The theory of recapitulation called the biogenetic law or embryological parallelism—often expressed using Ernst Haeckel's phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"—is a historical hypothesis that the development of the embryo of an animal, from fertilization to gestation or hatching, goes through stages resembling or representing successive adult stages in the evolution of the animal's remote ancestors. It was formulated in the 1820s by Étienne Serres based on the work of Johann Friedrich Meckel, after whom it is known as Meckel–Serres law. Since embryos evolve in different ways, the shortcomings of the theory had been recognized by the early 20th century, it had been relegated to "biological mythology" by the mid-20th century. Analogies to recapitulation theory have been formulated in other fields, including cognitive development and art criticism; the idea of recapitulation was first formulated in biology from the 1790s onwards by the German natural philosophers Johann Friedrich Meckel, Étienne Serres, Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer, after which, Marcel Danesi states, it soon gained the status of a supposed biogenetic law.
The embryological theory was formalised by Serres in 1824–26, based on Meckel's work, in what became known as the "Meckel-Serres Law". This attempted to link comparative embryology with a "pattern of unification" in the organic world, it was supported by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, became a prominent part of his ideas. It suggested that past transformations of life could have been through environmental causes working on the embryo, rather than on the adult as in Lamarckism; these naturalistic ideas led to disagreements with Georges Cuvier. The theory was supported in the Edinburgh and London schools of higher anatomy around 1830, notably by Robert Edmond Grant, but was opposed by Karl Ernst von Baer's ideas of divergence, attacked by Richard Owen in the 1830s. Ernst Haeckel attempted to synthesize the ideas of Lamarckism and Goethe's Naturphilosophie with Charles Darwin's concepts. While seen as rejecting Darwin's theory of branching evolution for a more linear Lamarckian view of progressive evolution, this is not accurate: Haeckel used the Lamarckian picture to describe the ontogenetic and phylogenetic history of individual species, but agreed with Darwin about the branching of all species from one, or a few, original ancestors.
Since early in the twentieth century, Haeckel's "biogenetic law". Haeckel formulated his theory as "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"; the notion became known as the recapitulation theory. Ontogeny is the development of an individual organism. Haeckel claimed that the development of advanced species passes through stages represented by adult organisms of more primitive species. Otherwise put, each successive stage in the development of an individual represents one of the adult forms that appeared in its evolutionary history. For example, Haeckel proposed that the pharyngeal grooves between the pharyngeal arches in the neck of the human embryo not only resembled gill slits of fish, but directly represented an adult "fishlike" developmental stage, signifying a fishlike ancestor. Embryonic pharyngeal slits, which form in many animals when the thin branchial plates separating pharyngeal pouches and pharyngeal grooves perforate, open the pharynx to the outside. Pharyngeal arches appear in all tetrapod embryos: in mammals, the first pharyngeal arch develops into the lower jaw, the malleus and the stapes.
But these embryonic pharyngeal arches, grooves and slits in human embryos can not at any stage carry out the same function as the gills of an adult fish. Haeckel produced several embryo drawings that overemphasized similarities between embryos of related species. Modern biology rejects the literal and universal form of Haeckel's theory, such as its possible application to behavioural ontogeny, i.e. the psychomotor development of young animals and human children. Haeckel's drawings misrepresented observed human embryonic development to such an extent that he attracted the opposition of several members of the scientific community, including the anatomist Wilhelm His, who had developed a rival "causal-mechanical theory" of human embryonic development. His's work criticised Haeckel's methodology, arguing that the shapes of embryos were caused most by mechanical pressures resulting from local differences in growth; these differences were, in turn, caused by "heredity". His compared the shapes of embryonic structures to those of rubber tubes that could be slit and bent, illustrating these comparisons with accurate drawings.
Stephen Jay Gould noted in his 1977 book Ontogeny and Phylogeny that His's attack on Haeckel's recapitulation theory was far more fundamental than that of any empirical critic, as it stated that Haeckel's "biogenetic law" was irrelevant. Darwin proposed that embryos resembled each other since they shared a common ancestor, which had a similar embryo, but that development did not recapitulate phylogeny: he saw no reason to suppose that an embryo at any stage resembled an adult of any ancestor. Darwin supposed further that embryos were subject to less intense selection pressure than adults, had therefore changed less. Modern evolutionary developmental biology follows von Baer, rather than Darwin, in pointing to active evolution of embryonic development as a significant means of changing the morphology of adult bodies. Two of the key principles of evo-devo, namely that changes in the timing and positioning within the body of aspects of embryonic development would change the
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender. The most used measure of life expectancy is at birth, which can be defined in two ways. Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year. National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB. In the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, LEB was 26 years. For recent years, LEB in Swaziland is about 49, while LEB in Japan is about 83; the combination of high infant mortality and deaths in young adulthood from accidents, plagues and childbirth before modern medicine was available lowers LEB.
For example, a society with a LEB of 40 may have few people dying at 40: most will die before 30 or after 55. In populations with high infant mortality rates, LEB is sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life; because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, LEB can be subjected to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low LEB will have a small proportion of older people. Another measure, such as life expectancy at age 5, can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood. Aggregate population measures, such as the proportion of the population in various age groups, should be used along individual-based measures like formal life expectancy when analyzing population structure and dynamics. However, pre-modern societies still had universally higher mortality rates and universally lower life expectancies at every age for both genders, this example was rare.
In societies with life expectancies of 30, for instance, a 40 year remaining timespan at age 5 may not be uncommon, but a 60 year one was. Mathematically, life expectancy is the mean number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming age-specific mortality rates remain at their most measured levels, it is denoted by e x, which means the mean number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience. Longevity, maximum lifespan, life expectancy are not synonyms. Life expectancy is defined statistically as the mean number of years remaining for an individual or a group of people at a given age. Longevity refers to the characteristics of the long life span of some members of a population. Maximum lifespan is the age at death for the longest-lived individual of a species. Moreover, because life expectancy is an average, a particular person may die many years before or many years after the "expected" survival; the term "maximum life span" is more related to longevity.
Life expectancy is used in plant or animal ecology. The term life expectancy may be used in the context of manufactured objects, but the related term shelf life is used for consumer products, the terms "mean time to breakdown" and "mean time between failures" are used in engineering. Records of human lifespan above age 100 are susceptible to errors. For example, the previous world-record holder for human lifespan, Carrie White, was uncovered as a simple typographic error after more than two decades. Therefore, the capacity for equivalent hidden errors make maximum lifespan records dubious; the oldest confirmed recorded age for any human is 122 years, reached by Jeanne Calment who lived between 1875 and 1997. This is referred to as the "maximum life span", the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years any human is known to have lived. A theoretical study shows that the maximum life expectancy at birth is limited by the human life characteristic value δ, around 104 years. According to a study by biologists Bryan G. Hughes and Siegfried Hekimi, there is no evidence for limit on human lifespan.
However, this view has been questioned on the basis of error patterns. The following information is derived from the 1961 Encyclopædia Britannica and other sources, some with questionable accuracy. Unless otherwise stated, it represents estimates of the life expectancies of the world population as a whole. In many instances, life expectancy varied according to class and gender. Life expectancy at birth takes account of infant mortality but not prenatal mortality. Life expectancy increases with age as the individual survives the higher mortality rates associated with childhood. For instance, the table above listed the life expectancy at birth among 13th-century English nobles at 30. Having survived until the age of 21, a male member of the English aristocracy in this period could expect to live: 1200–1300: to age 64 1300–1400: to age 45 1400–1500: to age 69 1500–1550: to age 71In a similar way, the life expectancy of scholars in the Medieval Islamic world was 59–84.3 years.17th-century English life expectancy was only about 35 years because infant and child mortality remained high.
Life expectancy was under 25 years in the early Colony of Virginia, in seventeenth-century New England, about 40 percent died befor
Human embryonic development
Human embryonic development, or human embryogenesis, refers to the development and formation of the human embryo. It is characterised by the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development. In biological terms, the development of the human body entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being. Fertilisation occurs when the sperm cell enters and fuses with an egg cell; the genetic material of the sperm and egg combine to form a single cell called a zygote and the germinal stage of development commences. Embryonic development in the human, covers the first eight weeks of development. Human embryology is the study of this development during the first eight weeks after fertilisation; the normal period of gestation is 38 weeks. The germinal stage refers to the time from fertilization through the development of the early embryo until implantation is completed in the uterus; the germinal stage takes around 10 days. During this stage, the zygote begins in a process called cleavage.
A blastocyst is formed and implanted in the uterus. Embryogenesis continues with the next stage of gastrulation, when the three germ layers of the embryo form in a process called histogenesis, the processes of neurulation and organogenesis follow. In comparison to the embryo, the fetus has more recognizable external features and a more complete set of developing organs; the entire process of embryogenesis involves coordinated spatial and temporal changes in gene expression, cell growth and cellular differentiation. A nearly identical process occurs in other species among chordates. Fertilization takes place when the spermatozoon has entered the ovum and the two sets of genetic material carried by the gametes fuse together, resulting in the zygote; this takes place in the ampulla of one of the fallopian tubes. The zygote contains the combined genetic material carried by both the male and female gametes which consists of the 23 chromosomes from the nucleus of the ovum and the 23 chromosomes from the nucleus of the sperm.
The 46 chromosomes undergo changes prior to the mitotic division which leads to the formation of the embryo having two cells. Successful fertilization is enabled by three processes, which act as controls to ensure species-specificity; the first is that of chemotaxis. Secondly there is an adhesive compatibility between the egg. With the sperm adhered to the ovum, the third process of acrosomal reaction takes place; the entry of the sperm causes calcium to be released. A parallel reaction takes place in the ovum called the zona reaction; this sees the release of cortical granules that release enzymes which digest sperm receptor proteins, thus preventing polyspermy. The granules fuse with the plasma membrane and modify the zona pellucida in such a way as to prevent further sperm entry; the beginning of the cleavage process is marked when the zygote divides through mitosis into two cells. This mitosis continues and the first two cells divide into four cells into eight cells and so on; each division takes from 12 to 24 hours.
The zygote is large compared to any other cell and undergoes cleavage without any overall increase in size. This means that with each successive subdivision, the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic material increases; the dividing cells, called blastomeres, are undifferentiated and aggregated into a sphere enclosed within the membrane of glycoproteins of the ovum. When eight blastomeres have formed they begin to develop gap junctions, enabling them to develop in an integrated way and co-ordinate their response to physiological signals and environmental cues; when the cells number around sixteen the solid sphere of cells within the zona pellucida is referred to as a morula At this stage the cells start to bind together in a process called compaction, cleavage continues as cellular differentiation. Cleavage itself is the first stage in the process of forming the blastocyst. Cells differentiate into an outer layer of an inner cell mass. With further compaction the individual outer blastomeres, the trophoblasts, become indistinguishable.
They are still enclosed within the zona pellucida. This compaction serves to make the structure watertight, containing the fluid that the cells will secrete; the inner mass of cells differentiate to polarise at one end. They form gap junctions, which facilitate cellular communication; this polarisation leaves a cavity, the blastocoel, creating a structure, now termed the blastocyst. The trophoblasts secrete fluid into the blastocoel; the resulting increase in size of the blastocyst causes it to hatch through the zona pellucida, which disintegrates. The inner cell mass will give rise to the pre-embryo, the amnion, yolk sac and allantois, while the fetal part of the placenta will form from the outer trophoblast layer; the embryo plus its membranes is called the conceptus, by this stage the conceptus has reached the uterus. The zona pellucida disappears and the now exposed cells of the trophoblast allow the blastocyst to attach itself to the endometrium, where it will implant; the formation of the hypoblast and epiblast, which ar
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes Amphisbaenia. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon. Most lizards are quadrupedal. Others are legless, have long snake-like bodies; some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide. They are territorial, the males fighting off other males and signalling with brightly colours, to attract mates and to intimidate rivals. Lizards are carnivorous being sit-and-wait predators. Lizards make use of a variety of antipredator adaptations, including venom, reflex bleeding, the ability to sacrifice and regrow their tails; the adult length of species within the suborder ranges from a few centimeters for chameleons such as Brookesia micra and geckos such as Sphaerodactylus ariasae to nearly 3 m in the case of the largest living varanid lizard, the Komodo dragon.
Most lizards are small animals. Lizards have four legs and external ears, though some are legless, while snakes lack these characteristics. Lizards and snakes share a movable quadrate bone, distinguishing them from the rhynchocephalians, which have more rigid diapsid skulls; some lizards such as chameleons have prehensile tails. As in other reptiles, the skin of lizards is covered in overlapping scales made of keratin; this reduces water loss through evaporation. This adaptation enables lizards to thrive in some of the driest deserts on earth; the skin is tough and leathery, is shed as the animal grows. Unlike snakes which shed the skin in a single piece, lizards slough their skin in several pieces; the scales may be modified into spines for display or protection, some species have bone osteoderms underneath the scales. The dentitions of lizards reflect their wide range of diets, including carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous and molluscivorous. Species have uniform teeth suited to their diet, but several species have variable teeth, such as cutting teeth in the front of the jaws and crushing teeth in the rear.
Most species are pleurodont, though chameleons are acrodont. The tongue can be extended outside the mouth, is long. In the beaded lizards and monitor lizards, the tongue is forked and used or to sense the environment, continually flicking out to sample the environment, back to transfer molecules to the vomeronasal organ responsible for chemosensation, analogous to but different from smell or taste. In geckos, the tongue is used to lick the eyes clean: they have no eyelids. Chameleons have long sticky tongues which can be extended to catch their insect prey. Three lineages, the geckos and chameleons, have modified the scales under their toes to form adhesive pads prominent in the first two groups; the pads are composed of millions of tiny setae which fit to the substrate to adhere using van der Waals forces. In addition, the toes of chameleons are divided into two opposed groups on each foot, enabling them to perch on branches as birds do. Aside from legless lizards, most lizards are quadrupedal and move using gaits with alternating movement of the right and left limbs with substantial body bending.
This body bending prevents significant respiration during movement, limiting their endurance, in a mechanism called Carrier's constraint. Several species can run bipedally, a few can prop themselves up on their hindlimbs and tail while stationary. Several small species such as those in the genus Draco can glide: some can attain a distance of 60 metres, losing 10 metres in height; some species, like chameleons, adhere to vertical surfaces including glass and ceilings. Some species, like the common basilisk, can run across water. Lizards make use of their senses of sight, touch and hearing like other vertebrates; the balance of these varies with the habitat of different species. Monitor lizards have acute vision and olfactory senses; some lizards make unusual use of their sense organs: chameleons can steer their eyes in different directions, sometimes providing non-overlapping fields of view, such as forwards and backwards at once. Lizards lack external ears, having instead a circular opening in which the tympanic membrane can be seen.
Many species rely on hearing for early warning of predators, flee at the slightest sound. As in snakes and many mammals, all lizards have a specialised olfactory system, the vomeronasal organ, used to detect pheromones. Monitor lizards transfer scent from the tip of their tongue to the organ; some lizards iguanas, have retained a photosensory organ on the top of their heads called the parietal eye, a basal feature present in the tuatara. This "eye" has only a rudimentary retina and lens and cannot form images, but is sensitive to changes in light and dark and can detect movemen
Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, historian of science. He was one of the most influential and read authors of popular science of his generation. Gould spent most of his career teaching at Harvard University and working at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. In 1996, Gould was hired as the Vincent Astor Visiting Research Professor of Biology at New York University, where he divided his time teaching there and at Harvard. Gould's most significant contribution to evolutionary biology was the theory of punctuated equilibrium, which he developed with Niles Eldredge in 1972; the theory proposes that most evolution is characterized by long periods of evolutionary stability, infrequently punctuated by swift periods of branching speciation. The theory was contrasted against phyletic gradualism, the popular idea that evolutionary change is marked by a pattern of smooth and continuous change in the fossil record. Most of Gould's empirical research was based on the land snail genera Poecilozonites and Cerion.
He made important contributions to evolutionary developmental biology, receiving broad professional recognition for his book Ontogeny and Phylogeny. In evolutionary theory he opposed strict selectionism, sociobiology as applied to humans, evolutionary psychology, he campaigned against creationism and proposed that science and religion should be considered two distinct fields whose authorities do not overlap. Gould was known by the general public for his 300 popular essays in Natural History magazine, his numerous books written for both the specialist and non-specialist. In April 2000, the US Library of Congress named him a "Living Legend". Stephen Jay Gould was born in Queens, New York on September 10, 1941, his father Leonard was a World War II veteran in the United States Navy. His mother Eleanor was an artist, whose parents were Jewish immigrants living and working in the city's Garment District. Gould and his younger brother Peter were raised in Bayside, a middle class neighborhood in the northeastern section of Queens.
He attended P. S. 26 graduated from Jamaica High School. When Gould was five years old his father took him to the Hall of Dinosaurs in the American Museum of Natural History, where he first encountered Tyrannosaurus rex. "I had no idea there were such things—I was awestruck," Gould once recalled. It was in that moment. Raised in a secular Jewish home, Gould did not formally practice religion and preferred to be called an agnostic; when asked directly if he was an agnostic in Skeptic magazine, he responded: If you forced me to bet on the existence of a conventional anthropomorphic deity, of course I'd bet no. But Huxley was right when he said that agnosticism is the only honorable position because we cannot know, and that's right. I'd be real surprised. Though he "had been brought up by a Marxist father" he stated that his father's politics were "very different" from his own. In describing his own political views, he has said they "tend to the left of center." According to Gould the most influential political books he read were C. Wright Mills' The Power Elite and the political writings of Noam Chomsky.
While attending Antioch College in the early 1960s, Gould was active in the civil rights movement and campaigned for social justice. When he attended the University of Leeds as a visiting undergraduate, he organized weekly demonstrations outside a Bradford dance hall which refused to admit black people. Gould continued these demonstrations. Throughout his career and writings, he spoke out against cultural oppression in all its forms what he saw as the pseudoscience used in the service of racism and sexism. Interspersed throughout his scientific essays for Natural History magazine, Gould referred to his nonscientific interests and pastimes; as a boy he remained an avid New York Yankees fan throughout his life. As an adult he was fond of science fiction movies, but lamented their poor storytelling and presentation of science, his other interests included singing baritone in the Boston Cecilia, he was a great aficionado of Gilbert and Sullivan operas. He collected rare antiquarian books, possessed an enthusiasm for architecture, delighted in city walks.
He traveled to Europe, spoke French, German and Italian. He sometimes alluded ruefully to his tendency to put on weight. Gould married artist Deborah Lee on October 3, 1965. Gould met Lee, they had two sons and Ethan, were married for 30 years. His second marriage in 1995 was to sculptor Rhonda Roland Shearer. In July 1982 Gould was diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, a deadly form of cancer affecting the abdominal lining; this cancer is found in people who have ingested or inhaled asbestos fibers, a mineral, used in the construction of Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology. After a difficult two-year recovery, Gould published a column for Discover magazine titled "The Median Isn't the Message", which discusses his reaction to discovering that, "mesothelioma is incurable, with a median mortality of only eight months after discovery." In his essay he describes the actual significance behind this fact, his relief upon recognizing that statistical averages are useful abstractions, by themselves do not encompass "our actual world of variation and continua."
The median is the halfway point. Howev
In biology, phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms. These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits; the result of these analyses is a phylogeny – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, represent the "end", or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution and genomes. Taxonomy is the identification and classification of organisms, it is richly informed by phylogenetics, but remains a methodologically and logically distinct discipline. The degree to which taxonomies depend on phylogenies differs depending on the school of taxonomy: phenetics ignores phylogeny altogether, trying to represent the similarity between organisms instead.
Usual methods of phylogenetic inference involve computational approaches implementing the optimality criteria and methods of parsimony, maximum likelihood, MCMC-based Bayesian inference. All these depend upon an implicit or explicit mathematical model describing the evolution of characters observed. Phenetics, popular in the mid-20th century but now obsolete, used distance matrix-based methods to construct trees based on overall similarity in morphology or other observable traits, assumed to approximate phylogenetic relationships. Prior to 1950, phylogenetic inferences were presented as narrative scenarios; such methods are ambiguous and lack explicit criteria for evaluating alternative hypotheses. The term "phylogeny" derives from the German Phylogenie, introduced by Haeckel in 1866, the Darwinian approach to classification became known as the "phyletic" approach. During the late 19th century, Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory, or "biogenetic fundamental law", was accepted, it was expressed as "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", i.e. the development of a single organism during its lifetime, from germ to adult, successively mirrors the adult stages of successive ancestors of the species to which it belongs.
But this theory has long been rejected. Instead, ontogeny evolves – the phylogenetic history of a species cannot be read directly from its ontogeny, as Haeckel thought would be possible, but characters from ontogeny can be used as data for phylogenetic analyses. 14th century, lex parsimoniae, William of Ockam, English philosopher and Franciscan friar, but the idea goes back to Aristotle, precursor concept 1763, Bayesian probability, Rev. Thomas Bayes, precursor concept 18th century, Pierre Simon first to use ML, precursor concept 1809, evolutionary theory, Philosophie Zoologique, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck, precursor concept, foreshadowed in the 17th century and 18th century by Voltaire and Leibniz, with Leibniz proposing evolutionary changes to account for observed gaps suggesting that many species had become extinct, others transformed, different species that share common traits may have at one time been a single race foreshadowed by some early Greek philosophers such as Anaximander in the 6th century BC and the atomists of the 5th century BC, who proposed rudimentary theories of evolution 1837, Darwin's notebooks show an evolutionary tree 1843, distinction between homology and analogy, Richard Owen, precursor concept 1858, Paleontologist Heinrich Georg Bronn published a hypothetical tree to illustrating the paleontological "arrival" of new, similar species following the extinction of an older species.
Bronn did not propose a mechanism responsible for precursor concept. 1858, elaboration of evolutionary theory and Wallace in Origin of Species by Darwin the following year, precursor concept 1866, Ernst Haeckel, first publishes his phylogeny-based evolutionary tree, precursor concept 1893, Dollo's Law of Character State Irreversibility, precursor concept 1912, ML recommended and popularized by Ronald Fisher, precursor concept 1921, Tillyard uses term "phylogenetic" and distinguishes between archaic and specialized characters in his classification system 1940, term "clade" coined by Lucien Cuénot 1949, Jackknife resampling, Maurice Quenouille, precursor concept 1950, Willi Hennig's classic formalization 1952, William Wagner's groundplan divergence method 1953, "cladogenesis" coined 1960, "cladistic" coined by Cain and Harrison 1963, first attempt to use ML for phylogenetics and Cavalli-Sforza 1965 Camin-Sokal parsimony, first parsimony criterion and first computer program/algorithm for cladistic analysis both by Camin and Sokal character compatibility method called clique analysis, introduced independently by Camin and Sokal and E. O. Wilson 1966 English translation of Hennig "cladistics" and "cladogram" coined 1969 dynamic and successive wei
Theodore Garland Jr.
Theodore Garland Jr. is a biologist specializing in evolutionary physiology at the University of California, Riverside. Garland earned his B. S in zoology and M. S. in biology at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, working with William Glen Bradley, a mammalogist, his Ph. D. in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Irvine under Albert F. Bennett, a comparative physiologist. While in graduate school, he served as President of the Southern Nevada Herpetology Association. During his Ph. D. work, he recorded the maximum speed of what to date remains the world's fastest lizard, Ctenosaura similis. Subsequently, he completed postdoctoral training at the University of Washington with Raymond B. Huey, he was on the faculty at the University of Wisconsin–Madison for 14 years, served as a program director for the Population Biology and Physiological Ecology Program at the National Science Foundation during 1991-1992, is Professor of Biology at the University of California, Riverside.
Garland is the Editor in Chief for the journal Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, a Topic Editor for Comprehensive Physiology, on the Editorial Advisory Board of Zoology, has been on the editorial boards of the Journal of Morphology, The American Naturalist, Evolution. He is an Associate Director for the Network for Experimental Research on Evolution, a University of California Multicampus Research Program, his major scientific contributions have been in the areas of lizard locomotor physiology and ecology, phylogenetic comparative methods. In 1983-84, he was a Visiting Fulbright Scholar at the University of Wollongong, hosted by Anthony J. Hulbert. In 1991, he received a Presidential Young Investigator Award from the National Science Foundation; the University of Nevada, Las Vegas named him College of Sciences Alumnus of the Year in April 2017. Garland, T. Jr. and M. R. Rose, eds. 2009. Experimental Evolution: Concepts and Applications of Selection Experiments. University of California Press, California.
Xvii + 730 pages. Garland, T. Jr.. "The relation between maximal running speed and body mass in terrestrial mammals". Journal of Zoology, London. 199: 157–170. Doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1983.tb02087.x. Garland, T. Jr. and S. C. Adolph. 1991. Physiological differentiation of vertebrate populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 22:193-228. PDF Garland, T. Jr. and S. C. Adolph. 1994. Why not to do two-species comparative studies: limitations on inferring adaptation. Physiological Zoology 67:797-828. PDF Garland, T. Jr. and P. A. Carter. 1994. Evolutionary physiology. Annual Review of Physiology 56:579-621. PDF Garland, T. Jr.. "Phylogenetic approaches in comparative physiology". Journal of Experimental Biology. 208: 3015–3035. Doi:10.1242/jeb.01745. PMID 16081601. Swallow, J. G.. "Selection experiments as a tool in evolutionary and comparative physiology: insights into complex traits - An introduction to the symposium". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 45: 387–390. Doi:10.1093/icb/45.3.387. PMID 21676784.
Garland, T. Jr.. C.. "The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives". Journal of Experimental Biology. 214: 206–229. Doi:10.1242/jeb.048397. Academic Tree Google Scholar Citations Profile Garland web page Garland publications Publications on NCBI My Bibliography Inquiry-Based Middle School Lesson Plan