click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Oology

Oology is a branch of ornithology studying bird eggs and breeding behaviour. The word is derived from meaning egg. Oology can refer to the hobby of collecting wild birds' eggs, sometimes called egg collecting, birdnesting or egging, now illegal in many jurisdictions. Oology became popular in Britain and the United States during the 1800s. Observing birds from afar was difficult because high quality binoculars were not available, thus it was more practical to shoot the birds, or collect their eggs. While the collection of the eggs of wild birds by amateurs was considered a respectable scientific pursuit in the 19th Century and early 20th Century, from the mid 20th Century onwards it was regarded as being a hobby rather than a scientific discipline. In the 1960s, the naturalist Derek Ratcliffe compared peregrine falcon eggs from historical collections with more recent egg-shell samples, was able to demonstrate a decline in shell thickness; this was found to cause the link between the use by farmers of pesticides such as DDT and dieldrin, the decline of British populations of birds of prey.

Egg collecting was still popular in the early 20th century as its scientific value became less prominent. Egg collectors traded with one another. Collectors would go to extreme lengths to obtain eggs of rare birds. For example, Charles Bendire was willing to have his teeth broken to remove a rare egg that became stuck in his mouth, he had placed the egg in his mouth while climbing down a tree. In 1922, the British Oological Association was founded by Baron Rothschild, a prominent amateur naturalist, the Reverend Francis Jourdain. Rothschild and Jourdain founded it as a breakaway group after egg collecting by members of the British Ornithologists’ Union, was denounced by Earl Buxton at a meeting of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Legislation, such as the Protection of Birds Act 1954 and Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 in the United Kingdom, has made it impossible to collect wild birds' eggs legally. In the United Kingdom, it is only legal to possess a wild-bird's egg if it was taken before 1954, or with a permit for scientific research.

However, the practice of egg collecting, or'egging', continues as an'underground' or illegal activity in the UK and elsewhere. In the 1980s and 1990s, the fines allowed by the law were only a moderate deterrent to some egg collectors. However, the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 allowed for six months' imprisonment for the possession of the eggs of wild birds and, since it came into force, a number of individuals have been imprisoned, both for possessing and for attempting to buy egg collections; the Jourdain Society continued to meet although membership dwindled after 1994, when a dinner of the society was raided by police, assisted by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. This resulted in six members being fined. Despite this, some of those who engage in egg collecting show considerable recidivism in their activity. One, Colin Watson, was convicted six times before he fell to his death in 2006, while attempting to climb to a nest high up in a tree. Another individual has been convicted nine times and imprisoned twice and a third has been convicted 51 times, imprisoned four times and banned from entering Scotland during the bird breeding season.

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds has been active in fighting illegal egg collection and maintains an investigative unit that collects intelligence on egg collectors and assists police in mounting prosecutions on them, in addition to investigating other wildlife crimes. At one point, RSPB staff were being trained by soldiers from the Brigade of Gurkhas in camouflage skills and in surveillance and radio techniques, to better enable them to guard nests of rare birds. In the United Kingdom, to avoid the possibility of prosecution, owners of old egg collections must retain sufficient proof to show, on the balance of probabilities, that the eggs pre-date 1954; however owners of genuinely old collections are unlikely to face prosecution as experienced investigators and prosecutors are able to distinguish them from collected eggs. It is illegal to sell a collection, regardless of the eggs' age, so old collections may only be disposed of by giving the eggs away or by destroying them. Museums are reluctant to accept donations of collections without reliable collection data that gives them scientific value.

In the United States, the collection and possession of wild bird eggs is restricted, in some cases is a criminal act. Depending on the species, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Lacey Act, the Endangered Species Act, or other laws may apply; when collecting eggs the whole clutch of eggs is taken. Because eggs will rot if the contents are left inside, they must be'blown' to remove the contents. Although collectors will take eggs at all stages of incubation, freshly laid eggs are much easier to'blow' through a small, inconspicuous hole drilled with a specialized drill through the side of the eggshell. Egg blowing is done with domestic bird's eggs for the hobby of Egg decorating. Natural History Museum, UK Delaware Museum of Natural History, USA H. L. White Collection, Australia National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA Muséum de Toulouse, Toulouse France San Bernardino County Museum Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Californ

Emily Scott (rugby union)

Emily Scott is a British rugby sevens player. She was selected as a member of the Great Britain women's national rugby sevens team to the 2016 Summer Olympics, she attended Brunel University. In 2014 Scott was among several female English rugby players to receive professional contracts. Scott was selected for the 2017 Women's Rugby World Cup squad. Emily Scott at the World Rugby Women's Sevens Series "Emily Scott at England Rugby". Archived from the original on 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2016-08-11. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Emily Scott at Team GB Emily Scott at the International Olympic Committee Emily Scott at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com

The Miraculous Blackhawk: Freedom's Champion

The Miraculous Blackhawk: Freedom's Champion, or just Blackhawk, is a 1952 American 15-chapter black-and-white movie serial adventure from Columbia Pictures, based on the comic book Blackhawk, published at the time by Quality Comics, but now owned by DC Comics. It was Columbia's forty-ninth serial. Home video release has since given the serial the tagline: "Fearless Champion of Freedom". Blackhawk stars Kirk Alyn as Blackhawk and Carol Forman as the foreign spy that must be stopped from stealing the experimental super-fuel "Element-X". Blackhawk was produced by the famously cheap Sam Katzman and directed by the team of Spencer Gordon Bennet and Fred F. Sears, it is considered made in the waning years of studio movie serial production. A flying squadron of World War II veterans, The International Brotherhood, is a private flying investigative force led by Blackhawk, they uncover a gang of underworld henchmen, led by the notorious foreign spy Laska, who reports to The Leader, a mystery man. During the serial and his flying squadron set about bringing these criminals to justice, following a series of cliff-hanger adventures.

Kirk Alyn as Blackhawk Carol Forman as Laska John Crawford as Chuck Michael Fox as William Case/The Leader Don Harvey as Olaf Rick Vallin as Stan and his twin Boris Larry Stewart as Andre Weaver Levy as Chop-Chop Zon Murray as Bork Nick Stuart as Cress Marshall Reed as Aller Pierce Lyden as Dyke William Fawcett as Dr. Rolph Rory Mallinson as Hodge Frank Ellis as Hendrickson Distress Call from Space Blackhawk Traps a Traitor In the Enemy's Hideout The Iron Monster Human Targets Blackhawk's Leap for Life Mystery Fuel Blasted from the Sky Blackhawk Tempts Fate Chase for Element X Forced Down Drums of Doom Blackhawk's Daring Plan Blackhawk's Wild Ride The Leader Unmasked Writer George Plympton described a production staff meeting where they listened to a recording of the short-lived Blackhawk radio series. Everyone at the meeting was "aghast at the confusing babble of accents." For Columbia's serial, all recruits of the Blackhawk squadron speak with standard American accents. In chapter 3 Kirk Alyn performs a dangerous stunt without the use of a stunt double.

In order to save the life of squadron member Stan, who's tied to a stake in the path of a taxiing plane, Blackhawk runs up to the vehicle and turns it aside by grabbing the wing. A hidden pilot inside the plane steered it to simulate the movement; when writing this scene, the screenwriters were thinking of a small lighter wood-and-canvas plane, not the heavy metal aircraft used in the final scene. William C. Cline describes the serial as a "pretty good airplane adventure" in his book In the Nick of Time. Despite this, Blackhawk was the last aviation serial. Made during the 1950s, Blackhawk was produced after the movie serial's heyday. Blackhawk on IMDb Blackhawk at AllMovie

City of Glen Eira

The City of Glen Eira is a local government area in Victoria, Australia. It is located in the south-eastern suburbs of Melbourne, it has an area of 39 square kilometres and has an estimated population of 153,858. It was formed in 1994 from the merger of the City of Caulfield and parts of the City of Moorabbin, takes its name from two local landmarks—Glen Eira Road and Glen Eira Mansion. Bentleigh Bentleigh East Brighton East Carnegie Caulfield Caulfield East Caulfield North Caulfield South Elsternwick Gardenvale Glen Huntly McKinnon Murrumbeena Ormond St Kilda East The median age for Glen Eira residents is 37 years. Children 0–14 years make up 18.0% of the population, 15 to 19 years = 5.4%, 20 to 64 = 61.9% and those 65 years and over make up 14.7% of the population. Of people in Glen Eira aged 15 years and over, 49.6% are married, 35.1% have never married and 9.1% are divorced or separated. The country of birth for City of Glen Eira residents includes Australia 60.3%, India 3.8%, China 3.2%, England 2.8%, South Africa 2.3% and Greece 1.7%.

The City of Glen Eira includes a large Jewish community in St Kilda East and Caulfield. At the 2011 Census 54.9% of all Victorians who gave Judaism as their religion living in Glen Eira. The major responses were No Religion 22.9%, Catholicism 20.1%, Judaism 18.9%, Anglican 8.4% and Eastern Orthodox 6.6%. Glen Eira City Council is the third tier of government and deals with services such as garbage collection, building permits and approvals, drainage, health services, food safety and gardens, library services, street parking permits and the collection of rates and charges; the Council meets at the Glen Eira Town Hall. Since 2004, the Council area has been divided into each electing three Councilors; the most recent election took place on 22 October 2016. The current Councilors are: List of Mayors of Glen Eira This area was occupied by the Wurundjeri, Indigenous Australians of the Kulin nation, who spoke variations of the Woiwurrung language group. Victoria was proclaimed a separate colony in 1851.

East St Kilda commenced to be settled in the 1850s. The area of Glen Eira was once swamps, with farms in the northern area and market gardens in the south. Dirt tracks wound through sandy heaths of the district, they were damaged by farmers' cart wheels, creating dangerous holes and making access difficult. In 1853 the Victorian Parliament passed an Act to give authority to locally elected people to extract rates from residents in order to finance road construction. Residents lobbied for a roads district to be proclaimed to ensure that roads were maintained and passable. Caulfield's organised communal existence began as a District Roads Board in 1857 and the first Caulfield Roads Board was elected in November 1857, it had control over the roads in an area bounded by Warrigal Road, Hotham Street, Dandenong Road, North Road and Brighton Road. The proclamation of the Caulfield Roads Board tied the name'Caulfield' to a specific area. Moorabbin became a Roads Board in 1862; the board's boundaries extended from the outskirts of Brighton and south-east along both sides of the Nepean Road as far as Mordialloc Creek, taking in the coastal areas now known as Hampton, Sandringham and Mentone.

Caulfield became a Shire in 1871 and a City in 1913. The first railway link to the area was at Caulfield and Carnegie railway stations, which opened in 1879, to be followed in 1881 by Glenhuntly and Ormond railway stations. For the first 25 years of Caulfield's municipal life, board/shire members met in "Mood Kee", the house of Cr Harold Pennington, he was paid 10 pounds a year to cover the cost of candles and the room. The annual general meeting was held in a tent in the backyard; the Caulfield Town Hall was built in 1885. The building was modified several times to meet the growing demands of the municipality, as was Moorabbin Town Hall. Moorabbin, part of the earliest development of Melbourne, began as an outpost of "Dendy's Brighton" and took shape as a market garden area along what was Arthur's Seat Road, now the Nepean Highway. For more than a century, the sandy soil of Moorabbin provided metropolitan Melbourne with much of its fruit and vegetables. After World War II, Moorabbin became one of the first'boom suburbs'.

By the 1950s, along with the Sydney suburb of Bankstown, it became the fastest growing municipality in Australia. Road conditions were just one of the major challenges to face the elected bodies in a developing area; as the farms and market gardens gave way to housing and the district's population grew, street lighting, sewerage, rubbish collection and other services were provided. Today, the City of Glen Eira is an established area. Glen Eira City Council is responsible for maintaining an ageing infrastructure and strives to update with works on roads and footpaths. Public health issues have always been a key part of Council's activities. A clean water supply and sanitary removal of sewage was critical last century because of outbreaks of disease, such as typhoid and scarlet fever; these functions have now been taken by Melbourne Water. Council has for a long time had a role in controlling the impact of animals on health and well-being. Late last century, Caulfield Council was paying a reward for the heads of rats.

Dog registration was instituted in 1865. Social caring and support roles have continued to grow, from maternal and child health centres — the first opened around 1924 — to providing work for the unemployed during the Depression, digging trenches in Caulfield Park during

Rahtree Reborn

Rahtree Reborn is a 2009 Thai comedy-horror film written and directed by Yuthlert Sippapak. It is a sequel to the 2005 film, Buppah Rahtree Phase 2: Rahtree Returns. Ten years passing by, Buppha is reincarnated as a young girl named Pla, abandoned by her mother, leaving her with her barber stepfather, who beats her in his anger; as a result, she becomes a problem child, bullied by her classmates at school. One day, she takes a razor from her stepfather's barbershop and starts attacking people at school, after which she leaves and goes to Buppha's apartment, where she unexpectedly encounters a man, masturbating. Pla is murdered by him and becomes a ghost which haunts Buppha's apartment, she awakes Buppha’s ghost and uses her to take her revenge against all men. After word gets out that the apartment block is haunted, the unoccupied flats become an illegal casino, the good-looking Rung, who has a sixth sense which enables him to see ghosts, moves in after his girlfriend breaks up with him; the death toll in the apartment block rises, Rung and his friends are chased by the girl’s ghost, but one day, Rung meets Buppha, who used to be his tutor when he was a kid, in the communal space in the building.

Soon, he falls in love with her. However, Rung isn't aware that his crush indeed is the haunting and dangerous spirit that he needs to avoid, but he is too late and his sweet dream turns to nightmare as Buppha is now on the hunt again. Mario Maurer as Rung Laila Boonyasak as Buppah Santisuk Promsiri as Father Nudtawan Saksiri as Pla Somlek Sakdikul as Master Tong Chantana Kittiyapan as Sister Three Kristine Vongvanij as Ying Aang Terdterng as Security Guard Saichia Wongwirot as Neung Piya Chanasattu as Peud Supapit Kokphon as Moo Yosawat Sitiwong as Tee Rahtree Reborn on IMDb

Airlie Beach, Queensland

Airlie Beach is a coastal locality in the Whitsunday Region of Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Airlie Beach had a population of 1,208 people. Airlie Beach is one of many departure points for the Great Barrier Reef. Cruise ships visit the area, anchoring offshore while passengers are transported via ship's tender to the marina. Near latitude 20 degrees south, Airlie Beach and the nearby Whitsunday Islands enjoy a tropical climate and lifestyle; each year the residents of Airlie Beach celebrate The Blessing of the Fleet on Whit Sunday or Pentecost Sunday. The name unbounded locality of Airlie Beach. Airlie was named following a request by the Lands Department in December 1935 for the Proserpine Shire Council to provide a name for a new sub-division on the coast, it is certain that the town was named for the parish of Airlie, in Scotland, as the name was suggested by the chairman of the former Proserpine Shire Council, Robert Shepherd, born in nearby Montrose, Scotland. The official name was Airlie from 1936 until 1987, when it was amalgamated into the larger town of Whitsunday while Airlie Beach became the official name of the locality.

Airlie Beach Post Office opened on 2 November 1959. In December 1956, 18 allotments were offered for auction as Perpetual Town Leases by the Department of Public Lands office; the map advertising the auction states the allotments were situated 15 miles north-east of Proserpine. In recent years there has been shark attacks off the coast of Airlie Beach. In 2018 there was 2 near fatal attacks and the most recent attack occurred on 29th October, 2019. At the 2016 census, the suburb of Airlie Beach itself had a population of 1,208 excluding Cannonvale. 50.9% of people were born in Australia. The next most common country of birth was England at 9.2%. 71.2% of people only spoke English at home. The most common response for religion was No Religion at 34.7% of the population. Busking was made legal in June 2010 through an adopted draft policy created by Whitsunday Regional Council. "Airlie Beach". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland. Whitsunday Shire Council