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Oort cloud

The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from 2,000 to 200,000 au. It is divided into two regions: a spherical outer Oort cloud. Both regions lie in interstellar space; the Kuiper belt and the scattered disc, the other two reservoirs of trans-Neptunian objects, are less than one thousandth as far from the Sun as the Oort cloud. The outer limit of the Oort cloud defines the cosmographical boundary of the Solar System and the extent of the Sun's Hill sphere; the outer Oort cloud is only loosely bound to the Solar System, thus is affected by the gravitational pull both of passing stars and of the Milky Way itself. These forces dislodge comets from their orbits within the cloud and send them toward the inner Solar System. Based on their orbits, most of the short-period comets may come from the scattered disc, but some may still have originated from the Oort cloud.

Astronomers conjecture that the matter composing the Oort cloud formed closer to the Sun and was scattered far into space by the gravitational effects of the giant planets early in the Solar System's evolution. Although no confirmed direct observations of the Oort cloud have been made, it may be the source of all long-period and Halley-type comets entering the inner Solar System, many of the centaurs and Jupiter-family comets as well; the existence of the Oort cloud was first postulated by Estonian astronomer Ernst Öpik in 1932. Oort independently proposed it in 1950. There are two main classes of comet: long-period comets. Ecliptic comets have small orbits, below 10 au, follow the ecliptic plane, the same plane in which the planets lie. All long-period comets have large orbits, on the order of thousands of au, appear from every direction in the sky. A. O. Leuschner in 1907 suggested that many comets believed to have parabolic orbits, thus making single visits to the solar system had elliptical orbits and would return after long periods.

In 1932 Estonian astronomer Ernst Öpik postulated that long-period comets originated in an orbiting cloud at the outermost edge of the Solar System. Dutch astronomer Jan Oort independently revived the idea in 1950 as a means to resolve a paradox: Over the course of the Solar System's existence the orbits of comets are unstable, dynamics dictate that a comet must either collide with the Sun or a planet or be ejected from the Solar System by planetary perturbations. Moreover, their volatile composition means that as they approach the Sun, radiation boils the volatiles off until the comet splits or develops an insulating crust that prevents further outgassing. Thus, Oort reasoned, a comet could not have formed while in its current orbit and must have been held in an outer reservoir for all of its existence, he noted that there was a peak in numbers of long-period comets with aphelia of 20,000 au, which suggested a reservoir at that distance with a spherical, isotropic distribution. Those rare comets with orbits of about 10,000 au have gone through one or more orbits through the Solar System and have had their orbits drawn inward by the gravity of the planets.

The Oort cloud is thought to occupy a vast space from somewhere between 2,000 and 5,000 au to as far as 50,000 au from the Sun. Some estimates place the outer edge at between 200,000 au; the region can be subdivided into a spherical outer Oort cloud of 20,000–50,000 au, a torus-shaped inner Oort cloud of 2,000–20,000 au. The outer cloud is only weakly bound to the Sun and supplies the long-period comets to inside the orbit of Neptune; the inner Oort cloud is known as the Hills cloud, named after Jack G. Hills, who proposed its existence in 1981. Models predict that the inner cloud should have tens or hundreds of times as many cometary nuclei as the outer halo; the Hills cloud explains the continued existence of the Oort cloud after billions of years. The outer Oort cloud may have trillions of objects larger than 1 km, billions with absolute magnitudes brighter than 11, with neighboring objects tens of millions of kilometres apart, its total mass is not known, assuming that Halley's Comet is a suitable prototype for comets within the outer Oort cloud the combined mass is 3×1025 kilograms, or five times that of Earth.

Earlier it was thought to be more massive, but improved knowledge of the size distribution of long-period comets led to lower estimates. No known estimates of the mass of the inner Oort cloud have been published. If analyses of comets are representative of the whole, the vast majority of Oort-cloud objects consist of ices such as water, ethane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. However, the discovery of the object 1996 PW, an object whose appearance was consistent with a D-type asteroid in an orbit typical of a long-period comet, prompted theoretical research that suggests that the Oort cloud population consists of one to two percent asteroids. Analysis of the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in both the long-period and Jupiter-family comets shows little difference between the two, despite their presum

Kintamani (dog)

The Kintamani or the Kintamani-Bali Dog is a dog native to the Indonesian island of Bali. It is locally Bali's only official breed, it is an evolving breed indigenous to the Kintamani region, developed from free-roaming local Bali street dogs. In 2019, the FCI decided to give the breed a provisional recognition. A genetic study indicates that the Kintamani dog is native to Bali and was derived from Bali street dogs; the Bali street dog and Kintamani dog were most aligned with the Australian dingo, more distantly related to AKC recognized breeds of Asian origin but not those of European origin. Therefore, the Kintamani dog was developed from Balinese dogs with little loss of genetic diversity; the ancestors of the Balinese street dog arrived on Bali around 3,000 years ago and been isolated since. A rabies control measure implemented in 1926 meant. Therefore, these dogs have free-bred and free-roamed for thousands of years with limited genetic change; the Kintamani looks something like a mix between a Malamute.

They have long hair, a broad face, a flat forehead, flat cheeks like Chinese dogs such as the Chow Chow and are amenable to life as a pet. Whilst many live much the same kind of life as an average village dog, they dig holes to nest their young and some live in small caves among the boulders around Kintamani, they are locally considered good-looking dogs are more sought after as good pets. The Kintamani dog is gentle around people, yet retains enough assertive behavior to render it a noteworthy watchdog; the most desiredcoat color is white - preferably with apricot-tipped ears. Breeders confine the dogs to cold dark caves near the Kintamani volcano, insisting it an essential step in developing the thick white coat; the FCI standard accepts fawn, red and black colours. In fawn and brindle variations the black mask is preferred; the withers height of the female Kintamani dog is 44–52 cm, 49–57 cm for the male, about the same as the stature of the Bali street dog. The desired physical traits of the Kintamani dog include erect ears, forwardly curved tail held at the midline, medium to longhaired coat, almond-shaped brown eyes, black skin pigment.

Bali street dogs come in many colors and coat patterns, they are always shorthaired and straight- to curve- tailed. Both still whelp in burrows dug into a feral dog trait. A fiercely independent breed, Kintamanis can be aggressively territorial while at the same time tender and affectionate with their own families. While most dog breeds are disinclined to climbing and heights, Kintamanis will climb across roofs and spend parts of the day installed sitting or sleeping atop a garden wall, they are light-footed and move smoothly and lithely, will bark when confronted with an unfamiliar sound or sight. The Bangli Regency authority facilitates the Kintamani Dog Exhibition and Contest every year to promote the Kintamani Dog; the authority guides Kintamani Dog breeders, makes rules about Kintamani Dog purification areas and has made a demonstration pilot project in some villages

Nigel Henry

Nigel Henry is a retired Trinidadian soccer player. In 2001 Henry was signed by the Hershey Wildcats of the USL First Division where he and his teammates reached the USL First Division Championship game. In 2002 Henry was transferred to the Montreal Impact. In the following season, 2003, Henry signed for the Charleston Battery where he was a solid defender, helping the team capture the USL First Division Championship. In May 2005, Henry signed with the Toronto Lynx where he was a key contributor in the defence for a struggling team plagued with injuries throughout the season. To improve his chances of selection for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Henry signed that year for Kiruna FF of the Swedish Division 1, but was unsuccessful in his bid, never played a game for the team. After another brief stint back home with the Superstar Rangers, the Puerto Rico Islanders announced the signing of Henry and Kevon Villaroel for the 2008 season, he retired at the end of the 2009 season, but in the second half of the 2010 season came back to the Islanders, from which he retired again.

In 2005 Henry earned two international caps or selection for the Trinidad and Tobago, having been named in squads against Barbados and Guatemala. USSF Division 2 Pro League Champions: 2010 Commissioner's Cup Winners: 2008 Puerto Rico Islanders bio Nigel Henry at National-Football-Teams.com