiner said. List of The Twilight Zone episodes Zicree, Marc Scott: The Twilight Zone Companion. Sillman-James Press, 1982 DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 "A Stop at Willoughby" on IMDb "A Stop at Willoughby" at TV.com
Isaiah Edwin Leopold, better known as Ed Wynn, was an American actor and comedian noted for his Perfect Fool comedy character, his pioneering radio show of the 1930s, his career as a dramatic actor. Wynn was born Isaiah Edwin Leopold in Pennsylvania, his father, who manufactured and sold women's hats, was born in Bohemia. His mother, Minnie Greenberg, of Romanian and Turkish ancestry, came from Istanbul. Wynn attended Central High School in Philadelphia until age 15, he ran away from home in his teens, worked as a hat salesman, as a utility boy, adapted his middle name "Edwin" into his new stage name, "Ed Wynn", to save his family the embarrassment of having a lowly comedian as a relative. Wynn began his career in vaudeville in 1903 and was a star of the Ziegfeld Follies starting in 1914. During The Follies of 1915, W. C. Fields caught Wynn mugging for the audience under the table during Fields' Pool Room routine and knocked Wynn unconscious with his cue. Wynn wrote and produced many Broadway shows in the subsequent decades, was known for his silly costumes and props as well as for the giggly, wavering voice he developed for the 1921 musical revue, The Perfect Fool.
In the early 1930s Wynn hosted the popular radio show The Fire Chief, heard in North America on Tuesday nights, sponsored by Texaco gasoline. Like many former vaudeville performers who turned to radio in the same decade, the stage-trained Wynn insisted on playing for a live studio audience, doing each program as an actual stage show, using visual bits to augment his written material, in his case, wearing a colorful costume with a red fireman's helmet, he bounced his gags off announcer/straight man Graham McNamee. I don't know, it won't go anyplace without a rattle!" Wynn reprised his Fire Chief radio character in two movies, Follow The Chief. Near the height of his radio fame he founded his own short-lived radio network the Amalgamated Broadcasting System, which lasted only five weeks, nearly destroying the comedian. According to radio historian Elizabeth McLeod, the failed venture left Wynn deep in debt and suffering a nervous breakdown. Wynn was offered the title role in MGM's 1939 screen adaptation of The Wizard of Oz, but turned it down, as did his Ziegfeld contemporary W. C.
Fields. The part went to Frank Morgan. Ed Wynn first appeared on television on July 7, 1936 in a brief, ad-libbed spot with Graham McNamee during an NBC experimental television broadcast. In the 1949–50 season, Ed Wynn hosted one of the first network, comedy-variety television shows, on CBS, won both a Peabody Award and an Emmy Award in 1949. Buster Keaton, Lucille Ball, The Three Stooges all made guest appearances with Wynn; this was the first CBS variety television show to originate from Los Angeles, seen live on the west coast, but filmed via kinescope for distribution in the Midwest and East, as the national coaxial cable had yet to be completed. Wynn was a rotating host of NBC's Four Star Revue from 1950 through 1952. After the end of Wynn's third television series, The Ed Wynn Show, his son, actor Keenan Wynn, encouraged him to make a career change rather than retire; the comedian reluctantly began a career as a dramatic actor in television and movies. Father and son appeared in three productions, the first of, the 1956 Playhouse 90 broadcast of Rod Serling's play Requiem for a Heavyweight.
Ed was kept goofing his lines in rehearsal. When the producers wanted to fire him, star Jack Palance said. On live broadcast night, Wynn surprised everyone with his pitch-perfect performance, his quick ad libs to cover his mistakes. A dramatization of what happened during the production was staged as an April 1960 Westinghouse Desilu Playhouse episode, "The Man in the Funny Suit", starring both senior and junior Wynns, with key figures involved in the original production portraying themselves. Ed and his son worked together in the Jose Ferrer film The Great Man, with Ed again proving his unexpected skills in drama. Requiem established Wynn as a serious dramatic actor who could hold his own with the best, his performance in The Diary of Anne Frank received an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor. In 1959, Wynn appeared on Serling's TV series The Twilight Zone in "One for the Angels". Serling, a longtime admirer, had written that episode for him, Wynn in 1963 starred in the episode "Ninety Years Without Slumbering".
For the rest of his life, Wynn skillfully moved between dramatic roles. He appeared in anthology television, endearing himself to new generations of fans. Wynn was caricatured in the Merrie Melodies cartoon shorts Shuffle Off to Buffalo and I've Got to Sing a Torch Song, as a pot of jam in the Betty Boop short Betty in Blunderland, he appeared as the Fairy Godfather in Jerry Lewis' Cinderfella. His performance as Paul Beaseley in the 1958 film The Great Man earned him nominations for a Golden Globe Award for "Best Supporting Actor" and a BAFTA Award for "Best Foreign Actor"; the following year he received his first nomination for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role as Mr. Dussell in The Diary of Anne Frank. Six
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live. According to the beliefs of some religions, heavenly beings can descend to earth or incarnate, earthly beings can ascend to heaven in the afterlife, or in exceptional cases enter heaven alive. Heaven is described as a "higher place", the holiest place, a Paradise, in contrast to hell or the Underworld or the "low places", universally or conditionally accessible by earthly beings according to various standards of divinity, piety, faith, or other virtues or right beliefs or the will of God; some believe in the possibility of a heaven on Earth in a World to Come. Another belief is in an axis mundi or world tree which connects the heavens, the terrestrial world, the underworld. In Indian religions, heaven is considered as Svarga loka, the soul is again subjected to rebirth in different living forms according to its karma.
This cycle can be broken after a soul achieves Nirvana. Any place of existence, either of humans, souls or deities, outside the tangible world is referred to as otherworld; the modern English word heaven is derived from the earlier heven. By about 1000, heofon was being used in reference to the Christianized "place where God dwells", but it had signified "sky, firmament"; the English term has cognates in the other Germanic languages: Old Saxon heƀan "sky, heaven", Old Icelandic himinn, Gothic himins. All of these have been derived from a reconstructed Proto-Germanic form *hemina-. or *hemō. The further derivation of this form is uncertain. A connection to Proto-Indo-European *ḱem- "cover, shroud", via a reconstructed *k̑emen- or *k̑ōmen- "stone, heaven", has been proposed. Others endorse the derivation from a Proto-Indo-European root *h₂éḱmō "stone" and "heavenly vault" at the origin of this word, which would have as cognates Ancient Greek ἄκμων, Persian آسمان and Sanskrit अश्मन्. In the latter case English hammer would be another cognate to the word.
The ancient Mesopotamians regarded the sky as a series of domes covering the flat earth. Each dome was made of a different kind of precious stone; the lowest dome of heaven was the home of the stars. The middle dome of heaven was the abode of the Igigi; the highest and outermost dome of heaven was made of luludānītu stone and was personified as An, the god of the sky. The celestial bodies were equated with specific deities as well; the planet Venus was believed to be Inanna, the goddess of love and war. The sun was her brother Utu, the god of justice, the moon was their father Nanna. In ancient Near Eastern cultures in general and in Mesopotamia in particular, humans had little to no access to the divine realm. Heaven and earth were separated by their nature. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh says to Enkidu, "Who can go up to heaven, my friend? Only the gods dwell with Shamash forever." Instead, after a person died, his or her soul went to Kur, a dark shadowy underworld, located deep below the surface of the earth.
All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no impact on how he would be treated in the world to come. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that Inanna had the power to bestow special favors upon her devotees in the afterlife. Despite the separation between heaven and earth, humans sought access to the gods through oracles and omens; the gods were believed to live in heaven, but in their temples, which were seen as the channels of communication between earth and heaven, which allowed mortal access to the gods. The Ekur temple in Nippur was known as the "mooring-rope" of heaven and earth, it was thought to have been built and established by Enlil himself. Nothing is known of Bronze Age Canaanite views of heaven, the archaeological findings at Ugarit have not provided information; the 1st century Greek author Philo of Byblos may preserve elements of Iron Age Phoenician religion in his Sanchuniathon. The ancient Hittites believed that some deities lived in Heaven, while others lived in remote places on earth, such as mountains, where humans had little access.
In the Middle Hittite myths, heaven is the abode of the gods. In the Song of Kumarbi, Alalu was king in heaven for nine years before giving birth to Anu. Anu was himself overthrown by Kumarbi; as in other ancient Near Eastern cultures, in the Hebrew Bible, the universe is divided into two realms: heaven and earth. Sometimes a third realm is added: either "sea", "water under the earth", or sometimes a vague "land of the dead", never described in depth; the structure of heaven itself is never described in the Hebrew Bible, but the fact that the Hebrew word š