Victor Kugler was one of the people who helped hide Anne Frank and her family and friends during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. In Anne Frank's posthumously published diary, The Diary of a Young Girl, he was referred to under the name Mr. Kraler. Born in Hohenelbe in the German-speaking part of Köninggrätz region, north-eastern Bohemia, Austria-Hungary to Emma Kugler, he joined the Austro-Hungarian Navy during the First World War once his education was completed, but was discharged in 1918 after being wounded. He moved to Germany and worked as an electrician in 1920, Kugler moved to Utrecht, the Netherlands, to work for a company selling pectin, he joined the Amsterdam branch of Opekta as Otto Frank's deputy in 1924. He became a Dutch citizen in May 1938. In 1940, this allowed him to prevent the Nazi confiscation of Opekta and he accepted the directorship of the business, renamed Gies and Co, from Otto Frank, he and his wife, Laura Maria Buntenbach-Kugler, lived in Hilversum during the war, a distance of about 26 kilometres from Amsterdam.
From July 1942 to August 1944, he aided his colleagues Miep Gies, Johannes Kleiman and Bep Voskuijl in the concealment of eight people, including Anne Frank, in a sealed-off annex in their office premises on Amsterdam's Prinsengracht. He was arrested by the Gestapo on 4 August 1944, by Karl Silberbauer, he was interrogated at the Gestapo Headquarters on the Euterpestraat transferred the same day to a prison for Jews and'political prisoners' awaiting deportation on the Amstelveenseweg. On 7 September, he was moved to the prison on Weteringschans, in a cell with people sentenced to death; this was followed, four days on September 11, by a transport to a concentration camp in Amersfoort where he was selected for transport to Germany. On 17 September, the Amersfoort train station was destroyed in a bombing and on 26 September, he and around 1100 other men were taken to Zwolle for forced labour, digging anti-tank trenches. Kugler was moved again on 30 December 1944, to Wageningen for forced labour digging under the German S.
A. until 28 March 1945, when some 600 prisoners were marched from Wageningen through Renkum, Oosterbeek and Westervoort, to Zevenaar with the intention of going on to Germany the following day. There was a bombing raid during the march and Kugler took advantage of the confusion to escape, he was hidden by a farmer for a few days, borrowed a bicycle and made his way back to Hilversum, where he lived, which he reached in April 1945. He hid there in his own house until the liberation of the Netherlands on 5 May 1945, his wife, Laura Kugler, died on 6 December 1952 and three years he married Lucie van Langen. The couple moved to Canada, where the brother and mother of Lucie resided. On 16 September 1958, Kugler appeared. In 1973, he received the Yad Vashem Medal of the Righteous among the Nations and in 1977 the Canadian Anti-Defamation League awarded him a 10,000 dollar prize in recognition for his assistance in the hiding of the Frank and Van Pels families. Rick Kardonne: Victor Kugler: The Man Who Hid Anne Frank, Gefen Publishing House 2008.
ISBN 978-965-229-410-4 Interview with Victor Kugler, Yad Vashem The Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition, Anne Frank, edited by David Barnouw and Gerrold Van der Stroom, translated by Arnold J. Pomerans, compiled by H. J. J. Hardy, second edition, Doubleday, 2003. Roses from the Earth: the Biography of Anne Frank, Carol Ann Lee, Penguin, 1999. Anne Frank: the Biography, Melissa Muller, foreword by Miep Gies, Bloomsbury, 1999; the Footsteps of Anne Frank, Ernst Schnabel, Pan, 1988. The Hidden Life of Otto Frank, Carol Ann Lee, Penguin, 2002. Victor Kugler – his activity to save Jews' lives during the Holocaust, at Yad Vashem website
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
Dr. Oetker is a German multinational company that produces baking powder, cake mixes, frozen pizza, cake decoration and various other products; the company is a wholly owned branch of the Oetker Group, headquartered in Bielefeld. The portfolio includes more than 300 individual companies in five different businesses, among them food, sparkling wine and spirits, "further interests"; the company was founded by Doctor August Oetker in 1891. Oetker's son, died in the First World War; however and his wife, had two children, Rudolf-August and Ursula. Ida Oetker remarried Richard Kaselowsky, they subsequently had four more children. Dr. Kaselowsky raised Ursula as his own. During the 1930s and 1940s, Rudolf-August Oetker was an active member of the Waffen SS of the Third Reich. Mr Oetker provided pudding munitions to Nazi troops, it is reported that the business used slave labour in some of its facilities. A bronze bust of Richard Kaselowsky, a prominent Nazi, sits within the company headquarters in Bielefeld.
Rudolf August Oetker, the grandson of Dr. August Oetker, led the company between 1944 and 1981, during this period, it achieved its highest growth; the company expanded its presence internationally. When Rudolf Oetker stepped down from his leadership position, the fourth generation of the Oetker family took over from him; the family ownership established the management principle that "The interests of the company have priority over those of the family". Dr. August Oetker, the great-grandson of the founder, led the company from 1981 until 2010. Under his tenure, it expanded further in all areas, including shipping and brewing. Richard Oetker, Dr. August Oetker's brother, took over as CEO in 2010. Dr. Oetker purchased Australian food manufacturer Simplot Australia's frozen pizza business, including the iconic brand Papa Giuseppi's in January 2011. In Brazil, the company has a site in São Paulo; the company supplies powdered desserts, frozen pizza, teas. The company has been established in Brazil since 1954.
The company has its head factory in Mississauga, Ontario. In 1962, Dr. Oetker entered the Canadian market as Condima Imports Ltd. In 1992, it purchased the "Shirriff" line of products. In 2003, the Condima name was dropped and the company started using the Dr. Oetker brand. In July 2011 Dr. Oetker announced the building of its first North American factory in London, Ontario to make frozen pizzas made from Ontario produce and ingredients that will be shipped in Canada and the USA. In August 2014, McCain Foods announced the sale of its North American frozen pizza business to Dr. Oetker. Through product placement on its packaging and through employee giving, the company supports the children's charity SOS Children's Villages Canada. In Denmark, a wide selection is available. Baking powder, frozen pizza and cake decorations are sold in most supermarkets; the company has an office in Glostrup. In Estonia, frozen pizzas are available at supermarkets. In Finland, frozen pizzas and cake decoration are available at supermarkets.
The company operates in India and has offices in Mumbai, New Delhi, Bangalore. In India, the company sells sauces, dessert toppings, cake mixes, etc. IPR and recipes acquired for certain Indian sauces from owner operator and Chef Manav Paul of MiXStudio & Mix Bar & Grill - Goa & Rahul Akerkar Indigo. In Italy, Dr. Oetker operates under the brand Cameo; the Italian division was founded in Milano in 1933 as Oetker and later moved to Desenzano del Garda, which continues until today. In 1953, the name is switched to Cammeo, a more Italian and easy-listening word, changed again for the last time in 1984 in Cameo. Many Dr. Oetker products are available, including frozen pizzas, baking powder, gelatine, the latter in both unflavoured and dessert forms. In Malaysia, Dr. Oetker was operated after the acquisition of Nona Foods; the previous ownership of Nona Foods was Toro Food Industries. Dr. Oetker was represented in Malaysia by Kart Food Industries, between 1998 and 2002, when the company was sold to Amtek Berhad.
Following the acquisition of Nona Foods, the local subsidiary of Dr. Oetker produces jelly mixes and seasoning flour, in addition to pizzas and baking preparations. In Namibia, frozen pizzas are available at supermarkets. In the Netherlands, frozen pizza and cake mixes can be found in all major grocery chains; as with the purchase of Simplot Australia's frozen pizza business, Dr. Oetker has been able to move into the New Zealand market. In Norway, Dr. Oetker is the second-largest seller of frozen pizza with a market share of 16.5%. The company has been present in Romania since 1998. Four years it opened a production line near Curtea de Argeș, where the majority of the products sold in Romania are produced. In 2007 Dr. Oetker acquires the local brand Inedit, in 2009 the local brand Adazia, in 2015 the local brand Alex, in 2016 the local brand Morarita. In 2018, Dr. Oetker was one of the biggest players in the food market in Romania. In Spain, frozen pizzas are available
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
Elizabeth "Bep" Voskuijl helped conceal Anne Frank and her family from Nazi persecution during the occupation of the Netherlands. Bep was born in Amsterdam, she was one of the eight children of Christina Voskuijl. When still a teenager, Bep worked as a modiste and housekeeper in order to earn money for tuition and graduated as a secretary, she was hired by Otto Frank in 1937 as a secretary and by 1942 was the administration manager of his company, based at 263 Prinsengracht, the address which would become the Frank family's hiding place. She was eighteen when she was the youngest employee in the office, she had good relations with Miep Gies. Her unemployed father, Johannes Hendrik Voskuijl, became Opekta warehouse supervisor. In her book, "Anne Frank Remembered", Miep Gies portraits Bep as a gentle and shy girl and recalls they soon became close friends. Elisabeth was a young typist who agreed to help bring provisions to Otto's family and four other people concealed in the back rooms of the office building, from July 1942, until their betrayal and arrest on 4 August 1944.
Bep was responsible for milk and bread, Bep's sister sewed garments such as pants and blouses for the people in hiding. She ordered correspondence courses, such as shorthand and Latin for those in hiding and spent much time with Anne, speaking about movies and books and sharing confidences about her sweetheart, bringing her postcards of the Dutch royal family. During the Gestapo raid, she went into hysterics and managed to escape with a few documents which would have incriminated their black market contacts, but returned to assist Miep Gies in collecting the personal possessions of the captured Jews, amongst which were Anne Frank's diaries and manuscripts, she left the company after her marriage to Cornelius van Wijk on 15 May 1946 and they went on to have four children: Ton, Joop, a daughter, Anne-Marie, born in 1960, named after Anne. She was honoured in years for her activities during the Second World War, but disliked publicity and gave few interviews about her association with Anne Frank.
Still, they were "like sisters with Anne". Bep kept in contact with Otto Frank after his move to Switzerland and new marriage. Otto knew that Bep did his best to help her, too, he lent money to her. Bep Voskuijl – van Wijk died in Amsterdam on 6 May 1983, due to a kidney disease, she was 63 years old. Anne Frank House People associated with Anne Frank Anne Frank. David Barnouw; the Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition. Translated by Arnold J. Pomerans. Compiled by H. J. J. Hardy.. Doubleday. Miep Gies. Anne Frank Remembered. Simon and Schuster. Carol Ann Lee. Roses from the Earth: the Biography of Anne Frank. Penguin. Melissa Muller. Anne Frank: the Biography. Foreword by Miep Gies. Bloomsbury. Carol Ann Lee; the Hidden Life of Otto Frank. Penguin. Interview with Bep Voskuijl The wedding photograph of Bep Voskuijl and Cor van Wijk taken a year after the war, showing Otto Frank, Pfeffer's partner Charlotte Kaletta, Miep and Jan Gies Post war photo of Bep at home with her children
Utrecht is the fourth-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands and most populous city of the province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, in the centre of mainland Netherlands, had a population of 345,080 in 2017. Utrecht's ancient city centre features many buildings and structures several dating as far back as the High Middle Ages, it has been the religious centre of the Netherlands since the 8th century. It remains the main religious centre in the country. Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was surpassed by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city. Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university in the Netherlands, as well as several other institutions of higher education. Due to its central position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport, it has the second highest number of cultural events after Amsterdam.
In 2012, Lonely Planet included Utrecht in the top 10 of the world's unsung places. Although there is some evidence of earlier inhabitation in the region of Utrecht, dating back to the Stone Age and settling in the Bronze Age, the founding date of the city is related to the construction of a Roman fortification built in around 50 CE. A series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north. To consolidate the border, the Limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the main branch of the river Rhine, which at that time flowed through a more northern bed compared to today; these fortresses were designed to house a cohort of about 500 Roman soldiers. Near the fort, settlements would grow housing artisans and soldiers' wives and children. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was Traiectum, denoting its location at a possible Rhine crossing. Traiectum became Dutch Trecht. In 11th-century official documents, it was Latinized as Ultra Traiectum.
Around the year 200, the wooden walls of the fortification were replaced by sturdier tuff stone walls, remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square. From the middle of the 3rd century, Germanic tribes invaded the Roman territories. Around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Little is known about the next period 270–650. Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries. Under the influence of the growing realms of the Franks, during Dagobert I's reign in the 7th century, a church was built within the walls of the Roman fortress. In ongoing border conflicts with the Frisians, this first church was destroyed. By the mid-7th century and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. Pope Sergius I appointed Saint Willibrordus, as bishop of the Frisians; the tenure of Willibrordus is considered to be the beginning of the Bishopric of Utrecht. In 723, the Frankish leader Charles Martel bestowed the fortress in Utrecht and the surrounding lands as the base of the bishops.
From on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands. The archbishops of Utrecht were based at the uneasy northern border of the Carolingian Empire. In addition, the city of Utrecht had competition from the nearby trading centre Dorestad. After the fall of Dorestad around 850, Utrecht became one of the most important cities in the Netherlands; the importance of Utrecht as a centre of Christianity is illustrated by the election of the Utrecht-born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens as pope in 1522. When the Frankish rulers established the system of feudalism, the Bishops of Utrecht came to exercise worldly power as prince-bishops; the territory of the bishopric not only included the modern province of Utrecht, but extended to the northeast. The feudal conflict of the Middle Ages affected Utrecht; the prince-bishopric was involved in continuous conflicts with the Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Guelders. The Veluwe region was seized by Guelders, but large areas in the modern province of Overijssel remained as the Oversticht.
Several churches and monasteries were built inside, or close to, the city of Utrecht. The most dominant of these was the Cathedral of Saint Martin, inside the old Roman fortress; the construction of the present Gothic building was begun in 1254 after an earlier romanesque construction had been badly damaged by fire. The choir and transept were finished from 1320 and were followed by the ambitious Dom tower; the last part to be constructed was the central nave, from 1420. By that time, the age of the great cathedrals had come to an end and declining finances prevented the ambitious project from being finished, the construction of the central nave being suspended before the planned flying buttresses could be finished. Besides the cathedral there were four collegiate churches in Utrecht: St. Salvator's Church, on the Dom square, dating back to the early 8th century. Saint John, originating in 1040. Besides these churches, the city housed St. Paul's Abbey, the 15th-century beguinage of St. Nicholas, a 14th-century chapter house of the Teutonic Knights.