The Onondaga people are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in northeast North America. Their traditional homeland is in and around present-day Onondaga County, New York, south of Lake Ontario, they are known as Gana’dagwëni:io’geh to the other Iroquois tribes. Being centrally located, they are considered the "Keepers of the Fire" in the figurative longhouse that shelters the Five Nations; the Cayuga and Seneca have territory to the Oneida and Mohawk to their east. For this reason, the League of the Iroquois met at the Iroquois government's capital at Onondaga, as the traditional chiefs do today. According to oral tradition, The Great Peacemaker approached the Onondaga and other tribes to found the Haudenosaunee; the tradition tells that at the time the Seneca nation debated joining the Haudenosaunee based on the Great Peacemaker's teachings, a solar eclipse took place. The most eclipse to be recounted was in 1142AD, visible to the people in the land of the Seneca.
This oral tradition is supported by archeological studies. Carbon dating of particular sites of Onondaga habitation shows dates starting close to 1200AD ± 60 years with growth for hundreds of years. In the American Revolutionary War, the Onondaga were at first neutral, although individual Onondaga warriors were involved in at least one raid on American settlements. After Americans attacked on their main village on April 20, 1779, the Onondaga sided with the majority of the League and fought against the American colonists in alliance with the British. After the United States was accorded independence, many Onondaga followed Joseph Brant to Upper Canada, where they were given land by the Crown at Six Nations. On November 11, 1794, the Onondaga Nation, along with the other Haudenosaunee nations, signed the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States, in which their right to their homeland was acknowledged by the United States in article II of the treaty. In 1816, 450 Onondaga were living in New York.
The Onondaga in New York have a traditional form of government, with chiefs nominated by clan mothers, rather than elected. On March 11, 2005, the Onondaga Nation in the town of Onondaga, New York, filed a land rights action in federal court, seeking acknowledgment of title to over 3,000 square miles of ancestral lands centering in Syracuse, New York, they hoped to obtain increased influence over environmental restoration efforts at Onondaga Lake and other EPA Superfund sites in the claimed area. The Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit rejected the Onondagas' claim in 2012, the Supreme Court in 2013 declined to hear an appeal. Leon Shenandoah, Tadodaho Oren Lyons Tom Longboat Canassatego, Tadadaho of the Iroquois Confederacy Tadodaho Sidney Hill Samuel George, Lyle Thompson, Gail Tremblay Eric Gansworth Erik J. Sorensen Onondaga Nation south of Nedrow, New York outside Syracuse Onondaga of Ohswegen and Bearfoot Onondaga, both at Six Nations of the Grand River, Canada Onöñda'gega' Onondaga language Onontakeka Oneida language Onondagaono Seneca language Hiawatha Onondaga language HMCS Onondaga Oberon Class submarine Sainte-Marie among the Hurons John Arthur Gibson Onondaga Reservation, New York United States Census Bureau Onondaga Nation web page
Lac la Croix Research Natural Area is a natural area, protected by the United States Department of Agriculture through the branch of the Forest Service. It consists of 973 acres of land, it is part of the Superior National Forest. Lac la Croix is a forested area that consists of red and white pine trees, it is one of the few remaining unmodified sections of "virgin pine" in the United States. Moose, black bear, white-tailed deer are common in the area; the area was established as a Research Natural Area by the U. S. Forest Service in 1942. In February 1980 the United States Secretary of the Interior designated Lac la Croix Research Natural Area as a National Natural Landmark under the Historic Sites Act; this designation recognized the area as an outstanding example of the United States' natural history. The National Park Service describes the area as "old-growth virgin pine forests... contains most of the physiographic and ecological features characteristic of the Boundary Waters region"
GDRT was a King of the Kingdom of Aksum, known for being the first king to involve Axum in the affairs of what is now Yemen. He is known from inscriptions in South Arabia that mention him and his son BYGT. GDRT is thought to be the same person as GDR, the name inscribed on a bronze wand or sceptre, found in an area near Atsbi and Dar'a/Addi-Galamo in northern Ethiopia. GDRT has been equated with the anonymous king of the Monumentum Adulitanum, which would date his reign c. 200 – c. 230. However, the two rulers are thought to be distinct; however the French scholar Christian Robin, studying the inscriptions at al-Mis`al in Yemen, has shown that GDRT, his successor `DBH, lived in the earlier half of the 3rd century. The inscriptions of GDR represent the oldest surviving royal inscriptions in the Ge'ez alphabet; the oldest of these was found at Addi-Galamo in the regions of Atsbi and Dar'a in eastern Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. The area is rich in pre-Aksumite artifacts, inscriptions of a pre-Aksumite kingdom called Dʿmt have been found in the region.
The inscription mentioning GDR is the only evidence of his existence from the western side of the Red Sea: gdr / ngśy / ʾksm / tbʿl / mzlt / lʾrg / wllmqThe Addi Galamo inscription was written on a sceptre or "boomerang-like object". J. Drewes therefore interprets mzlt as meaning a royal emblem; the inscription's meaning is uncertain, but if mzlt is taken to mean a sceptre, ʾrg and lmq are taken to be place names according to Alexander Sima, the text could mean "GDR, king of Aksum gave sceptre into the possession of ʾRG and LMQ." The South Arabian expert W. F. Albert Jamme, translates the inscription as "GDR king of Aksum occupied the passages of `RG and LMQ", or "Gedara, King of Axum is humbled before the Arg and Almouqah,", assuming that the ʾ in Ilmuqah was assimilated. GDRT is first mentioned in South Arabian inscriptions as an ally of `Alhan Nahfan, king of Saba, in an inscription at Maḥram Bilqīs, at Ma'rib in Yemen, the temple of the moon god Almaqah /Ilmuqah. According to Stuart Munro-Hay, the inscription reads they agreed together that their war and their peace should be in unison, against anyone that might rise up against them, that in safety and in security there should be allied together Salhen and Zararan and `Alhan and Gadarat.
Alexander Sima translates the text differently, specifying that it was GDRT who "sent a diplomatic mission to in order to form an alliance." Both interpret "Zararan" or "Zrrn" as the name of the palace in Aksum at the time, parallel to "Sahlen," the palace of Saba in Marib. This Sahlen-Saba parallel, along with the Dhu-Raydan-Ḥimyar parallel, was used by Aksumite kings in their inscriptions enumerating the territories under their control. A Ḥimyarite inscription confirms the Sabaean text, mentioning that Aksum, Saba', Ḥaḑramawt, Qatabān were all allied against Ḥimyar. `Alhan Nafhan's son Sha`ir Awtar or Sha`irum Awtar abandoned the alliance with GDRT after he became king of Saba'. However, during the first part of Sha`ir Awtar's reign, the two powers seem to have joined in an alliance once again, this time against Ḥaḑramawt. Saba's invasion of Ḥaḑramawt with Aksumite help culminated in the latter's defeat and the occupation of its capital, Shabwah, in 225. Sha`ir Awtar's attack represented a major shift in policy as, before the attack, the king of Ḥaḑramawt, Il`azz Yalut, was married to his sister.
Although Saba' was allied with Aksum against Ḥimyar, both Ḥimyarite and Sabaean troops were used in the attack against Ḥaḑramawt. Following the conquest of Hadramaut, Sha`ir Awtar allied with Ḥimyar against his former ally GDRT. A second Sabaean inscription from the sanctuary'Awam in Marib during the reign of Sha`ir Awtar's successor, Luha`atht Yarhum, describes events in the latter part of his predecessor's reign; the inscription tells of a diplomatic mission sent by Sha`ir Awtar to GDRT, the results of which are unknown. Aksum lost a battle as a result of the Saba'-Ḥimyar alliance, allowing the South Arabian forces to expel GDRT's son BYGT and his forces from the Ḥimyarite capital Zafar, held by Aksum after the Aksum-Ḥaḑramawt-Qatabān-Saba' alliance. Despite this loss, Aksum still held territory in South Arabia, as evidenced by inscriptions of Luha`atht Yarhum, which detail at least one known clash with hbšt troops in Yemen after GDRT's reign. Peace may have been established after GDRT's death, but war and Aksumite involvement was renewed under his successors such as `DBH and GRMT, the whole 3rd century was to be dominated by Ethio-Yemeni conflicts.
GDRT was most the first Aksumite king to be involved in South Arabian affairs, as well as the first known king to be mentioned in South Arabian inscriptions. His reign resulted in the control of much of western Yemen, such as the Tihāmah, Najrā, Ma`afir, Ẓafār, parts of Hashid territory around Hamir in the northern highlands. Furthermore, GDRT's military alliances and his conquests in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, the required formidable fleet for such feats, the extension of Aksumite influence throughout Yemen and southern Saudi Arabia all reflect a new zenith in Aksumite power, his involvement would mark the beginning of centuries of Aksumite involvement in South Arabia, culminating with the full-scale invasion of Yemen by King Kaleb in 520, resulting in the establish
Hector Rolando Uribe is an American lawyer, former Democratic member of the Texas Senate, District 27 and a past candidate for Texas Land Commissioner. He graduated from Christopher Columbus Marist High School in Miami and attended the University of Madrid in the summer of 1966, he graduated from the University of Miami with a Bachelor of Arts in 1967 and a Juris Doctor in 1970. He served in the Texas House of Representatives from 1978 to 1981 and in the Texas Senate from 1981 to 1991; as a senator, he worked to pass the Texas Enterprise Zone Act, designed to create new jobs in economically impacted areas, the Protective Services for the Elderly Act, which guards against abuse of senior citizens. He worked to establish the University of Texas–Pan American. Uribe, a narrow winner in the March 2, 2010, Democratic primary for land commissioner, faced the incumbent Republican Jerry E. Patterson in the November 2, 2010 general election but lost with 35 percent of the ballots cast. Hector Uribe for Land Commissioner
LW9 is a para-Alpine and para-Nordic standing skiing sport class, a classification defined by the International Paralympic Committee for people with upper and lower limb function problems, includes cerebral palsy skiers classified CP5, CP6 and CP7, along with people with hemiplegia or amputations. For international skiing competitions, classification is done through IPC Alpine Skiing or IPC Nordic Skiing. A national federation such as Alpine Canada handles classification for domestic competitions; this classification is separated into two subclasses including LW9.1 and LW9.2. Para-Alpine skiers in this classification have their choice regarding how many skis and ski poles they wish to user, along with the type of ski poles they wish to utilize. In para-Nordic skiing, skiers have an option to use one or two ski poles. Outriggers are one type of ski pole LW9 skiers which requires its own techniques to use; as there are a broad range of disabilities in this class, different skiing techniques are learned by competitors.
Skiers missing an arm use a technique that corrects lateral balance issues resulting from the missing arm. Skiers with cerebral palsy have the introduction of ski poles delayed. A factoring system is used in the sport to allow different classes to compete against each other when there are too few individual competitors in one class in a competition. During the 2011/2012 para-Alpine ski season, the LW9.1 factoring was 0.855 for Slalom, 0.8648 for Giant Slalom, 0.867 for Super-G and 0.8769 for downhill, for LW9.2 was 0.9287 for slalom, 0.9439 for Giant Slalom, 0.9443 for Super-G and 0.9552 for downhill. In para-Nordic skiing, the percentage for the 2012/2013 ski season was 85-95% for classic and 82-96% for free; this classification has competed in its own separate events at the Paralympics and World Championships during the 1990s, but this changed during the 2000s. Skiers in this classification include Australian James Patterson, French LW9.2 skier Solène Jambaqué. This standing classification is used in para-Alpine and para-Nordic skiing, where LW stands for Locomotor Winter.
LW9 is a standing classification for people with lower limb function problems. This classification is open for skiers with cerebral palsy or a similar neurological condition as long as it affects one leg and one arm; the International Paralympic Committee defined this classification for para-Alpine as competitors having "one upper-limb and one lower-limb amputation skiing with the equipment of their choice." This classification has two subclasses, LW9.1 and LW9.2. In July 1997, at the World Cup Technical Meeting for para-Alpine skiing, this class was subdivided into two classes in order to improve factoring for the range of disabilities found within the class at the time. In 2002, the Australian Paralympic Committee described this classification as a standing skiing classification with "Two skis, two poles, combination of disability in an arm and a leg."For para-Nordic skiing, the IPC defines this class for "those with a combination of impairments in both the upper and lower extremities." Para-Nordic skiers in this class would be eligible for LW4 and LW8 based on the relevant upper and lower body disability.
Cross Country Canada described this classification for para-Nordic as "A combination of impairment in both upper and lower extremities. Impairment in one arm and one leg meeting the criteria of LW4 and LW8, or cerebral palsy or neurological impairment that presents in a similar way to cerebral palsy affecting at least one arm and one leg."For international para-Alpine skiing competitions, classification is done through IPC Alpine Skiing. A national federation such as Alpine Canada handles classification for domestic competitions. For para-Nordic skiing events, classification is handled by IPC Nordic Skiing Technical Committee on the international level and by the national sports federation such as Cross-Country Canada on a country by country level; when being assessed into this classification, a number of things are considered including reviewing the skiers medical history and medical information on the skier's disability, having a physical and an in person assessment of the skier training or competing.
LW9.1 is for people with upper extremity issues and above the knee amputation or similar problem with the issues and includes people classes CP7 who have severe hemiplegia. CP7 includes people with incomplete use of their fingers and elbows, is defined by the American College of Sports Medicine as "Involvement hemiplegic. Good function unaffected side." Hemoplegia is damage on one side of the brain that results in paralysis on the other side of the body. LW9.2 is for skiers with an upper extremity issue and below knee amputation or comparable disability. Para-alpine skiers in this classification have their choice regarding how many skis and ski poles they wish to use, along with the type of ski poles they wish to utilize, which may include outriggers; the rules FIS rules governing ski boots and bindings are not enforced for this class, with different requirements than rules that apply to that equipment for able-bodied competitors. For below the knee amputees in this class, their ski boot may have their prosthetic leg built into it.
In para-Nordic skiing, skiers have an option to use one or two ski poles. Across both types of skiing, LW9 competitors use skis that would be longer than if they were able-bodied. If they are using outriggers, these are fitted to the skier based the height of the skier's hip joint when the skier is standing. While learning to ski, skiers in this class with cerebral palsy may use ski-bras, bungi cords, slant boards or toe boards. In the Biat
Rough Trade was a Canadian rock band in the 1970s and 1980s, centred on singer Carole Pope and multi-instrumentalist Kevan Staples. The band was noted for their provocative lyrics and stage antics; the band began in 1968 in Toronto, when Carole Pope and Kevan Staples began performing in a folk group known as "O". Their musical partner in this venture was Clive Smith. In 1970, Smith left the group, Pope and Staples changed their name to "The Bullwhip Brothers", performing as a acoustic duo at Toronto art festivals and at private events. In 1973, they called themselves Rough Trade and added percussionist Chris Faulkner bassist Bob Jennings, followed by drummer Donny McDougal; as would happen going forward, the players supporting Pope and Staples were subject to sometimes wholesale change, by 1974, the Pope/Staples duo was joined by Hap Roderman, Jane Cessine, Sharon Smith and Marv Kanarek. The band, through their theatrical combination of rock, R+B and raw sexuality, became a popular draw on Toronto's live music scene through their regular shows at Grossman's.
They were the first rock band to record a direct to disc album with 1976's Rough Trade Live, which despite the title was a studio recording. Each side was performed live all the way through, cut directly to the mastering disc for greater audio fidelity. By this time, the band's line-up was Pope, Staples, JoAnn Brooks, Rick Gratton, Michael Fonfara, Peter Hodgson; as would be the case throughout the band's entire career, the majority of the album's songs were written by Pope and Staples. On December 19, 1977, the band presented a newly created live musical called Restless Underwear, which co-starred Divine alongside the band; the show, which played at Toronto's prestigious Massey Hall, was noted for its outrageous sexual satire. However, aside from Pope and Staples the rest of the band quit after Restless Underwear had completed its one-show run in a dispute over payment. After a six-month layoff and Staples rebuilt the band, adding David McMorrow, Bucky Berger, Terry Wilkins, Bert Hermiston, Colina Phillips and Betty Richardson to the line-up at various points in 1978 and 1979.
The group resumed playing regular Toronto shows, most at the Horseshoe Tavern. In 1978, Tim Curry would issue a cover of the Rough Trade song "Birds of a Feather". Pope and Staples were at the time involved in writing music for film and television soundtracks, in 1978 they picked up a Genie Award for their work on the made-for-TV film One Night Stand. On February 14, 1980, the band performed their musical revue Restless Underwear at Manhattan's Beacon Theatre. However, the event was promoted by the venue as a show by Divine, who in fact only sang two songs in the revue, both in act two; as a result, the show was received poorly. That year, the band line-up was again reshuffled, settling into a stable five-person line-up of Carole Pope, Kevan Staples, David McMorrow, Terry Wilkins and Bucky Berger; this new iteration of Rough Trade landed a record contract with True North Records in mid-1980, recorded the group's second album Avoid Freud, released in October 1980. The official first single was the deliberately controversial "What's the Furor About the Fuhrer?", but radio stations flipped the single over and the B-side "Fashion Victim" became a top 40 hit in Canada.
The controversy surrounding the raunchy lesbian-themed second single "High School Confidential" helped propel the song into the Canadian top 20, made the band stars. The band sang this song on a notable 1981 appearance on SCTV, a prominent Canadian comedy show that aired in the U. S; the band's next album was 1981's For Those. Although not as remembered as "High School Confidential" today, the LP's first single, the sexually charged "All Touch", was the band's most successful single on the Canadian charts during their career, peaking at no. 12. The release of both "All Touch" and its parent album was delayed by nearly a year in international markets, with "All Touch" peaking in Australia at no. 40 in January 1983 and spending 40 weeks in the Top 100. "All Touch" became Rough Trade's only U. S. chart hit, peaking at no. 58 in early 1983. Although the song was believed to have the potential to break into the top 40, the bankruptcy of the band's American distributor Boardwalk Records halted its progress on the charts as the single ceased to be available in stores.
During the recording of Rough Trade's 1982 album Shaking the Foundations and Berger left and were replaced by Howard Ayee and Jorn Anderson as unofficial members. Shaking the Foundations spawned a top 20 Canadian hit in "Crimes of Passion". Dusty Springfield sang backing vocals on the album, would cover two Rough Trade songs that same year on her album White Heat. Many years Pope would reveal that she and Springfield were in a relationship around this time. In 1983, Rough Trade were offered a Pepsi commercial to air in the Canadian market, but the ad was soon pulled from the airwaves as Pe