An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm CD, it now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP; some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, in some cases, they may contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in'85, a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in'86.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody" by Whitney Houston in May 1987; the Mini CD single CD3 format was created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US, it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but these consisted of three tracks or more each. During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums.
Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide.
While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most Delta Goodrem, whose then-recent singles were released on CD in limited quantities; the ARIA Singles Chart is now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, who concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, most of the time singles have been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles; the original CD single is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm. They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives; the format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels, they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, ofte
Fading West is the ninth studio album by the American alternative rock band Switchfoot, released on January 14, 2014 through Atlantic. The album was promoted by four singles: "Who We Are" and "Love Alone Is Worth the Fight", released in September 2013, "Let It Out" released in February 2014, "When We Come Alive", released in May 2014. An accompanying film/documentary, Fading West, premiered on September 20, 2013 during the first concert of the Fading West Tour, was released digitally on December 10, 2013; the film features a behind-the-scenes look at Switchfoot, follows the band members to their surfing destinations. In an interview with Jake Denning, drummer Chad Butler said: "It’s been interesting you know – a Switchfoot record will start with Jon and a guitar we’ll build the framework of a song around that, but this time there’s been a lot more space to have new experimentation, finding instruments in the locations we go – for instance, Drew finding a guitar on the side of the road in Africa made out of a gas can, being inspired by the unique sounds that it had.
I guess it’s allowed us to start from the ground up, let the sounds that we’re finding exist without melody or a lyric yet, just have a landscape of sound. I think there’s going to be room to breathe on the album that we haven’t allowed ourselves in the past. You know, I think there’s that cinematic idea in the back of your mind that you're creating something that doesn’t have to be a 3 minute pop song."According to Jon Foreman, the album will feature some Switchfoot friends, including his Fiction Family bandmate Sean Watkins and his sister Sara Watkins, saxophonist Karl Denson and Charlie Peacock: "We want to just kind of pull on different people who play other instruments and can add colors to the score that we would never be able to add." In December 2012, a tentative track listing for the album was posted by Switchfoot on Facebook and Twitter, saying "FadingWest soundtrack. Subject to change, like we all are..." In March 2013, a new tentative song list was posted onto Instagram by Jon Foreman.
Another list, containing thirteen titles, was posted on Switchfoot's Twitter and Facebook pages on 5 June 2013. The Fading West Tour, held to promote the album, started on 20 September 20, 2013 in St. Louis and will end on November 24, 2013 in Abilene, Texas. In each of 45 American cities, Switchfoot fans are going to see a special screening of the Fading West film, serving as the opening act for an intimate live show. In June 2013, tour dates were published on Switchfoot official website. Dates for other countries have not been announced yet; the album was preceded by the Fading West EP, released on September 17, 2013. The EP contained three songs from the album, including "Who We Are" and "Love Alone Is Worth the Fight", which were released as radio singles to different formats that day. On September 18, 2013, a music video for "Who We Are" premiered on the Rolling Stone website. A video for "Love Alone Is Worth the Fight" was released on October 1, 2013. "When We Come Alive" was released as the third and final single to modern rock radio on May 13, 2014.
Fading West garnered critical acclaim from reviews. Matt Collar of Allmusic rated the album four stars, highlighted that the release "is an upbeat, uplifting affair; the band returns to both its beach and surf culture roots. The result is an album that at once pushes Switchfoot's sound forward, while displaying the band's long-running knack for melodic, catchy pop songs." He noted that some of the tracks on the album, like "Slipping Away" and "Let It Out", "fit nicely alongside work by more contemporary bands like OneRepublic," and that the album "moves from earnest ballads to dancey, groove-oriented cuts to breezy, sunshine-soaked rockers with an easy, athletic flow." At CCM Magazine, Matt Conner rated the album four stars, called it "the most fun and infectious Switchfoot album ever." Christian Broadcasting Network's Hannah Goodwyn rated the album four spins, believing that "Fading West continues to push Switchfoot across lines and cultures." At Cross Rhythms, Mike Rimmer rated the album a perfect ten squares, writing that "It's the imagination and willingness not to retread previous triumphs that makes this one such a great album."At AbsolutePunk, Craig Manning rated the album a 75-percent, affirmed the album to be "a great success because it's the most optimistic and downright happy these guys have sounded in years."
Ian Zandi of Indie Vision Music rated the album four stars, said this "should be considered their passion project." At Jesus Freak Hideout, Ryan Barbee rated the album four-and-a-half stars, vowed that the release "isn't the album of albums for Switchfoot, it is most a solid record" that contains "some of the best songs the band has put out." Roger Gelwicks in a second staff opinion rated the release four stars, wrote that it was "Fueled by the hope that comes with musical longevity," and it was "among the most credible works of its kind". At New Release Tuesday, Mary Nikkel rated the album four-and-a-half stars, called this a "suitable sound" at this juncture of the groups history, which this stage comes in with the band showing they are "more full of vivacious energy, wide-eyed joy, earnest hope than before." Rob Foster of Kill Your Stereo rated the album a 94-out-of-100, noted that "The 11-track album is arguably t
The Beautiful Letdown
The Beautiful Letdown is the fourth studio album by alternative rock band Switchfoot. Released on February 25, 2003, it launched the band into the mainstream on the strength of two top 20 singles: "Meant to Live" and "Dare You to Move." The album was hugely popular and remained a staple on the Billboard 200 album charts for a considerable amount of time. The album sold over 2.7 million copies in the US and was certified double platinum by the RIAA. The album won an Album of the Year award at the 2003 San Diego Music Awards, it was ranked No. 195 on Billboard's 200 Albums of the Decade. In 2002, the band entered the studio to begin recording of the follow-up to their 2000 record, Learning to Breathe, they were unsigned at the time, their contract with re:think Records/Sparrow having expired with the completion of Learning to Breathe. Bassist Tim Foreman has said that "this was the most freedom we had felt while tracking an album – no record labels, no distractions, just four guys making the record we'd always wanted to make."
They finished recording in two weeks, but shortly afterwards, were signed to the major record label Columbia Records/Red Ink. This delayed the release, as the label submitted the album for further mixing and marketing. "Sony is a big battleship of a company," said lead singer Jon Foreman. "It takes a long time to turn it around. It's like parallel parking a Buick." It was released February 25, 2003 as The Beautiful Letdown. The album featured some of the band's most intricate work to date, featured a departure from the lo-fi indie rock sound of their previous three albums; this shift to a more layered, heavier rock sound with occasional electronica influences can be attributed to the addition of long-time touring member Jerome Fontamillas as a full-time band member. Contributing more to the recording process by filling in with his added instrumental versatility prompted Foreman to note, "I feel like Jerome is a great team player. I mean the same thing where live he just kind of fills in, is the same thing on the album.
He's just a wonderful guy to have around." The sound was influenced by the fact that "these were songs that we'd played live countless times, songs that we'd lived with." "This was the most prepared we'd been for a record," bassist Tim Foreman has commented. The album brings together an eclectic sound as it gathers inspiration from the previous ten years of contemporary rock; the song "This Is Your Life" features a more subtle pop jam while the up-beat, light-hearted "Gone" brings the album to an different place musically, exemplifying the band's musical versatility. Lyrically, the songs on the album speak of hope in spite of an imperfect world. "The Beautiful Letdown is about real life: the good, the bad, the ugly," said Jon Foreman. "It's an honest attempt to reflect on the great and terrible aspects of being human, the tension of existence." "Meant to Live" expresses this in the lyric, "We were meant to live for so much more/have we lost ourselves?/We want more than this world's got to offer/We want more than the wars of our fathers."
While the band's Christian beliefs are communicated through the album's message, bassist Tim Foreman notes that "We're Christian by faith, not by genre." Inspired by their role model U2, the band seeks to merge the appeal of rock with deep and spiritual thoughts. The first few promotional copies of the album were printed with the song "Monday Comes Around" on it; when the wide release version went to print Foreman removed the song as he felt it didn't match the tone of the album. The song can now be found on the 2004 re-release of "The Beautiful Letdown" on the accompanying DVD, on the b-side of the Meant to Live vinyl single released, in copies of the Japan release of Nothing Is Sound, in the 2007 iTunes Deluxe re-release of The Beautiful Letdown; the guitar that appears on the album cover at the bottom of the pool is a guitar that Foreman bought at a pawn shop in North Dakota. The original intention was "to light it on fire, but the place wouldn't let us light things on fire, so we were going to break it in half."
But after playing it a few times, Foreman became too attached to it, thus leaving it intact at the bottom of the pool. The photo used on the cover was taken at a "sketchy hotel" in North Los Angeles. Several variations of the cover exist; the original 2003 pressings of the record featured black lettering on the artwork, while the 2004 re-issues featured larger white letters and/or a sticker with the title font superimposed onto an image of a drum set. The release of their fourth studio album was met with resounding success, selling over 2.6 million copies and becoming certified double platinum. Despite the overwhelming success of the now mainstream Christian band, some criticized The Beautiful Letdown claiming that it lacked originality and saying that it was too similar to other alternative Christian rock such as Jars of Clay and Creed. All tracks written except where noted. More than half of the songs from the album were released as singles. In 2004, "The Beautiful Letdown" was re-released in two different forms: A standard CD-only reissue featuring a tweaked audio mix, as well as new artwork, a CD/DVD package.
The CD/DVD edition featured a DVD that included a few bonus-features, including the entire album in 5.1 Surround Sound. It featured a Making of "Dare You to Move" video, as well as Version 1 of the music video itself, an acoustic impromptu performance of "On Fire", two unreleased bonus tracks, "Monday Comes Around" and "Meant to Live". For some reason, these bonus tracks were inexplicably included only on the DVD, not on the audio side. In 2005, the album was released, this time as a DualDisc; the audio side remained the sa
Cry (Mandy Moore song)
"Cry" is a song by American recording artist Mandy Moore, released on November 4, 2001 by Epic Records. It was co-written by James Renald and Dominic Riccitello, co-produced by Renald and Peter Mokran; the song was released as the third single from her self-titled third studio album. The song achieved minor success in the United States, but was a big hit in Asia in the Philippines. "Cry" received positive reviews from music critics, was one of the songs most adored by MTV at the time of its release. The lyrics of "Cry" focuses on a girl; the musical structure of the song is created based on the melody of a guitar as a ballad. It was used as a soundtrack of the 2002 romantic drama A Walk to Remember, in which she starred with Shane West; the song tells the story of a girl who thought her boyfriend was insensitive, until the day she first saw him cry. "You were all by yourself, staring up at the dark gray sky, I was changed..." It was not a major hit in the U. S. until the release of Moore's romantic drama A Walk to Remember, but was an MTV favorite and did well overseas.
Because the song was set to be released around the same time as the film and they had a remarkably similar theme, Moore felt that "Cry" would be perfect to be included in the film's soundtrack. The song is one of Moore's favorites on the album. Moore said in a Billboard interview that she carried around a copy of the song for over a year before she recorded it. "It felt like my ace in the hole. It's such a beautiful song on every level. I couldn't wait to get into the studio and sing it." She said that James Renald, the co-writer and co-producer of the song, had to "peel her out of the booth because she wanted to sing it over and over again." The music video was directed by Chris Applebaum and released in 2002. The main premise of the video was centered around the conclusion of the movie; the home video was the summer that West's characters spent together before she died. It showed Moore in Shane West looking through a telescope at her; the movie featured the couple stargazing and Moore's character Jamie Sullivan believed that when she would look through a telescope at the stars she can see into Heaven.
Landon Carter can see a now passed Jamie in Heaven. As the video comes to a climax, there is an explosion and stars shoot from behind Moore; the video shows West looking at random video clips of him and Moore. The video was not a huge success on MTV like her prior video "Crush"; the music video is included on A Walk to Remember's DVD as a bonus feature. It was included as a multi-media track on the 2003 special expanded edition of the film's soundtrack, but the song is not included in her YouTube Vevo channel yet. Despite the success of the film and soundtrack, the single never entered the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States, but it was successful in Canada and Asia; the single performed well in Germany, where a limited 6-track maxi-CD was released. To date, "Cry" has sold 15,000 physical copies and 203,000 paid digital downloads according to Nielsen Soundscan. In Asia, the song was a major success in countries like Thailand and the Philippines, was among the five biggest songs in Taiwan at the time.
German/Austrian/Swiss CD single"Cry" - 3:43 "Someday We'll Know" - 3:42German maxi single - scarce release"Cry" - 3:43 "Only Hope" - 5:53 "It's Gonna Be Love" - 3:53 "Someday We'll Know" - 3:42Promo CD single"Cry" - 3:43 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Nothing Is Sound
Nothing Is Sound is the fifth studio album by American alternative rock band Switchfoot. It was released on September 13, 2005, debuted at number three on the Billboard 200; the first single from this album was "Stars,", the number one most-added song on Modern Rock Radio, received much airplay on alternative rock stations upon release. A second single "We Are One Tonight" was released in early 2006, but without much success on the Billboard charts; the album was marred by major controversy over the inclusion of XCP copy protection distributed on all copies of the disc. This led to bassist Tim Foreman posting a detailed work-around on the band's website. Nothing Is Sound was at the forefront of the Sony BMG CD copy prevention scandal, which led to the recall of all CDs that contained the protection. After the large success of Switchfoot's previous record, The Beautiful Letdown, the band found itself touring and were forced to work on most of the new record while on the road; as a result, many of the songs on Nothing Is Sound made their public debuts at various shows on the tours.
Every night on tour, the band would write parts to new songs, test them out during the shows."There's nothing like playing a new song in front of real people with real opinions. The people at those shows, they shaped this song as much as anyone," lead singer Jon Foreman said. Nothing Is Sound is characterized as being a much "darker" album compared to Switchfoot's other releases. Jon Foreman hinted that the album could be viewed as "a dark chapter revealing more mysteries to be solved". Lyrically the songs explore topics ranging from loneliness, the end of the world, anti-entropy, the commercialization of sex; the band has always viewed the album as being more hopeful than anything, pointing to songs like "The Shadow Proves the Sunshine" as how a dark theme can be positive. Foreman says, "I may write about how everything is meaningless, but it’s a hopeful thing for me to be proven wrong.". The song is a fan favourite and is played live at their shows. Musically, the record features the most densely layered guitar work by the band to date.
This is attributed to the official addition to the band of touring guitarist Drew Shirley, whose work on the song "Golden" provided a "mellow, ethereal roof over top of the song," as Foreman noted. "Noise never sounded more beautiful!" In October, just over a month after its original release date, Nothing Is Sound was certified gold by the RIAA for selling 500,000 copies. The incredible pacing tapered off following the revelation of Sony's rootkit on the disks; the November 1, 2006 edition of Billboard magazine reported that Nothing Is Sound had sold 549,000 units. It debuted on the Billboard 200 at number three, being the highest that any Switchfoot album has placed. "Stars" is the best charting single of the album, reaching as high as 16 on the modern rock chart, number 68 on the Billboard Hot 100. In November 2005, it was revealed that Sony was distributing albums with Extended Copy Protection, a controversial feature that automatically installed rootkit software on any Microsoft Windows machine upon insertion of the disc.
In addition to preventing the CDs contents from being copied, it was revealed that the software reported the users' listening habits back to Sony and exposed the computer to malicious attacks that exploited insecure features of the rootkit software. Though Sony refused to release a list of the affected CDs, the Electronic Frontier Foundation identified Nothing Is Sound as one of the discs with the invasive software. Bassist Tim Foreman posted a way around the protection on the bands message boards; the original post was soon deleted, which caused some people to speculate that Sony would sue the band over this issue. However, no legal action has been taken. Jon Foreman would say that he felt the album was "tainted" by this. An additional copy protection problem was found on some of the disks that were published by EMI; these disks contained. Some copies of that version were recalled due to incorrect copy protection settings, although they were exchanged for other copy-protected copies with the correct settings.
A DualDisc version of Nothing is Sound was released with standard editions of the album. Notable is the fact; the DVD-side of the album featured the entire album in 5.1 Surround sound, includes an 30-minute-long documentary on the making of the album. Switchfoot's first music video from this album is "Stars", filmed entirely underwater. Switchfoot has since released a live video version of "Stars", another two videos for the album's second single "We Are One Tonight"; the band filmed a video for the song "Happy Is a Yuppie Word" in anticipation of its being released as the first single. However, it was never formally released, but was included on the DVD Switchfootage 2 along with a video for The Blues. In addition to the mainstay tracks listed above, the album was released with extra material at different stores. Albums purchased at Target stores contained an extra track called "Goodnight Punk"; the song was considered for the album The Beautiful Letdown but was cut from the final selection. Albums purchased at Wal-Mart contained a Christmas song called "Old Borego" as a bonus track, which Jon Foreman had penned earlier for a charity album released locally in the band's hometown of San Diego.
In Japan, the album was released with an alternative version of "Dare You to Move", featured during a montage in the band's DVD "Switchfootage", along with
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid