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Onychophora known as velvet worms or more ambiguously as peripatus, is a phylum of elongate, soft-bodied, many-legged panarthropods. In appearance they have variously been compared to worms with legs and slugs, they prey upon smaller animals such as insects. 200 species of velvet worms have been described, although the true number of species is greater. The two extant families of velvet worms are Peripatopsidae, they show a peculiar distribution, with the peripatids being predominantly equatorial and tropical, while the peripatopsids are all found south of the equator. It is the only phylum within Animalia, wholly endemic to terrestrial environments. Velvet worms are considered close relatives of the Arthropoda and Tardigrada, with which they form the taxon Panarthropoda; this makes them of palaeontological interest. In modern zoology, they are renowned for their curious mating behaviour and for bearing live young. Velvet worms are segmented animals with a flattened cylindrical body cross-section and rows of unstructured body appendages known as oncopods or lobopods.

The animals grow to between 0.5 and 20 cm, with the average being about 5 cm, have between 13 and 43 pairs of legs. Their skin consists of numerous, fine transverse rings and is inconspicuously coloured orange, red or brown, but sometimes bright green, gold or white, patterned with other colours. Segmentation is outwardly inconspicuous, identifiable by the regular spacing of the pairs of legs and in the regular arrangement of skin pores, excretion organs and concentrations of nerve cells; the individual body sections are unspecialised. Segmentation is specified by the same gene as in other groups of animals, is activated in each case, during embryonic development, at the rear border of each segment and in the growth zone of the stub feet. Although onychophorans fall within the protostome group, their early development has a deuterostome trajectory,; the stub feet that characterise the velvet worms are conical, baggy appendages of the body, which are internally hollow and have no joints. Although the number of feet can vary between species, their structure is very similar.

Rigidity is provided by the hydrostatic pressure of their fluid contents, movement is obtained passively by stretching and contraction of the animal's entire body. However, each leg can be shortened and bent by internal muscles. Due to the lack of joints, this bending can take place at any point along the sides of the leg. In some species, two different organs are found within the feet: Crural glands are situated at the shoulder of the legs, extending into the body cavity, they open outwards at the crural papillae—small wart-like bumps on the belly side of the leg—and secrete chemical messenger materials called pheromones. Their name comes from the Latin cruralis meaning "of the legs". Coxal vesicles are pouches located on the belly side of the leg, which can be everted and serve in water absorption, they belong to the family Peripatidae and are named from coxa, the Latin word for "hip". On each foot is a pair of retractable, hardened chitin claws, which give the taxon its scientific name: Onychophora is derived from the Greek onyches, "claws".

At the base of the claws are three to six spiny "cushions" on which the leg sits in its resting position and on which the animal walks over smooth substrates. The claws are used to gain a firm foothold on uneven terrain; each claw is composed like Russian nesting dolls. The outermost is shed during ecdysis, which exposes the next element in —, formed, so does not need time to harden before it is used. Apart from the pairs of legs, there are three further body appendages, which are at the head and comprise three segments: On the first head segment is a pair of slender antennae, which serve in sensory perception, they do not correspond directly to the antennae of the Arthropoda, but rather with their "lips" or labrum. At their base is found a pair of simple eyes. In front of these, in many Australian species, are various dimples, the function of, not yet clear, it appears. On the belly side of the second head segment is the labrum, a mouth opening surrounded by sensitive "lips". In the velvet worms, this structure is a muscular outgrowth of the throat, so, despite its name, it is not homologous to the labrum of the Arthropoda and is used for feeding.

Deep within the oral cavity lie the sharp, crescent-shaped "jaws", or mandibles, which are hardened and resemble the claws of the feet, with which they are serially homologous. The jaws are divided into internal and external mandibles and their concave surface bears fine denticles, they move backward and forward in a longitudinal direction, tearing apart the prey m

Vince Jones

Vincent Hugh Jones is an Australian jazz artist. He is a singer and trumpet, flugelhorn and flumpet player, his music includes new contemporary versions of jazz standards. His themes are love, injustice and anti-greed. Vincent Hugh Jones was born on 24 March 1954 in Scotland, he is the second eldest of four children to John Mary. He attributes his love of jazz to hearing Miles Davis's album Sketches of Spain, when he was about 14 and taught himself to play the trumpet. Jones began his career in 1974 in New South Wales as a bebop trumpet player on the club and jazz circuit. In November 1981 Jones recorded his debut album, Watch What Happens, with John Bye producing at Richmond Recorders in Melbourne. Adrian Jackson of Jazz magazine touted Jones as the "new Melbourne jazz star" in June 1982. In 1994, he contributed "A Song for You" for Kate Ceberano and Friends, he still tours and performs regularly. He is living on the south coast of New South Wales, on the edge of the Royal National Park, he teaches part-time at the Canberra School of Music, Australian National University.

On 25 May 2011, Vince appeared as a contestant in Episode # 7.4 of music quiz show Specks. Watch What Happens, 1982 Spell, 1983 For All Colours, 1984 On The Brink Of It, 1985 Tell Me A Secret, 1986 It All Ends Up In Tears, 1987 Trustworthy Little Sweethearts, 1988 Future Girl, 1992 One Day Spent, 1993 Here's To The Miracles, 1996 Virtue - Best Of, 1997 Live, 1999 Moving Through Taboos, 2004 Gold, 2004 Modern Folk, 2010 The Monash Sessions, 2014 Provenance, 2015 Official website "Rewind 1986", in Sunday Life magazine, The Sunday Age, 23 September 2007

Charles Mulli

Ev. Dr. Charles Mutua Mulli is a celebrated social entrepreneur and the founder and chief executive officer of Mully Children's Family. MCF is a Christian, non-governmental organization based in Kenya that works with disadvantaged populations to transform their lives and enable them to lead dignified lives. Mulli is the subject of the documentary film Mully, directed by Scott Haze, released in October, 2017. Charles Mutua Mulli was born in 1949 in Kathithyamaa Village in Kangundo, Kenya. Abandoned by his family at age six, he spent his adolescence begging on the streets. Mulli attended the Kathithyamaa schools in Kangundo, Machakos. Completing his primary education in 1966, he was unable to enter secondary school because he could not afford it. At age 17, Mulli converted to Christianity after walking into a church and going through an experience that he believed had allowed him to attain salvation. Mulli walked 70 kilometres to Nairobi in search of employment, he found work at a private home where his duties included tilling the garden, washing clothes, cooking in the kitchen, other domestic chores.

A year Mulli was promoted to a farm assistant and transferred to Kakuzi Farm in Thika where he met his future wife, Esther Nthenya. They married on December 22, 1970, had eight biological children. In 1970, Mulli began working at Strabag Road Construction Company where he oversaw the company's supplies, he remained with the company until 1972. With the money he earned working for Strabag, Mulli bought a vehicle and began operating a public transport service running between Eldoret and Nyaru, he began engaging in agricultural business ventures. Mulli founded the Mullyways Agencies, a transportation business conglomerate, in the 1970s, becoming wealthy, with assets valued in millions of shillings, he served as chairman of the boards for several international schools in Kenya between 1970 and 1991, which included Kessup Girls Schools, Kaptagat Preparatory School and Chebisaas High School. In 1989, Mulli sold all his property and businesses, dedicated the proceeds to helping street children through rescue, medical care, psychosocial support, education.

Mully Children's Family has just under 3,000 children in their centers in Ndalani, Kitale, Kilifi and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. Since 1989, Charles and Esther Mulli have taken in more than 23,000 abandoned children. Dr. Mulli is a celebrated philanthropist and has been recognized with awards by several organizations including: Robert W. Pierce Award, World Vision International, The Jubilee Insurance Company Samaritan's Award, Med Assets International USA, Head of State Commendation of the Republic of Kenya, United Nations Environment Programme in 2010. In 2012, Mulli received the Family Philanthropy Award from the East African Grant Makers Association in recognition of his contribution to philanthropic work and its impact in initiating sustainable projects. In 2014, he received an award in education at the Transform Kenya Awards. In 2009, Charles Mulli was awarded an honorary doctorate in humanities by the United Graduate College and Seminary. In 2011, he was awarded an honorary doctorate in Social Work from Kabarak University.

He is the author of My Journey of Faith and Christian Heroes: Then and Now – Charles Mulli: We are Family, the subject of two autobiographies and a children's book written by Paul H. Boge: Father to The Fatherless, Hope for The Hopeless, The Biggest Family In The World. In 2014, actor and filmmaker, Scott Haze, along with Lukas Behnken and Elissa Shay and funded by Bardis Productions, journeyed to MCF to document the story in film. Through re-enactments and home footage, as well as present day interviews, the Mulli's story was retold in the documentary, Mully. After various showings at film festivals around the nation, in 2016 For Good, LLC picked up the film for distribution, after partnering with Focus on the Family and Fathom Events, announced a 3-day special event in 700-800 theaters on Oct. 3, 4, 5, 2017. Starting the end of May 2019, Mully became available to watch for free for a limited time on Catalyst Movies. Mully Children's Family is a Christian charitable organization working with disadvantaged children and young adults to enable them to lead dignified livelihoods.

MCF has designed its services along the lines of social entrepreneurship by investing in income generating activities to sustainably fund and scale up charity work. It integrates child rescue and reintegration while creating safety nets in the community to provide an environment conducive for child survival. There are ten areas of intervention: child protection and life skills, future leaders program, health care, food security and agriculture, socio-economic empowerment and sanitation, promotion of social justice, climate change mitigation and partnerships. Child protection using holistic transformational development provides children with a home fit for human habitation and development; this includes rescue and reintegration, psychosocial support, a sense of community. MCF is offers a broad range of educational opportunities and experience to children and youths of varied ages, backgrounds and needs such as mentorship and coaching, vocational training, kindergarten through college-level educational opportunity.

The future leaders program provides youth mentoring and coaching teaching leadership and entrepreneurial skills through student internships, peer counselor training, a volunteer program. MCF offers health care programs that promote the well-being of children and the larger community through free medical care

Eddy Martadinata

Admiral Raden Eddy Martadinata was an Indonesian Navy admiral and diplomat. He was conferred the title of "National Hero of Indonesia" posthumously in 1966, he is recognised as one of the founders of the Indonesian Navy. Martadinata was born in Bandung, West Java, on 29 March 1921, his father was Raden Ruhiyat Martadinata and his mother was Nyi Raden Suhaemi. He completed his education through senior high school, first in Bandung in Batavia. After graduating high school he enrolled in a Dutch-run school for sailors in 1941, but following the Japanese occupation the following year the school was closed, he continued, under Japanese tutelage, by 1944 was working as an assistant teacher. Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia's independence in 1945, in late August he established the People's Security Body. Martadinata and other naval trainees began efforts to establish a naval branch of the BKR, which became the Indonesian Navy. During the National Revolution Martadinata saw several leadership positions, including as Operating Staff Chief in Yogyakarta and Chief of Staff at the base in Surabaya.

After the Dutch recognised Indonesian independence in 1949, Martadinata remained with the Navy. He oversaw naval operations in South Sulawesi in 1950, when the national government was dealing with the Makassar uprising. In 1953 he was sent to study in the United States. After his return to Indonesia he supervised the purchase of various ships for the Navy. After a period of infighting in the late 1950s, Martadinata replaced Subiyakto as Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy, leaving him in charge of the service branch. Martadinata rose through the ranks, reaching vice admiral by 1960; the 30 September Movement in 1965, an unsuccessful coup attempt which the government blamed on the Communist Party of Indonesia, led to massive changes in the country. At a funeral for Irma, a daughter of Abdul Haris Nasution, killed in the coup, Martadinata indicated a wish to purge the communists. In February 1966 Martadinata left the Navy as he perceived the government to be unwilling to deal with communists, he was reassigned as Indonesia's ambassador to Pakistan.

For the 21st anniversary of the Indonesian military on 5 October 1966, Martadinata returned to the country with some Pakistani guests. The day after the ceremony and his guests were flying in an Aérospatiale Alouette II helicopter when the pilot crashed into Mount Riung Gunung. After his body was recovered, Martadinata was buried in Kalibata Heroes' Cemetery in Jakarta. Martadinata was awarded the title of National Hero of Indonesia on 7 October 1966, based on Presidential Decree No. 220 of 1966. Since he has been the namesake for various items, including streets and two warships

Hamlet (cigar)

Hamlet is a well-known brand of cigar produced by Gallaher Group division of Japan Tobacco. They are available in several varieties, miniatures and a regular length, they were referred to as the'mild cigar' in their advertising. Hamlet cigars were first launched in the UK in 1964. More Hamlet cigars have been launched in a number of western European markets, they are most famous in the UK for their comical advertisements, which presented scenes in which a man, having failed dismally at something, is consoled by lighting a Hamlet cigar. Much of the humour came from the fact that the product being advertised was deliberately unclear until the tell-tale cigar appeared, accompanied by the tune of Bach's Air on the G String, played by French musician Jacques Loussier, the line "Happiness is a cigar called Hamlet". For example, one advertisement created a diversion by appearing to be advertising beer: a man, dying of thirst in a desert, finds a can of Heineken but accidentally spills it all into the sand.

Since the ban on tobacco advertising in the UK and much of Europe was implemented during the 1990s, the adverts are no longer aired. The closure in September 2009 of the Cardiff-based factory producing Hamlet was announced on 16 October 2007; the television comical advertisements have been parodied in other shows. One example was in a Dave Allen comedy sketch showing a scene depicting the assassination of President Lincoln followed by his wife consoling herself by smoking a Hamlet cigar accompanied by its signature tune. Hamlet Cigars advert spoofing the Channel 4 ident

Becky and Jessie O'Donohue

Rebecca Marie "Becky" O'Donohue and Jessica Elleanore "Jessie" O'Donohue are American reality TV show contestants and actresses. Becky was a semi-finalist in the fifth season of American Idol, they are identical twins. They appeared in a Guthy-Renker infomercial for Wen Hair Care products for red hair, they are from New York. Becky and Jessie, who come from a family of Irish and Greek descent, graduated in 2003 from Niagara University. While at Niagara, the two played on the women's basketball team. Becky was a member of the Student Athletic Advisory Committee. Becky's original audition on American Idol was in Boston. Judge Simon Cowell praised her said no to her voice. However, she was let through to Hollywood by co-judges Randy Paula Abdul. O'Donohue made it through to the final twenty-four contestants in the semi-finals, but was the first female to be eliminated from the show when she received the fewest votes on February 23's results show, they appeared on the American Idol season finale on May 24, 2006, via satellite from Birmingham, Alabama, as commentators during Taylor Hicks' cheering rally.

Both appeared in a special "Twins" episode on Fear Factor where they were eliminated on the first stunt. The twins appeared together in Maxim magazine in 2004, they played twin sisters Darla and Donna in the 2007 comedy film I Now Pronounce You Chuck and Larry and Layna and Sophia on an episode of ER. Jessie appeared as a stripper named Carmel Owens in an 8th season episode of CSI: Miami titled "Dude, Where's My Groom?" The twins appeared on the "Sister Act" episode of Minute to Win It, on which they won with $50,000. Becky guest starred in the July 2010 Psych episode "Not Even Close... Encounters", as Siri in the January 2012 The Big Bang Theory episode "The Beta Test Initiation", they appear on the infomercial for WEN hair products with red hair. They appeared in Mardi Gras: Spring Break in 2011. Becky appeared in the 4th season of The Mentalist playing Sasha a fashion model in the episode "Red Is the New Black". Becky O'Donohue on IMDb Jessie O'Donohue on IMDb Becky O'Donohue at American Idol The actress who brought Siri to life