José Plácido Domingo Embil is a Spanish opera singer and arts administrator. He has recorded over a hundred complete operas and is well known for his versatility performing in Italian, German, Spanish and Russian in the most prestigious opera houses in the world. Although a lirico-spinto tenor for most of his career popular for his Cavaradossi, Don José, Canio, he moved into more dramatic roles, becoming the most acclaimed Otello of his generation. In the early 2010s, he transitioned from the tenor repertory into exclusively baritone parts, most notably Simon Boccanegra, he has performed 149 different roles. Domingo has achieved significant success as a crossover artist in the genres of Latin and popular music. In addition to winning fourteen Grammy and Latin Grammy Awards, several of his records have gone silver, gold and multi-platinum, his first pop album, Perhaps Love, spread his fame beyond the opera world. The title song, performed as a duet with country and folk singer John Denver, has sold four million copies and helped lead to numerous television appearances for the tenor.
He starred in many cinematically released and televised opera movies under the direction of Franco Zeffirelli. In 1990, he began singing with fellow tenors Luciano Pavarotti and José Carreras as part of The Three Tenors; the first Three Tenors recording became the best-selling classical album of all time. Growing up working in his parents' zarzuela company in Mexico, Domingo has since promoted this form of Spanish opera, he increasingly conducts operas and concerts and is the general director of the Los Angeles Opera in California as of 2017. He was the artistic director and general director of the Washington National Opera from 1996–2011, he has been involved in numerous humanitarian works, as well as efforts to help young opera singers, including starting and running the international singing competition, Operalia. Plácido Domingo was born on 21 January 1941 in the Retiro district of Spain, his mother recalled that she and her husband knew he would be a musician from the age of five, due to his ability to hum complex music from a zarzuela after seeing a performance of it.
In 1949, just days before his eighth birthday, he moved to Mexico with his family. His parents, both singers, had decided to start a zarzuela company there after a successful tour of Latin America. Soon after arriving in Mexico, Domingo won a singing contest for boys, his parents recruited him and his sister for children's roles in their zarzuela productions. Domingo studied piano from a young age, at first and at the National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City, which he entered when he was fourteen. At the conservatory, he attended conducting classes taught by Igor Markevitch and studied voice under Carlo Morelli, the brother of Renato Zanelli; the two brothers were famous practitioners of both tenor roles. Domingo's conservatory classes constituted the entirety of his formal vocal instruction. In 1957, at age sixteen, Domingo made his first professional appearance, accompanying his mother on the piano at a concert at Mérida, Yucatán; the same year he made his major zarzuela debut in Manuel Fernández Caballero's Gigantes y cabezudos, singing a baritone role.
At that time, he was working with his parents' zarzuela company taking several baritone roles and acting as an accompanist for other singers. The following year, the tenor in another company's touring production of Luisa Fernanda fell ill. In his first performance as a tenor, Domingo replaced the ailing singer, although he feared the part's tessitura was too high for him; that same year, he sang the tenor role of Rafael in the Spanish opera El gato montés, illustrating his willingness to assay the tenor range as he still considered himself a baritone. On 12 May 1959 at the Teatro Degollado in Guadalajara, he appeared in the baritone role of Pascual in Emilio Arrieta's Marina. Like El gato montés, Marina is an opera composed in the zarzuela musical style rather than a zarzuela proper, although both are performed by zarzuela companies. In addition to his work with zarzuelas, among his earliest performances was a minor role in the first Latin American production of the musical My Fair Lady, in which he was the assistant conductor and assistant coach.
While he was a member, the company gave 185 performances of the musical in various cities in Mexico. In 1959, Domingo auditioned for the Mexico National Opera at the Palacio de Béllas Artes as a baritone, but was asked to sight-read the tenor aria "Amor ti vieta" from Fedora, he was accepted at the National Opera as a tutor for other singers. In what he considered his operatic debut, Domingo sang the minor role of Borsa in Verdi's Rigoletto on September 23 at the Palacio de Bellas Artes in a production with veteran American baritones Cornell MacNeil and Norman Treigle, he appeared as the Padre Confessor in Dialogues of the Carmelites and Pang in Turandot and Arturo in Lucia di Lammermoor among other small parts. While at the National Opera, he appeared in a production of Lehár's operetta, The Merry Widow, in which he alternated as Camille and Danilo. Domingo made his debut in Verdi's Otello at Béllas Artes at age 21 in the summer of 1962 not in the title rôle for which he has now been internationally famous for decades as one of its greatest interpreters, but in the small compri
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Cité de la Musique
The Cité de la Musique known as Philharmonie 2, is a group of institutions dedicated to music and situated in the Parc de la Villette, 19th arrondissement of Paris, France. It was designed with the nearby Conservatoire de Paris by the architect Christian de Portzamparc and opened in 1995. Part of François Mitterrand's Grands Projets, the Cité de la Musique reinvented La Villette – the former slaughterhouse district, it consists of an amphitheater, a concert hall that can accommodate an audience of 800–1,000, a music museum containing an important collection of classical music instruments dating from the fifteenth- to twentieth-century, a music library, exhibition halls and workshops. In 2015 it was renamed Philharmonie 2 as part of the Philharmonie de Paris when a larger symphony hall was built by Jean Nouvel and named Philharmonie 1, its official address is Avenue Jean Jaurès, 75019 Paris. Philharmonie 1, a new 2400-seat symphony hall, is a project whose construction had been postponed for about twenty years, to complete the Cité de la Musique.
On 6 March 2006 the French minister of Culture and communication Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, the mayor of Paris Bertrand Delanoë, the director of the Cité de la Musique, Laurent Bayle, announced the beginning of the construction at a press conference concerning the reopening of the Salle Pleyel, now associated with the Museum. The cost of construction was expected to be 170 million euros, will be shared by the national government, the Ville de Paris, the Région Île-de-France, but the cost in the end is expected to be €381 million In April 2007 Jean Nouvel won the design competition for the auditorium. He brought in Brigitte Métra as his partner, along with Marshall Day Acoustics and Nagata Acoustics; the hall opened on 14 January 2015 with a performance by the Orchestre de Paris of Faure's Requiem to honour the victims of the Charlie Hebdo shootings, which had taken place in the city a week earlier. The opening concert was attended by the President of France; the first season of the Philharmonie de Paris started in January 2015.
The purpose of the season was to reach out to new audiences by providing musical creation and varied repertory in classical music, jazz, world music and contemporary music. On weekends, a diverse program of affordably-priced events and activities was offered each with a theme; the Musée de la Musique features a collection of about 8,390 items, comprising around 4,442 musical instruments, 1,097 instrument elements or 939 pieces of art collected by the Conservatoire de Paris since 1793 as well as some archives and a library of 110,000 written and audiovisual documents. The museum's collection, which opened to the public in 1864 and was relocated at the Cité de la musique in 1997, contains instruments used in classical and popular music from the sixteenth century to the present time including lutes, archlutes 200 classical guitars, violins by Italian luthiers Antonio Stradivari, the Guarneri family, Nicolò Amati; the instruments are exhibited in 5 departments by type. Audio devices are provided at the entrance allowing visitors to hear commentary and excerpts of music played on the instruments, complemented by video screens and scale models along the visit.
List of music museums Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, in Parc de la Villette La Géode, an IMAX domed theatre in Parc de la Villette Le Zénith, a concert arena in Parc de la Villette Kim Eling, The Politics of Cultural Policy in France, Chapter 3: "La Cité de la Musique", Macmillan, 1999, pages 38–61. ISBN 0-312-21974-1. Cité de la Musique official website Médiathèque de la Cité de la musique – Listen to excerpts of concerts
Paris Métro Line 8
Paris Métro Line 8 is one of 16 lines of the Paris Métro. It connects the Balard station in southwestern Paris to Créteil – Pointe du Lac station in Créteil, following a parabolic route on the right bank of the Seine; the last line of the original 1898 Paris Métro plan, which opened in December 1913, it was intended to link the Porte d'Auteuil and Opéra stations. The line was modified during the 1930s as line 10 took over the western section; the current route serves the southwestern part of the city, the Grands Boulevards and the Bois de Vincennes, ending in the southeastern inner suburbs through the cities of Charenton-le-Pont, Maisons-Alfort and Créteil. The underground line was the first to connect the prefecture of one of the new departments of Île-de-France; the only Paris underground line to cross the Seine and its principal tributary in the air via a bridge between Charenton - Écoles and École Vétérinaire de Maisons-Alfort, it crosses the Seine underground between Concorde and Invalides.
With 89 million travellers in 2004, it is the network's eighth-busiest line. 13 July 1913: Line 8 opened between Beaugrenelle and Opéra. 30 September 1913: Line extended from Beaugrenelle to Porte d'Auteuil. 30 June 1928: Northern extension from Opéra to Richelieu-Drouot 5 May 1931: Line extended from Richelieu-Drouot to Porte de Charenton. 27 July 1937: Section between La Motte-Picquet and Porte d'Auteuil transferred to Line 10. 2 September 1939: Like many other stations, service to Saint-Martin and Champ de Mars was halted because of World War II. 5 October 1942: Line extended eastbound from Porte de Charenton to Charenton – Écoles. 19 September 1970: Line extended from Charenton – Écoles to Maisons-Alfort – Stade. 27 April 1972: Line extended from Maisons-Alfort – Stade to Maisons-Alfort – Les Juillottes. 24 September 1973: Line extended from Maisons-Alfort – Les Julliottes to Créteil – l'Echat. 9 September 1974: Line extended from Créteil – l'Echat to Créteil – Préfecture. 8 October 2011: Line extended from Créteil – Préfecture to Pointe du Lac.
Line 8 was the last line created by the concession of 30 March 1898, the déclaration d'utilité publique was approved on 6 April 1903. The project would connect Opéra with Porte d'Auteuil via Grenelle with a shuttle, similar to the network's other lines. In accordance with the plan to operate Line 7 with a junction on the outskirts of Paris, a branch towards the Porte de Sèvres starting from the Grenelle station was planned to be built subsequently; the trains would alternately run on the two branches. Construction of the underwater crossing of the Seine began in April 1908 between the Concorde and Invalides stations, at the level of Pont Mirabeau, it was finished after a lengthy delay caused by the 1910 flood. The crossing was routed with a curve 250 metres away. Although metal caissons were planned to be sunk vertically, a tunnel was drilled following a single circular tube with the aid of a shield. However, the crossing near Pont Mirabeau was made with vertical caissons; the Invalides-Javel section was completed in 1910.
The Grenelle station was planned as a double station with platforms on two levels, with the aim to send trains on the two branches. However, only one station with a central platform was built, as the Balard branch was planned to be built later. Before the completion of work near Pont Mirabeau, the line opened to the public on 13 July 1913 between Beaugrenelle and Opéra; the Invalides and Concorde stations were still unfinished and opened on 24 December 1913 and 12 March 1914, respectively. In 1914, the line had fifteen stations between Porte Opéra. Extension of the line began on 29 December 1922, intending to transform Line 8 into a parabolic axis connecting Auteuil to Porte de Charenton via Opéra, Place de la République, Place de la Bastille, Avenue Daumesnil in the 12th arrondissement and Porte de Picpus; as part of the extension, a common route with Line 9 between the Richelieu - Drouot and République stations was planned in order to limit the impact of this problematic section on street traffic.
Located on the former course of the Seine, the ground is soft and the initial plan to build two parallel tunnels generated lengthy controversy. The first new section opened on 30 June 1928, extending the line by 643 meters to Richelieu – Drouot from Opéra. With an increase in traffic forecast, at its 21 March 1926 meeting the Municipal Council of Paris decided to increase the new Line 7, 8 and 9 station length from 75 metres to 105 to use stock seven-car trains. Although lengthening the old stations was planned the work was never completed; the new Richelieu – Drouot station was the system's first 105-metre station, but train length was limited by the shorter stations. The 1931 Paris Colonial Exposition in Bois de Vincennes necessitated the completion of Line 8 for its opening; the extension of the line to Porte de Charenton, including the construction of seventeen 105-metre stations, was agreed on 25 March 1924 and work began in 1928. The configuration of Lines 8 and 9, under the Grands Boulevards in wet, unstable ground, drove the decision to extend the line on two levels.
The Line 8 stations are on the upper level: two half-stations, separated by a central supporting wall to ensure stability. The 7.8-km extension was completed in March 1931 and opened to the public on 5 May, ending at Porte de Charenton. The line now included thirty-three
A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience. The performance may be by a single musician, sometimes called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, choir, or band. Concerts are held in a wide variety and size of settings, from private houses and small nightclubs, dedicated concert halls and parks to large multipurpose buildings, sports stadiums. Indoor concerts held in the largest venues are sometimes called arena concerts or amphitheatre concerts. Informal names for a concert include gig. Regardless of the venue, musicians perform on a stage. Concerts require live event support with professional audio equipment. Before recorded music, concerts provided the main opportunity to hear musicians play. While the first concerts didn’t appear until the late 17th century, similar gatherings had been around throughout the 17th century at several European universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge. Though, the first public concerts that required an admission were created by the English violinist, John Banister.
Over the next few centuries, concerts began to gain larger audiences, classical symphonies were popular. After World War 2, these events changed into the modern concerts that take place today. An example of an early, post-WW2 concert is the Moondog Coronation Ball; as stated in the general history part above, the first known occurrence of concerts where people are charged admission took place at violinist John Banister's home in Whitefriars, London in 1672. 6 years in 1678, a man by the name of Thomas Britton held weekly concerts in Clerkenwell. However, these concerts were different. Before, you had an admission that you paid upon entering the building where the concert was held but at Britton's concerts, patrons purchased a yearly subscription to come to the concerts. At 10 shillings a year, people could see as many concerts. In addition to holding concerts at certain venues, concerts went to the people. In 17th century France, concerts were performed for only the nobility. Organized by Anne Danican Philidor, the first public concerts in France, arguably the world, were the Concerts Spirituels.
These concerts were held on religious holidays when the Opera was closed and served as a model for concert societies all over the world. In the late 18th century, music from the likes of Haydn and Mozart was brought and performed in English concerts. One notable work from Haydn performed at these concerts was his set of 12 symphonies referred to as the London Symphonies. Concerts reflecting the elegance of England during the time period were held at the gardens of Vauxhall and Marylebone; the musical repertoire performed at these events ranged from works composed by young Mozart, to songs that were popular in that time period. The nature of a concert varies by musical genre, individual performers, the venue. Concerts by a small jazz combo or small bluegrass band may have the same order of program and volume—but vary in music and dress. In a similar way, a particular musician, band, or genre of music might attract concert attendees with similar dress and behavior. For example, concert goers in the 1960s had long hair and inexpensive clothing made of natural fibers.
Regular attendees to a concert venue might have a recognizable style that comprises that venue's scene. A recital is a concert by small group which follows a program, it can highlight a single performer, sometimes accompanied by piano, or a performance of the works of a single composer, or a single instrument. The invention of the solo piano recital has been attributed to Franz Liszt. A recital may have many participants, as for a dance recital. A dance recital is a presentation of choreographed moves for an audience in an established performing arts venue competitively; some dance recitals are seasonal. Some performers or groups put on elaborate and expensive shows. To create a memorable and exciting atmosphere and increase the spectacle, performers include additional entertainment devices; these can include elaborate stage lighting, electronic imagery via system and/or pre-recorded video, inflatable sets, artwork or other set pieces, various special effects such as theatrical smoke and fog and pyrotechnics, unusual costumes or wardrobe.
Some singers popular music, augment concert sound with pre-recorded accompaniment, back-up dancers, broadcast vocal tracks of the singer's own voice. Activities during these concerts can include dancing, sing-alongs, moshing. Performers known for including these elements in their performances include: Pink Floyd, The Flaming Lips, Prince, Alice Cooper, Iron Maiden, Daft Punk, Lady Gaga, Jean Michel Jarre, Sarah Brightman, KISS, Gwar and Madonna. Classical concerts embody two different styles of classical music — orchestral and choral, they are performed by a plethora of different groups in concert halls or other performing art venues. For orchestra, depending on the number of performers and the instruments used, concerts include chamber music, chamber orchestra, or symphony orchestra. Chamber orchestra is a small-scale orchestra containing between ten to forty members string instruments, led by a conductor. Symphony orchestra, on the other hand, is a large-scale orchestra that can have up to eighty or more members, led by a conductor and is performed with instruments such as strings, brass instruments, percussion.
For choral style pieces, concerts include Choral music and musical theater. Each encompassing a variety of singers who are organized by a conductor or
Storming of the Bastille
The Storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789. The medieval armory and political prison known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris; the prison contained seven inmates at the time of its storming. The act was seen, as a symbol of the monarchy's abuses of power. In France, Le quatorze juillet is a public holiday called Bastille Day in English. During the reign of Louis XVI, France faced a major economic crisis; this crisis was caused in part by the cost of intervening in the American Revolution and exacerbated by a regressive system of taxation. On 5 May 1789, the Estates General of 1789 convened to deal with this issue, but were held back by archaic protocols and the conservatism of the second estate: representing the nobility who made up less than 2% of France's population. On 17 June 1789, the third estate, with its representatives drawn from the commoners, reconstituted themselves as the National Assembly, a body whose purpose was the creation of a French constitution.
The king opposed this development, but was forced to acknowledge the authority of the assembly, which renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly on 9 July. France was under major changes during this time; the commoners formed the National Guard, sporting tricolore cockades of blue and red, formed by combining the red and blue cockade of Paris and the white cockade of the king. These cockades, soon their colour scheme, became the symbol of the revolution and of France itself. Paris, close to insurrection and in François Mignet's words, "intoxicated with liberty and enthusiasm", showed wide support for the Assembly; the press published the Assembly's debates. The Palais-Royal and its grounds became the site of an ongoing meeting; the crowd, on the authority of the meeting at the Palais-Royal, broke open the prisons of the Abbaye to release some grenadiers of the French guards imprisoned for refusing to fire on the people. The Assembly recommended the imprisoned guardsmen to the clemency of the king.
The rank and file of the regiment considered reliable, now leaned toward the popular cause. On 11 July 1789, Louis XVI—acting under the influence of the conservative nobles of his privy council—dismissed and banished his finance minister, Jacques Necker and reconstructed the ministry; the marshals Victor-François, duc de Broglie, la Galissonnière, the duc de la Vauguyon, the Baron Louis de Breteuil, the intendant Foulon, took over the posts of Puységur, Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin, La Luzerne, Saint-Priest, Necker. News of Necker's dismissal reached Paris on the afternoon of 12 July; the Parisians presumed that the dismissal marked the start of a coup by conservative elements. Liberal Parisians were further enraged by the fear that a concentration of Royal troops—brought in from frontier garrisons to Versailles, Sèvres, the Champ de Mars, Saint-Denis—would attempt to shut down the National Constituent Assembly, meeting in Versailles. Crowds gathered including more than ten thousand at the Palais-Royal.
Camille Desmoulins rallied the crowd by "mounting a table, pistol in hand, exclaiming:'Citizens, there is no time to lose. This night all the Swiss and German battalions will leave the Champ de Mars to massacre us all. By early July half of the 25,000 regular troops in Paris and Versailles were drawn from these foreign regiments; the French regiments included in the concentration appear to have been selected either because of the proximity of their garrisons to Paris or because their colonels were supporters of the reactionary "court party" opposed to reform. During the public demonstrations that started on 12 July, the multitude displayed busts of Necker and of Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans marched from the Palais Royal through the theater district before continuing westward along the boulevards; the crowd clashed with the Royal German Cavalry Regiment between the Place Vendôme and the Tuileries Palace. From atop the Champs-Élysées, the Prince de Lambesc unleashed a cavalry charge that dispersed the remaining protesters at Place Louis XV—now Place de la Concorde.
The Royal commander, Baron de Besenval, fearing the results of a blood bath amongst the poorly armed crowds or defections among his own men withdrew the cavalry towards Sèvres. Meanwhile, unrest was growing among the people of Paris who expressed their hostility against state authorities by attacking customs posts blamed for causing increased food and wine prices; the people of Paris started to plunder any place where food and supplies could be hoarded. That night, rumors spread that supplies were being hoarded at Saint-Lazare, a huge property of the clergy, which functioned as convent, school and as a jail. An angry mob broke in and plundered the property, seizing 52 wagons of wheat, which were taken to the public market; that same day multitudes of people plundered many other places including weapon arsenals. The Royal troops did nothing to stop the
Architectural design competition
An architectural design competition is a type of design competition in which an organization that intends on constructing a new building invites architects to submit design proposals. The winning design is chosen by an independent panel of design professionals and stakeholders; this procedure is used to generate new ideas for building design, to stimulate public debate, generate publicity for the project, allow emerging designers the opportunity to gain exposure. Architecture competitions are used to award commissions for public buildings: in some countries rules for tendering public building contracts stipulate some form of mandatory open architectural competition. Winning first prize in a competition is not a guarantee; the commissioning body has the right to veto the winning design, both requirements and finances may change, thwarting the original intention. The 2002 World Trade Center site design competition is an example of a publicized competition where only the basic elements of the winning design by Daniel Libeskind appeared in the finished project.
Architecture competitions have a more than 2,500-year-old history. The Acropolis in Athens was a result of an architectural competition in 448 B. C. as were several cathedrals in the Middle Ages. During the Renaissance, many projects initiated by the church have been decided through design competition. Examples are the Spanish Stairs in Rome or in 1419, a competition was held to design the dome of the Florence Cathedral, won by Filippo Brunelleschi. Open competitions were held in the late 18th century in several countries including the United States, Great Britain, Ireland and Sweden. In 19th century England and Ireland there have been over 2,500 competitions in five decades, with 362 in London alone; the Institute of British Architects drafted a first set of rules in 1839, a set of formal regulations in 1872. The German Regulations were introduced in 1867. In the same period in the Netherlands, an association for the advancement of architecture, started organising conceptual competitions with the aim of stimulating architects' creativity.
There are a variety of competition types resulting from the combination of following options: Open competitions or limited, non-open competitions, depending on, allowed to participate. Project competitions or ideas competitions: depending on the intention of building the project or generating new ideas. Single-stage or two-stage competitions: depending on the scale and complexity of the competition. Anonymous or cooperative procedures: anonymity supports greater objectivity during the evaluation and award-granting deliberations. In cooperative procedures, the authors are invited to make in-person presentations to the jury in order to explain their design strategies and allow individual discussion. Student design competitions; the rules of each competition are defined by the organiser. Competition guidelines define roles, responsibilities and procedures within a competition and provide guidance on possible competition types, eligibility criteria, jury composition, participation conditions, prizes, publication of results and other aspects.
In France and Germany design competitions are compulsory for all public buildings exceeding a certain cost. Most significant among architectural competitions are the ones which are internationally open, attract a large number of design submissions, the winning design is built. Architectural design values Student competition Student design competition Andersson E. Bloxham Zettersten, G. und Rönn, M. Architectural Competitions - Histories and Practice. Stockholm: The Royal Institute of Technology and Rio Kulturkooperativ, 2013. ISBN 978-91-85249-16-9 Chupin, Jean-Pierre, Carmela Cucuzzella and Bechara Helal Architecture Competitions and the Production of Culture and Knowledge: An International Inquiry, Montreal: Potential Architecture Books, 2015, ISBN 978-0-9921317-0-8 Collyer, G. Stanley, Competing Globally in Architecture Competitions, Wiley Academy, 2004, ISBN 0470-86-2130 De Jong and Mattie, Erik: Architectural Competitions 1792-1949, Taschen, 1997, ISBN 3-8228-8599-1 Architectural Competition - Nordic Symposium Canadian Competitions Catalogue DesignCompetition.com, list of design competitions DCC Directory of Architecture and Design Competitions, Awards and Design Residencies.
List of 1500 architecture and design competitions CABE: Making Competitions Work RIBA Competitions, the Royal Institute of British Architects dedicated RIBA Competitions unit Wettbewerbe Aktuell, a German journal specialized in architectural competitions Handbook of Architectural Design Competitions, American Institute of Architects The Competition Project, Inc. a world-wide resource on competitions since 1990 with the periodical publication, COMPETITIONS and COMPETITIONS Annual