An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. In other words, it is egg cell. An oocyte is produced in the ovary during female gametogenesis; the female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell, which undergoes mitosis, forming oogonia. During oogenesis, the oogonia become primary oocytes. An oocyte is a form of genetic material. Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources has been put into action as a means of conserving traditional livestock; the formation of an oocyte is called oocytogenesis, a part of oogenesis. Oogenesis results in the formation of both primary oocytes during fetal period, of secondary oocytes after it as part of ovulation. Oocytes are rich in cytoplasm, which contains yolk granules to nourish the cell early in development. During the primary oocyte stage of oogenesis, the nucleus is called a germinal vesicle; the only normal human type of secondary oocyte has the 23rd chromosome as 23,X, whereas sperm can have 23,X or 23,Y.
The space within an ovum or immature ovum is located. The cumulus-oocyte complex contains layers of packed cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte in the Graafian follicle; the oocyte is arrested in Meiosis II at the stage of metaphase II and is considered a secondary oocyte. Before ovulation, the cumulus complex goes through a structural change known as cumulus expansion; the granulosa cells transform from compacted to an expanded mucoid matrix. Many studies show that cumulus expansion is critical for the maturation of the oocyte because the cumulus complex is the oocyte’s direct communication with the developing follicle environment, it plays a significant role in fertilization, though the mechanisms are not known and are species specific. Because the fate of an oocyte is to become fertilized and grow into a functioning organism, it must be ready to regulate multiple cellular and developmental processes; the oocyte, a large and complex cell, must be supplied with numerous molecules that will direct the growth of the embryo and control cellular activities.
As the oocyte is a product of female gametogenesis, the maternal contribution to the oocyte and the newly fertilized egg, is enormous. There are many types of molecules that are maternally supplied to the oocyte, which will direct various activities within the growing zygote; the DNA of a cell is vulnerable to the damaging effect of oxidative free radicals produced as byproducts of cellular metabolism. DNA damage occurring in oocytes, if not repaired, can be lethal and result in reduced fecundity and loss of potential progeny. Oocytes are larger than the average somatic cell, thus considerable metabolic activity is necessary for their provisioning. If this metabolic activity were carried out by the oocyte’s own metabolic machinery, the oocyte genome would be exposed to the reactive oxidative by-products generated, thus it appears that a process evolved to avoid this vulnerability of germ line DNA. It was proposed that, in order to avoid damage to the DNA genome of the oocytes, the metabolism contributing to the synthesis of much of the oocyte’s constituents was shifted to other maternal cells that transferred these constituents to oocytes.
Thus, oocytes of many organisms are protected from oxidative DNA damage while storing up a large mass of substances to nurture the zygote in its initial embryonic growth. During the growth of the oocyte, a variety of maternally transcribed messenger RNAs, or mRNAs, are supplied by maternal cells; these mRNAs can be stored in mRNP complexes and be translated at specific time points, they can be localized within a specific region of the cytoplasm, or they can be homogeneously dispersed within the cytoplasm of the entire oocyte. Maternally loaded proteins can be localized or ubiquitous throughout the cytoplasm; the translated products of the mRNAs and the loaded proteins have multiple functions. Below are some examples of maternally inherited mRNAs and proteins found in the oocytes of the African clawed frog; the oocyte receives mitochondria from maternal cells, which will go on to control embryonic metabolism and apoptotic events. The partitioning of mitochondria is carried out by a system of microtubules that will localize mitochondria throughout the oocyte.
In certain organisms, such as mammals, paternal mitochondria brought to the oocyte by the spermatozoon are degraded through the attachment of ubiquitinated proteins. The destruction of paternal mitochondria ensures the maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA. In mammals, the nucleolus of the oocyte is derived from maternal cells; the nucleolus, a structure found within the nucleus, is the location where rRNA is transcribed and assembled into ribosomes. While the nucleolus is dense and inactive in a mature oocyte, it is required for proper development of the embryo. Maternal cells synthesize and contribute a store of ribosomes that are required for the translation of proteins before the zygotic genome is activated. In mammalian oocytes, maternally derived ribosomes and some mRNAs are stored in a structure called cytoplasmic lattices; these cytoplasmic lattices, a network of fibrils, RNAs, have been observed to increase in density as the number of ribosomes decrease within a growing oocyte.
The spermatozoon that fertilizes an oocyte will contribute its pronucle
Cooper Edens is an author and illustrator of more than 25 children's books.. He's best known for "If You're Afraid of the Dark, Remember the Night Rainbow" and "Add One More Star to the Night"; these works reflect his "horizontal" approach to storytelling. That asks the reader to solve a non-linear string of "problems" rather than follow a hero or heroine through a linear progression of plot points He has collaborated with other artists on a number of children's books and in compilations of classic children's story illustrations. Cooper Edens was raised in the Seattle area, his parent's house, on Lake Washington, encouraged solitary reading. In first grade, his principal told his mother that he shouldn't return to class because he was too creative, his mom said "Good". He took a year off from school and spent much of his time with coloring books, graduating soon to channeling Monet and Van Gogh with crayons and cardboard. Edens used that medium—crayon on cardboard—to illustrate his first words-and-art creation.
He was steered by other publishers to Harold and Sandra Darling, of Green Tiger Press, who published "If You're Afraid of the Dark, Remember the Night Rainbow" in 1978. The title highlights the style: antique-looking images, colored in a luminous, impressionist style, are juxtaposed with brief, haiku-like "If..." statements The style found a large audience: over 1.3 million print copies of "... Night Rainbow" have been sold. Many of his works are now published by Chronicle Books. While other books use the same "horizontal" approach, Cooper has worked with other artists on numerous collaborations, his partnership with Sandra Darling, author of the popular "Good Dog Carl" series, has produced seven books. Edens has worked with partners to compile books that use art from the history of children's literature to retell the story, to show how different artists create different realities for their stories, he is now working on projects to create interactive versions of some of his classics. According to Edens, he "is for infinite possibilities.
If you don't like the way the world looks straight ahead, use your peripheral vision." Edens wrote lyrics for MerKaBa and the band White. Edens earned the Children's Critic Award in 1980 for The Starcleaner Reunion, he was the American nominee for the Golden Apple Award in 1983 for Caretakers of Wonder. If You're Afraid of the Dark, Remember the Night Rainbow, Green Tiger Press, 1978, 2nd edition, 1984, Chronicle Books, 2002; the Starcleaner Reunion, Green Tiger Press, 1979. Caretakers of Wonder, Green Tiger Press 1980. With Secret Friends, Green Tiger Press, 1981. Inevitable Papers, Green Tiger Press, 1982. Paradise of Ads, Green Tiger Press, 1987. Now Is the Moon's Eyebrow, Green Tiger Press, 1987. Hugh's Hues, Green Tiger Press, 1988. Nineteen Hats, Ten Teacups, an Empty Birdcage, the Art of Longing, Green Tiger Press, 1992; the Little World, Blue Lantern Books, 1994. If You're Still Afraid of the Dark, Add One More Star to the Night, Simon & Schuster, 1998. Emily and the Shadow Shop, illustrated by Patrick Dowers, Green Tiger Press, 1982.
A Phenomenal Alphabet Book, illustrated by Joyce Eide, 1982. The Prince of the Rabbits, illustrated by Felix Meroux, Green Tiger Press, 1984. Santa Cows, illustrated by Daniel Lane, Green Tiger Press, 1991; the Story Cloud, illustrated by Kenneth LeRoy Grant, Green Tiger Press, 1991. A Present for Rose, illustrated by Molly Hashimoto, Sasquatch Books, 1993. Shawnee Bill's Enchanted Five-Ride Carousel, illustrated by Daniel Lane, Green Tiger Press, 1994. Santa Cow Island, illustrated by Daniel Lane, Green Tiger Press, 1994. How Many Bears?, illustrated by Marjett Schille, Atheneum, 1994. The Wonderful Counting Clock, illustrated by Kathleen Kimball, Simon & Schuster, 1995. Santa Cow Studios, illustrated by Daniel Lane, Simon & Schuster, 1995. Nicholi, illustrated by A. Scott Banfill, Simon & Schuster, 1996; the Christmas We Moved to the Barn, illustrated by Alexandra Day, HarperCollins, 1997. Taffy's Family, HarperCollins, 1997. Invisible Art, Blue Lantern Studio, 1999; the Animal Mall, illustrated by Edward Miller, Dial, 2000.
Special Deliveries, illustrated by Alexandra Day, HarperCollins, 2001. Alexandra Day, Helping the Sun, Green Tiger Press, 1987. Alexandra Day, Helping the Flowers and Trees, Green Tiger Press, 1987. Alexandra Day, Helping the Night, Green Tiger Press, 1987. Alexandra Day, Helping the Animals, Green Tiger Press, 1987. Children from the Golden Age, 1880–1930, Green Tiger Press, 1987; the Glorious Mother Goose, illustrated by various artists, Atheneum, 1988. Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: The Ultimate Illustrated Edition, Bantam, 1989. Beauty and the Beast, Green Tiger Press, 1989. Goldilocks and the Three Bears, illustrated by various artists, Green Tiger Press, 1989. Little Red Riding Hood, illustrated
CHAY-FM is a Canadian radio station in Barrie, Ontario broadcasting at 93.1 FM. The station airs a rhythmic-leaning Top 40/CHR format using its on-air brand name as Fresh 93.1. The station is owned by Corus Entertainment which owns sister station CIQB-FM as well as other Corus radio stations across Canada. CHAY-FM signed on the air with a hybrid easy listening/beautiful music format on May 21, 1977, but changed to more of an adult contemporary format the following decade with the decline of beautiful music on FM radio; the station was broadcast from a 1,000 foot tower just south of Barrie that it had shared with local television station CKVR-TV. On September 27 of that year, a small plane crashed into the tower, destroying the building and killing everyone on board. Toronto station CHIN-FM assisted CHAY in temporarily restoring its signal until the tower was replaced one year later. In 1989, CHAY-FM moved from a traditional easy listening format to more of a mainstream adult contemporary format.
Throughout the transition period, the station continued to attract an audience of a quarter million listeners per week. On October 15, 2000, CHAY-FM flipped from adult contemporary to a hot adult contemporary/CHR format as "Energy 93.1" simulcasting some programming from its sister station CING-FM in Burlington, Ontario. In 2003, the station returned to its adult contemporary format as The New CHAY 93.1 FM. In 2008, the station was rebranded to FM93 "Barrie's Fresh Music Mix", but kept the same adult contemporary format. On March 11, 2011, the station flipped to an adult hits format as "CHAY TODAY @ 93.1 FM". On May 15, 2015, CHAY-FM re-branded under Corus' Fresh Radio brand as "93.1 Fresh Radio" with a hot adult contemporary format. After the station's rebranding, CHAY-FM became the eighth Corus radio station to adopt the "Fresh Radio" branding. In 2019, the station was re-branded to Fresh 93.1 and added more current music to their playlist, adopting a Top 40/CHR format Official website CHAY-FM history – Canadian Communications Foundation Query the REC Canadian station database for CHAY-FM
The Europe Zone was one of the three regional zones of the 1955 Davis Cup. 24 teams entered the Europe Zone, with the winner going on to compete in the Inter-Zonal Zone against the winners of the America Zone and Eastern Zone. Italy progressed to the Inter-Zonal Zone. Norway vs. South Africa West Germany vs. Ireland Austria vs. Finland Turkey vs. Egypt Monaco vs. Argentina Switzerland vs. Netherlands Yugoslavia vs. Chile Portugal vs. Czechoslovakia Denmark vs. South Africa West Germany vs. Italy Austria vs. Great Britain Egypt vs. India France vs. Argentina Switzerland vs. Sweden Hungary vs. Chile Czechoslovakia vs. Belgium Denmark vs. Italy Great Britain vs. India Sweden vs. France Belgium vs. Chile Great Britain vs. Italy Sweden vs. Chile Italy vs. Sweden Davis Cup official website
Robot Rascals is a scavenger hunt video game by Ozark Softscape and published by Electronic Arts. It was released in 1986 for the Apple II, Commodore 64, IBM PC compatibles; the player controls a robot, for which they can select the color, goes on a scavenger hunt. The game comes with set of cards, they determine which items they need to find before they get "home". The first player to find all their items indicated on the cards wins; the game includes facilities to swap cards with other players. Each turn, a player gets a pre-determined amount of fuel to do their scavenging; each item is randomly placed on the map and it is up to the player to find that item, some which are in bodies of water, such as a lake. Each time every player has gone through their respective turns, a special message displays telling the player what advantage they have that turn or disadvantage; the player's robot can find the items their opponents have in order to prevent them from winning the game. Opponents may steal items from the player when they have no shields.
There are no computer players in the game, so it must be played with other people. There are three levels of difficulty; the easy level results in all advantages coming up, the middle difficulty has some disadvantages with the advantages and robots can get damaged. The difficult level has more disadvantages, damages are more frequent and there are more options for robots. Bunten said of Robot Rascals: "the sales were disappointing, it didn't have a solo-play option was everyone's rationale for the'failure'. I can't argue with that but I think the fact that it didn't have an identifiable'genre' or audience didn't help." Brian Moriarty said in his tribute to Dani Bunten: " took the multiplayer option to a provocative new extreme. Not only did Robot Rascals have no single-player mode, it required the participation of no less than four human players. Daringly billed as a'family game,' this peculiar fusion of turn-based action and strategy, augmented by a deck of real playing cards, received a polite but puzzled critical reception, was ignored by everybody else."Info gave the Commodore 64 version four stars out of five, describing Robot Rascals as "a cute game" and approving of the graphics and sound.
The magazine recommended it to families looking for a game to play together. Jasper Sylvester of Computer Gaming World praised Robot Rascals as "beautifully designed and packaged"; the game's randomness, between the computer's events and the external deck of cards, were said to feel like a Looney Tunes cartoon. The considerable number of options and strategies available to each player were a highlight of the game, including alternate victory conditions on the Advanced level; the magazine's Charles Ardai stated that the game's "charming blend of strategy and luck makes this... unusually enjoyable". Compute! Favorably cited the distinctive personalities and appearances of the robots, stated that "the whole family, including the three-year-olds, can play Robot Rascals". Robot Rascals at Lemon 64 Robot Rascals at MobyGames Robot Rascals at GameFAQs
Launched in 2014, Justice Centre Hong Kong is an independent, non-profit human rights organisation that focuses on the protection of refugees and asylum seekers in Hong Kong. Hong Kong has long been a hub of migration and refuge due to wars in the region and Hong Kong’s historical role as a trading and transit entrepôt. There were estimated to be 14,000 refugees in the territory in 2017, these refugees are in need of extensive legal assistance as the 0.8 substantiation rate is low compared to rates of 25-62% per cent in other developed jurisdictions. Before early 2014 the organisation was known as the Hong Kong Refugee Advice Centre, which in 2007 had grown out of the Refugee Advice Unit from another local organisation working with refugees, Christian Action; the organisation works with civil society partners to champion the rights of persons seeking protection in Hong Kong through research and advocacy work. In addition, it provides legal and psychosocial assistance to asylum seekers, as with the low acceptance rate of legal aid applications in Hong Kong most asylum seekers are otherwise forced to represent themselves.
They carry out evidence based policy work to try to influence and improve government policies towards their clients. Their'Coming Clean" report in 2016 found more than 80 percent of the territory's 336,600 domestic workers are exploited, with one in six a victim of forced labour. Providing the first quantitative data on trafficking this gave Hong Kong a low ranking on the Global Slavery Index, pushing Hong Kong onto the Tier 2 Watch List of the US State Department’s Trafficking in Persons report. In September 2015, Piya Muqit, former Head of Policy and Advocacy at UNICEF UK and senior legal adviser at Freedom From Torture, became the Executive Director of the organisation. Founded in 2017 for the third cycle of the United Nations Universal Periodic Review process, the Hong Kong UPR Coalition was facilitated by Justice Centre Hong Kong to represent the collaborative efforts of different civil society groups to advance human rights in Hong Kong. Comprising 45 non-governmental organisations from across the Hong Kong spectrum, it has been directed by the Hong Kong UPR Coalition Steering Committee, which consists of nine members, namely Civil Human Rights Front, Disabilities CV, The Hong Kong Society for Asylum-Seekers and Refugees, Hong Kong Watch, Justice Centre Hong Kong, Les Corner Empowerment Association, PEN Hong Kong, Pink Alliance and Planet Ally.
During previous UPR hearings, not one recommendation had been issued on Hong Kong. Through the efforts of the coalition in bringing together many voices in civil society together, in the 2018 hearing there were seven recommendations on Hong Kong, with five other references through questions in advance and statements, raising international attention on the deterioration of rights in Hong Kong. In total 12 countries used the UPR hearing to highlight their concerns with the human rights environment in Hong Kong. In response to the questions raised the China and Hong Kong Government have stated that they were willing to accept all but one of the recommendations, now enabling this and future UPR processes to be used as an advocacy tool that can be used to hold the Hong Kong government to account. Official website