Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface, it is applied to ore or rocks found at the surface because the overburden is thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling. In contrast, minerals that have been found underground but are difficult to retrieve due to hard rock, can be reached using a form of underground mining. To create an open-pit mine, the miners must determine the information of the ore, underground; this is done through drilling of probe holes in the ground plotting each hole location on a map. The information gained through the holes with provide an idea of the vertical extent of the ore's body; this vertical information is used to pit tentative locations of the benches that will occur in the mine.
It is important to consider the grade and economic value of the ore in the potential pit. Open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are referred to as "quarries." Open-pit mines are enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. However, some form of water control is required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake, if the mine is situated in a climate of considerable precipitation or if any layers of the pit forming the mine border productive aquifers. Open-pit mining is to be considered one of the most dangerous sectors in the industrial world, it causes significant effects to miners health, as well as damage to the ecological land. Open-pit mining causes changes to vegetation and bedrock, which contributes to changes in surface hydrology, groundwater levels, flow paths. Additionally, open-pit produces harmful pollutants depending on the type of mineral being mined, the type of mining process being used.
Open-cast mines are dug on benches. The interval of the benches depends on the deposit being mined, the mineral being mined, the size of the machinery, being used. Large mine benches are 12 to 15 metres thick. In contrast, many quarries do not use benches, as they are shallow. Mining can be conducted on more than one bench at a time, access to different benches is done with a system of ramps; the width of each bench is determined by the size of the equipment being used 20-40 metres wide. Downward ramps are created to allow mining on a new level to begin; this new level will become progressively wider to form the new pit bottom. Most walls of the pit are mined on an angle less than vertical. Waste rock is stripped when the pit becomes deeper, therefore this angle is a safety precaution to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. However, this depends on how weathered and eroded the rocks are, the type of rocks involved, it depends on the amount of structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a faults, joints or foliations.
The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, the flat part of the step is known as the bench or berm; the steps in the walls help prevent. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and shotcrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, enough to cause failures in the wall by itself. A haul road is situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks can drive, carrying ore and waste rock. Open-pit mines create a significant amount of waste. One million tons of ore and waste rock can move from the largest mines per day, a couple thousand tons moved from small mines per day. There is four main operations in a mine that contribute to this load: drilling, blasting and hauling. Waste rock is hauled to a waste dump. Waste dumps can be piled at the surface of the active pit, or in mined pits. Leftover waste from processing the ore is called tailings, is in the form of a slurry.
This is pumped to a tailings settling pond, where the water is reused or evaporated. Tailings dams can be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, cyanide, used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process. If proper environmental protections are not in place, this toxicity can harm the surrounding environment. Open-pit mining involves the process of disrupting the ground, which leads to the creation of air pollutants; the main source of air pollutants comes from the transportation of minerals, but there are various other factors including drilling and the loading and unloading of overburden. These type of pollutants cause significant damage to public health and safety in addition to damaging the air quality; the inhalation of these pollutants can cause issues to the lungs and increase mortality. Furthermore, the pollutants affect fauna in the areas surrounding open-pit mines. Open-pit gold mining is one of the highest potential mining threats on the environment as it affects the air and water chemistry.
The exposed dust may be toxic or radioactive, making it a health concern for the workers and the surrounding communities. A form of open-cast quarry
Nicolaj Ritter is a Danish footballer, who plays as a left back for FC Fredericia. On 17 May 2011 it was confirmed, he started playing a year with the U19 team, but in the first match of the season, Ritter got his debut against his former club FC Midtjylland on 17 July 2011, where he replaces Christian Holst in the 76' minut. On 17 May 2013, Ritter got renewed his contract until the summer 2014. On 8 June 2016 it was confirmed, that Ritter had signed a two-year contract with SønderjyskE. On 31 January 2018, Ritter signed for Vejle Boldklub, after getting his contract with SønderjyskE terminated. After only a half season, Vejle announced, that Ritter alongside two teammates would leave the club at the end of the season. On 5 July 2018, Ritter signed for FC Fredericia. Nicolaj Ritter at Soccerway Nicolaj Ritter on DBU
Kostyantyn Gryshchenko is a pro Russia, pro Kremlin, pro Putin Ukrainian diplomat and politician. Since Ukraine gained independence, Kostyantyn Gryshchenko has served in a succession of senior positions with responsibilities ranging from arms control and regional security to education and public health, he served as Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine and First Deputy Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine. Ambassadorial appointments include: Head of Mission of Ukraine to NATO and the Ambassador of Ukraine to Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, Ambassador to the United States and Ambassador to the Russian Federation. In addition to his posts in the Ukrainian Government, Kostyantyn Gryshchenko participated in personal capacity in a number of high-profile bodies focused chiefly on various aspects of regional and international security: 1991 –Deputy Chief Inspector for biological weapons of the United Nations Special Commission in Iraq.
Kostyantyn Gryshchenko holds the diplomatic rank of Ambassador Plenipotentiary. In 1975 Kostyantyn Gryshchenko graduated with honors from Moscow State Institute of International Relations with a specialty in international law. Besides his native Ukrainian and Russian languages he is fluent in French. 1976–1980 –served as staff member of the United Nations Secretariat in New York City.1981–1991 –held various diplomatic positions in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union Kostyantyn Gryshchenko returned to Kyiv where he took up work in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of newly independent Ukraine. 1995–1998 –Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine with responsibilities covering arms control and disarmament, European security, the Commonwealth of Independent States, Russian Federation, Middle East, Asia and the Pacific region. He played a key role in negotiating a number of crucial international agreements aimed at strengthening the independence, territorial integrity and security of Ukraine.
During this time Kostyantyn Gryshchenko initiated a large scale program for professional diplomatic training for newly recruited MFA personnel in a number of the EU countries and in the United States. Many of the graduates became leading diplomats in the Ukrainian diplomatic service. 1998–2000 – Head of Mission of Ukraine to NATO, Ambassador of Ukraine to Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, Permanent Representative to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in The Hague. 2000–2003 – Ambassador of Ukraine to the United States and in 2001 non-resident Ambassador to Antigua and Barbuda. 2003–2005 – Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. His policy priorities as Foreign Minister were European integration, strengthening ties with Washington and enhancing pragmatic cooperation with Russia. In 2003 he publicly opposed joining the Common Economic Space with Russia and Belarus. He, along with other members of the Cabinet, argued that membership in this institution would contradict the Ukrainian Constitution.
During the Ukrainian-Russian Tuzla crisis in 2003 he engaged all diplomatic tools at his disposal to counter Moscow's attempts to challenge Ukraine's territorial integrity and return to normal relations with Russian Federation.2006–2007 –Foreign Policy Adviser to Prime Minister of Ukraine. After snap parliamentary elections in 2007 Kostyantyn Gryshchenko joined the Opposition Government as a shadow Minister of Foreign Affairs. With deepening political crisis in the Ukrainian-Russian relations President Victor Yushchenko in April 2008 appointed Kostyantyn Gryshchenko First Deputy Secretary of Ukraine's National Security and Defense Council and in July – Ambassador to the Russian Federation. Kostyantyn Gryshchenko continued serving as First Deputy Secretary of the NSDC giving Ukraine's Ambassador to Russia a special status that signaled the concern of the senior leadership over Ukrainian-Russian relations; the main credo of the Ukrainian Ambassador in Moscow was expressed in his program article "Ukraine–Russia: the person and the state" in the Ukrainian weekly magazine "Zerkalo Nedeli": «…the source of many conflicts and contradictions in the Ukrainian-Russian relationshipis rooted in one basic fact: in the years after collapse of the USSR, while sharing many common interests, we drifted apart on how we perceive our future social development and our values.
Acceptance of these objective differences has to hold both Moscow and Kyiv and prevent us from attempts to teach each other, to impose on our neighbor our own model as only true one». During a TV duel with Dmitry Rogozin Kostyantyn Gryshchenko stated that in Russia unacceptable ideology for developing normal Ukrainian-Russian relations is being imposed on society, he insisted that contentious issues need to be discussed in order to be resolved and thereafter agreements have to be implemented, rather than aggravating them thus creating basis for future conflicts. As to the prospect of Ukraine's accession to NATO he replied that there is no realistic chance of it happening in foreseeable future, but, in any case, the direction of foreign policy of Ukraine will be decided o
Ignjat Granitz was a Croatian Jewish industrialist and publisher. Granitz was born in Hungary, to a poor peasant Jewish family. In 1864, Granitz finished teacher training college in Győr, he attended rabbinical school in Bratislava, but soon quit the education because of his liberal views. Granitz worked as a teacher in Sárvár, in Nagykanizsa. In Nagykanizsa he meet his future wife Paula, with whom he moved to Zagreb in 1869. In 1870, Granitz married Paula, together they had four daughters, Zlata, Štefanija and Janka. Olga and Zlata married two Jewish brothers and Rikard Schulz. "Granitz house" was a three story house, built for the Granitz family in 1886 by architect Hermann Bollé. Granitz and his family were philanthropists as they aided poor and needy, organizing charity fundraisers, he was an active member of the Israelites Zagreb community. Granitz was buried at the Mirogoj Cemetery, his wife died in 1917. The Granitz family lived in the "Granitz house" until the Nazi occupation of Zagreb and Independent State of Croatia establishment in 1941.
Independent State of Croatia regime seized all the assets of the Granitz family, including their house. His daughter Olga was killed on the street amid Zagreb by unknown Ustaša. Second daughter Zlata killed herself. Third daughter Štefanija survived the war hiding in Netherlands, fourth daughter Janka was arrested by Ustaše and freed by her son, Pavao Vuk-Pavlović, former students. Granitz's grandchildren, sons in law and most family members had been killed during the Holocaust. After the war, in the newly established SFR Yugoslavia, Granitz properties were not returned to the surviving members of his family. In Zagreb, where he moved from Hungary, Granitz meet his future business partner Lavoslav Hartman. At first, Granitz was employed at Hartman printing office, in 1878 they established the joint company "Hartman & Granitz". After Hartmans death and his new business partner, Vilim Schwartz, paid out the Hartman widow, in 1882 they formed the new company called "Ignjat Granitz & Comp.". Skillfully using social connections and trading skills, Granitz expanded his business with new and modern printing machines.
In 1883, "Ignjat Granitz & Comp." became the first Croatian printer of school books in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. "Ignjat Granitz & Comp." published "Agramer Zeitung", newspapers on German published from 1848 to 1912. Granitz was among the founders of the paper factory "Zagrebačka tvornica papira" in 1895, member of the "Croatian-Slavonian commercial bank", member of the "Commercial Chamber" and one of founding members of the "Industrialists Union" of Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In life, he was named the honorary life Vice President of the "Industrialists Union", he was the member of the Freemasonry lodge "Ljubav bližnjemu" and the city representative in the Zagreb City Assembly. Granitz was close friend of politician, Izidor Kršnjavi. After his death, "Ignjat Granitz & Comp." was merged with the printing house of Ivan Novak, to found the Graphic and Publishing Bureau "Tipografija d.d." which published the papers "Jutarnji list", "Večer", "Obzor" and "Svijet". In 1959, "Tipografija d.d." was merged with "Narodni list", to found the newspaper house "Vjesnik"
The Taolaizhao–Shulan railway, named the Taoshu Railway, is a 117 km single-track railway line in Northeast China between Taolaizhao and Shulan. At Taolaizhao it connects to the Jingha Railway, at Shulan it connects to the Labin Railway and the Jishu Railway; the Taolaizhao–Yushu section of the line was built in 1943 by the Manchukuo National Railway as the Taoyu Line. It was renamed Taoyu Railway by China Railway, in 2009 it was extended from Yushu to Shulan to connect with the Labin Railway and the Jishu Railway, it received its current name at that time
William Lee Austin was an American football player and coach in the National Football League. He played as a lineman for the New York Giants for seven seasons and was the head coach of the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Washington Redskins in 1970. Born in San Pedro, Austin was raised in Oregon and graduated from Woodburn High School, south of Portland, he played college football at Oregon State College in Corvallis, earning All-Coast honors as a tackle in 1948 and played in the 1949 East–West Shrine Game. He was a member of Phi Delta Theta fraternity. Selected in the thirteenth round of the 1949 NFL draft with the 126th overall pick, Austin played seven seasons with the Giants, including the 1956 title year, he missed the 1951 and 1952 seasons due to military service in the U. S. Army, stationed in San Francisco and Tokyo, he retired after the 1957 season. Austin began his coaching career at Wichita University for a season in 1958 joined first-year head coach Vince Lombardi as offensive line coach for the Green Bay Packers in 1959.
Lombardi was the offensive coordinator of the Giants for the previous five seasons, including the 1956 championship year. Austin coached in Green Bay for six seasons, mentoring pulling guards Jerry Kramer and Fuzzy Thurston, hall of famers Forrest Gregg and Jim Ringo; the Packers played in the NFL championship game for three consecutive seasons, with wins in 1961 and 1962. Seeking a warmer climate for his wife's health, Austin left Green Bay after the 1964 season for the Los Angeles Rams for a season as an assistant became head coach of the Pittsburgh Steelers at age 37 in January 1966, with a recommendation by Lombardi, he failed to produce a winning season in three seasons, finishing 11–28–3, was fired after the 1968 season, succeeded by Chuck Noll. Austin rejoined Lombardi in Washington as an assistant in 1969 took over as interim head coach when Lombardi died of cancer before the 1970 season on September 3. Dismissed by telephone after that 6–8 season, he returned to his role as an assistant coach in the NFL for the remainder of his career, including a stint as offensive line coach for the Giants in the early 1980s.
Austin was inducted into the Oregon Sports Hall of Fame in 1982, retired to Las Vegas in 1985. He died at age 84 at his home in Las Vegas in 2013. Note: Tie games were not counted in the standings until 1972. Career statistics and player information from NFL.com · Pro-Football-Reference · Bill Austin at Find a Grave