Opelika is a city in and the county seat of Lee County in the east central part of the U. S. state of Alabama. It is a principal city of the Auburn-Opelika Metropolitan Area; as of the 2010 census, the population of Opelika was 26,401, in 2018 the estimated population was 30,555. The Auburn-Opelika, AL MSA with a population of 150,933, along with the Columbus, Georgia metropolitan area, comprises the Greater Columbus combined statistical area, a region home to 501,649 residents; the first white settlers in the area now known as Opelika arrived in the late 1830s and established a community called Lebanon. After the removal of the native Creek peoples by federal troops in 1836-37, the area became known as "Opelika." This word taken from the Muskogee language means "large swamp". In 1848, the Montgomery and West Point Railroad Company extended a rail line from Montgomery, Alabama, to Opelika, in 1851, completed a connection to West Point, thus connecting Opelika with Atlanta, Georgia; this line was the only direct rail route between the Eastern Seaboard.
It became one of the primary trade lines for shipments of raw cotton from Southern plantations to the North. The Montgomery and West Point was soon joined by a rail connection to Columbus, Georgia, in 1855, a connection to Birmingham, Alabama, in 1869. Overnight, Opelika became a regional hub for commerce. To manage this rapid growth, Opelika was incorporated as a town on February 9, 1854 within Russell County; as a result of Opelika's transportation infrastructure, many warehouses for storing cotton and other goods were built. With the onset of the Civil War, these warehouses were converted to Confederate supply depots. In 1864 and 1865, Union raids commanded by Lovell Rousseau and James H. Wilson attacked Opelika, tearing up the railroads and destroying all government property, including Opelika's warehouses. Soon after the end of the war, the Alabama state legislature created a new county out of parts of Macon, Russell and Tallapoosa Counties to be named after Confederate general Robert E. Lee.
In 1866, citizens of the new "Lee County" voted Opelika as the county seat. The town was technically unincorporated after having its charter revoked for abetting the rebellion against the United States. After Opelika received a new charter in 1870, rapid growth resumed; the town nearly doubled in size between 1870 and 1900. During this time, Opelika began to gain a reputation as a lawless town. Soon after receiving the new charter, city officials attempted to scam outside investors by issuing fake railroad bonds. For this, the town's charter was revoked again in 1872, the town was administered as a police district by the state legislature for the following year.. Opelika's downtown was packed with saloons catering to other men. Frequent gunfire in the street by intoxicated patrons resulted in railroads directing their passengers to duck beneath the windows when their trains passed through the town. In 1882, two factions claimed to rule the city government, one known as the "Bar room" headed by Mayor Dunbar, a saloon keeper, another known as the "Citizens".
In a riot in late November–December of that year, a dozen men were wounded. In the end, a few were killed; the Citizens had claimed control of the city via the elections. After continued violence, the state legislature revoked the city's charter and the governor sent in the militia to restore order; the legislature appointed five commissioners to manage the city, a situation that continued until 1899. That year the legislature restored the city's charter. In 1900, local investors founded the Opelika Cotton Mill as the first textile plant in the city, employing 125; the city was located on the Fall Line of the Piedmont, where factories were established to take advantage of water power. Attempts to expand the textile industry in Opelika continued for the next three decades. In 1925, city officials used a $62,500 bribe to induce executives of the Pepperell Manufacturing Co. to construct a large mill just outside the city limits. From 1930 to 1970, Opelika continued industrialization. In the 1950s, Opelika attracted the nation's largest magnetic tape manufacturing plant.
In 1963, tire manufacturer Uniroyal constructed a massive plant in Opelika. Around the same time, Diversified Products revolutionized the physical fitness equipment industry with products produced in their Opelika plant. By the early 1970s, Opelika's industries employed nearly 10,000 people. Between the late 1970s and 2005, nonagricultural employment in the Auburn-Opelika, AL, MSA grew at a slow and steady pace. Of the goods-producing industries, the metropolitan area has experienced the most change in manufacturing, which peaked in employment in the late 1980s; as many jobs moved offshore, employment declined, but this trend appears to be changing, as the number of manufacturing jobs has risen since 2002. In the late 1990s, Opelika purchased and developed the Northeast Opelika Industrial Park to increase its base; the 2,200-acre park site was purchased with funds from two bond issues called the 1998A and 1998B issues, totaling $10,280,000. Additional expenditures involved in constructing the Northeast Opelika Industrial Park included $4.3 million transferred from the city's general fund to the Opelika Industrial Development Authority between 1997 and 2000, a $1.9 million federal industrial park access road grant, $2.5 million from Opelika Water Works Board and the City of Opelika to sewer and water the park, $12.1 million from the Alabama Department of Transportation to construct an interchange.
Additional expenditures were made by Tallapoosa Electric Coopera
ECRI Institute is an independent nonprofit organization authority on the medical practices and products that provide the safest, most cost-effective care. In the early 1960s, Joel J. Nobel, a surgeon and inventor, founded the institute after a four-year-old boy died in his arms when a defibrillator failed to work, he used the institute to focus his energies on improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation technology and deployment. Among Nobel's most important inventions was the MAX Cart, a mobile resuscitation system designed for rapid medical response to patients experiencing cardiopulmonary emergencies. Designed and patented in 1965 during Nobel's residency at Pennsylvania Hospital, the cart carries instruments for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and other medical supplies while functioning as a support litter. A prototype of the MAX medical emergency crash cart is in the permanent collection of the Medicine and Science Division of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History as part of its collection of significant cardiology and emergency-medicine objects.
In 1966, Life profiled the invention in a feature called "MAX, the Lifesaver."ECRI Institute began comparative evaluations of medical device brands and models in 1971. Since its designation as an Evidence-based Practice Center with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in 1997, it has undertaken systematic reviews of clinical procedures using meta-analysis for the Medicare program, other federal and state agencies, clinical specialty organizations. To prevent conflicts of interest, the institute has strict rules prohibiting any acceptance of gifts, grants, or contracts from the medical device or pharmaceutical industries. In 2001, Dr. Jeffrey C. Lerner became Chief Executive Officer. In 2018, Dr. Marcus Schabacker became Chief Executive Officer. ECRI Institute is an international organization with offices in the United States, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia. ECRI Institute’s headquarters is located in Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania on a 12-acre research campus that features a 120,000-square-foot facility with offices, instrumented laboratories, a medical library.
ECRI Institute has nearly 450 full-time employees whose interdisciplinary backgrounds include medicine, epidemiology, biomedical science, research methodology, social science, clinical engineering, health law, healthcare management, patient safety and risk management, information technology, medical informatics, clinical writing and editing, many other areas. The organization serves over 5,000 healthcare organizations worldwide, including hospitals, health systems and private payers, U. S. federal and state government agencies, ministries of health, voluntary sector organizations and accrediting agencies. With these groups, ECRI Institute shares its experience in patient safety improvement, comparative effectiveness and quality management, evidence-based practice, healthcare processes, devices and drug technology. Effective January 2, 2020, Institute for Safe Medication Practices is an ECRI Institute affiliate. Under the affiliation agreement, ISMP operates as a wholly-owned subsidiary of ECRI Institute.
ECRI Institute Patient Safety Organization is listed as a federal patient safety organization by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services under the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005. ECRI Institute entered into a licensing agreement to adapt the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting System, to meet Pennsylvania-specific reporting requirements; the resulting PA-PSRS system is owned by the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. The Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority board voted unanimously to accept the proposal to fund the ECRI Institute contract through June 2019. ECRI Institute, designated an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence-based Practice Center with Penn Medicine, conducts research reviews for the Effective Health Care Program. ECRI Institute provides healthcare information, publishing and consultation services including: Evidence-based Medicine: Comprehensive technology assessment membership program, online resources, onsite custom consulting.
] and Quality: Membership programs and other resources to help improve patient safety, ensure quality, manage enterprise-wide risks. Technology Decision Making: A range of services to help hospitals and healthcare systems manage health technology effectively; the organization was the sole prime contractor for developing and maintaining AHRQ's National Guideline Clearinghouse, a database of clinical practice guidelines, since its inception in 1998 and the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse, a database of evidence-based healthcare quality measures, since its inception in 2001. Both medical informatics tools supported users' efforts to integrate evidence-based practices into healthcare decisions. Both contracts ended in July 2018 due to the lack of federal funding though AHRQ to continue their operation. In November 2018, the ECRI Guidelines Trust was created in response to the defunding of the National Guideline Clearinghouse by the federal government. ECRI Institute maintains the Universal Medical Device Nomenclature System.
ECRI Institute’s educational resources include patient safety and risk management continuing medical education /continuing education unit courses and an online program. The organization is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. For 24 years, ECRI Institute organized an annual health policy conference delineating perspectives of stakeholders througho
Michael Terry Holcomb is a Southern Gospel bass singer, best known for his forty plus years of work with The Inspirations. Holcomb was born in Pickens County, Georgia on February 2, 1954 to Alfred Carl Holcomb Jr. and Sarah Piccola Padgett. He began singing at the age of 4 in church, he attended Tate Elementary School grades 1–5 and moved to Jasper, Georgia where he attended the Jasper Elementary School. In the 6th grade and Talking Rock Elementary in the 7th grade. Holcomb was saved on July 22, 1964 at Price Creek Baptist Church, he attended Pickens County High School from the 8th grade through to the 12th grade and graduated from high school in 1972. Along the way he had sung bass in groups such as the Happy Harmony Quartet and the Deliverance Quartet, he dropped out in September 1972 to join The Inspirations. The group he attained success in the Southern Gospel genre with such songs as "Shouting Time In Heaven", "When I Wake Up To Sleep No More", "A Rose Among The Thorns" and "We Need To Thank God", "Jesus Is Coming Soon" and have sold over a million records.
Mike has been featured on several top southern gospel songs including the following:"Hide me Rock of Ages", "I Get Happy", "Everybody will be happy", "The Son Came Down", "I'll have a New Life" "If You Only Knew", "God Makes No Mistakes" "Talk about Dying" and many many more. He married Bavaria Lynn Mitchell on April 25, 1976, he has Olivia Niccole. Holcomb has two grandchildren Aubrey is the daughter of Nathan Pierce; the newest addition to the Holcomb family is son of Nathan and Brandy Holcomb. He resides in North Carolina. J. D. Sumner Tim Storms http://mikeholcomb.org http://www.theinspirations.com Video of The Inspirations and Holocomb hitting the low low C on YouTube
Charles Henry Chandos Henniker-Major, 6th Baron Henniker DL 3rd Baron Hartismere in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, was a British peer and British army officer. Charles Henniker-Major was the second son of John Henniker-Major, 5th Baron Henniker, who with his wife Lady Alice Cuffe, the only daughter of the 3rd Earl of Desart, had twelve children. After education at Eton and RMC Sandhurst, Henniker-Major was commissioned into the British Army in 1891, he served on the North-West Frontier of India in 1897–1898 and by 1898 was a captain in the Rifle Brigade. In 1907 he was promoted to major in the Rifle Brigade, he served in the First World War from 1914 to 1918. He was a lieutenant-colonel of the Rifle Brigade, commanding Rifle Depot from 1917 to 1919. C Henniker-Major's battalion suffered devastating losses in the First Battle of Ypres. Henniker-Major held the office of Justice of the Peace for East Suffolk and he was a Deputy Lieutenant for the same county. Lord Henniker, 5th Baron Henniker's eldest son died of pneumonia at age 35, upon Lord Henniker's death in 1902 Charles Henniker-Major became the 5th Baron Henniker.
He died unmarried in 1956 and was succeeded as Baron Henniker and Baron Hartismere by his brother John Ernest de Grey Henniker-Major. The Thornham estate belonged to members of the Henniker-Major family since by its purchase in the 18th century by Sir John Major, 1st Baronet. In 1920 Charles Henniker-Major owned about 11,100 acres, after selling 21,000 acres in 1919 due to financial problems
The 5th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment raised in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It fought in the Stonewall Brigade with the Army of Northern Virginia; the regiment was known as the "Fighting Fifth". The 5th Virginia Infantry Regiment was organized in 1861, under Colonel Kenton Harper. Eight companies were from two from Frederick County; the unit became part of the Stonewall Brigade and served under Generals T. J. Jackson, Richard B. Garnett, Charles Sidney Winder, Elisha F. Paxton, James A. Walker and William Terry, it saw action at First Manassas, First Kernstown, in Jackson's Valley Campaign. The 5th participated in the campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia from the Seven Days' Battles to Cold Harbor was active in Early's Shenandoah Valley operations and around Appomattox, it reported 9 killed, 48 wounded, 4 missing at First Kernstown, had 4 killed, 89 wounded, 20 missing at Cross Keys and Port Republic, suffered 14 killed and 91 wounded at Second Manassas.
The unit sustained 120 casualties at Chancellorsville and of the 345 engaged at Gettysburg, sixteen percent were disabled. It surrendered 48 men; the field officers were Colonels William S. H. Baylor, John H. S. Funk, William H. Harman, Kenton Harper. List of Virginia Civil War units This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, National Park Service"
The Smith's Prize was the name of each of two prizes awarded annually to two research students in mathematics and theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge from 1769. Following the reorganization in 1998, they are now awarded under the names Smith-Knight Prize and Rayleigh-Knight Prize; the Smith Prize fund was founded by bequest of Robert Smith upon his death in 1768, having by his will left £3,500 of South Sea Company stock to the University. Every year two or more junior Bachelor of Arts students who had made the greatest progress in mathematics and natural philosophy were to be awarded a prize from the fund; the prize was awarded every year from 1769 to 1998 except 1917. From 1769 to 1885, the prize was awarded for the best performance in a series of examinations. In 1854 George Stokes included an examination question on a particular theorem that William Thomson had written to him about, now known as Stokes' theorem. T. W. Körner notes Only a small number of students took the Smith's prize examination in the nineteenth century.
When Karl Pearson took the examination in 1879, the examiners were Stokes, Maxwell and Todhunter and the examinees went on each occasion to an examiner's dwelling, did a morning paper, had lunch there and continued their work on the paper in the afternoon. In 1885, the examination was renamed Part III, the prize was awarded for the best submitted essay rather than examination performance. According to Barrow-Green By fostering an interest in the study of applied mathematics, the competition contributed towards the success in mathematical physics, to become the hallmark of Cambridge mathematics during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, the competition stimulated postgraduate research in mathematics in Cambridge and the competition has played a significant role by providing a springboard for graduates considering an academic career; the majority of prize-winners have gone on to become professional physicists. The Rayleigh Prize was an additional prize, awarded for the first time in 1911.
The Smith's and Rayleigh prizes were only available to Cambridge graduate students, undergraduates at Cambridge. The J. T. Knight Prize was established in 1974 for Cambridge graduates, undergraduates at other universities; the prize commemorates J. T. Knight, an undergraduate student at Glasgow and a graduate student at Cambridge, he was killed in a motor car accident in Ireland in April 1970. In 1769, the prizes were worth £25 each and remained at that level for 100 years. In 1867, they fell in 1915 were still reported to be worth that amount. By 1930, the value had risen to about £30, by 1940, the value had risen by a further one pound to £31. By 1998, a Smith's Prize was worth around £250. In 2007, the value of the three prize funds was £175,000. In 1998 the Smith Prize, Rayleigh Prize and J. T. Knight Prize were replaced by the Smith-Knight Prize and Rayleigh-Knight Prize, the standard for the former being higher than that required for the latter. For the period up to 1940 a complete list is given in Barrow-Green including titles of prize essays from 1889–1940.
The following is a selection from this list. A more complete list of Rayleigh prize recipients is given in Appendix 1 of 1913 Ralph H. Fowler 1923 Edward Collingwood 1927 William McCrea 1930 Harold Davenport 1937 David Stanley Evans 1951 Gabriel Andrew Dirac 1980 David Benson 1982 Susan Stepney 1994 Group 4: J. D. King, A. P. Martin. Group 5: K. M. Croudace, J. R. Elliot. 1998 P. Bolchover, O. T. Johnson, R. W. Verrill, R. Bhattacharyya, U. A. Salam, S. A. Wright and T. J. Hunt 1974 Cameron Leigh Stewart Allan J. Clarke 1975 Frank Kelly and Ian Sobey 1976 Trevor McDougall 1977 Gerard Murphy 1981 Bruce Allen and Philip K. Pollett 1983 Ya-xiang Yuan 1985 Reinhard Diestel 1987 Qin Sheng 1988 Somak Raychaudhury 1990 Darryn W. Waugh 1991 Henrik O. Rasmussen, Renzo L. Ricca 1992 Grant Lythe, Christophe Pichon 1993 Anastasios Christou Petkou 1994 Group 1: M. Gaberdiel, Y. Liu. Group 3: H. A. Chamblin. Group 4: P. P. Avelino, S. G. Lack, A. L. Sydenham. Group 5: S. Keras, U. Meyer, G. M. Pritchard, H. Ramanathan, K. Strobl.
Group 6: A. O. Bender, V. Toledano Laredo. 1996 Conor Houghton, Thomas Manke 1997 Arno Schindlmayr 1998 A. Bejancu, G. M. Keith, J. Sawon, D. R. Brecher, T. S. H. Leinster, S. Slijepcevic, K. K. Damodaran, A. R. Mohebalhojeh, C. T. Snydal, F. De Rooij, O. Pikhurko, David K. H. Tan, P. R. Hiemer, T. Prestidge, F. Wagner, Viet Ha Hoàng, A. W. Rempel and Jium-Huei Proty Wu 1999 D. W. Essex, H. S. Reall, A. Saikia, A. C. Faul, Duncan C. Richer, M. J. Vartiainen, T. A. Fisher, J. Rosenzweig, J. Wierzba and J. B. Gutowski 2001 B. J. Green, T A. Mennim, A. Mijatovic, F. A. Dolan, Paul D. Metcalfe and S. R. Tod 2002 Konstantin Ardakov, Edward Crane and Simon Wadsley 2004 Neil Roxburgh 2005 David Conlon 2008 Miguel Paulos 2009 Olga Goulko 2010 Miguel Custódio 2011 Ioan Manolescu 2014 Bhargav P. Narayanan 2018 Theodor Bjorkmo, Muntazir Mehdi Abidi, Amelia Drew, Leong Khim Wong 1999 C. D. Bloor, R. Oeckl, J. Y. Whiston, Y-C. Chen, P. L. Rendon, C. Wunderer, J. H. P. Dawes, D. M. Rodgers, H-M. Gutmann and A. N. Ross 2001 A. F. R. Bain, S. Khan, S. Schafer-Nameki, N. R. Farr, J. Niesen, J. H. Siggers, M. Fayers, D. Oriti, M. J. Tildesley, J. R. Gair, M. R. E. H. Pickles, A. J. Tolley, S. R. Hodges, R. Portugues, C.