Debian is a Unix-like operating system consisting of free software. Ian Murdock started the Debian Project on August 16, 1993. Debian 0.01 was released on September 15, 1993, the first stable version, 1.1, was released on June 17, 1996. The Debian stable branch is the most popular edition for personal computers and network servers, is used as the basis for many other distributions. Debian is one of the earliest operating systems based on the Linux kernel; the project's work is carried out over the Internet by a team of volunteers guided by the Debian Project Leader and three foundational documents: the Debian Social Contract, the Debian Constitution, the Debian Free Software Guidelines. New distributions are updated continually, the next candidate is released after a time-based freeze. Debian has been developed and distributed according to the principles of the GNU Project, this drew the support of the Free Software Foundation which sponsored the project from November 1994 to November 1995; when the sponsorship ended, the Debian Project formed the nonprofit Software in the Public Interest to continue financially supporting development.
Debian has access to online repositories that contain over 51,000 packages Debian contains only free software, but non-free software can be downloaded and installed from the Debian repositories. Debian includes popular free programs such as LibreOffice, Firefox web browser, Evolution mail, K3b disc burner, VLC media player, GIMP image editor, Evince document viewer. Debian is a popular choice for servers, for example as the operating system component of a LAMP stack. Debian supports Linux having offered kFreeBSD for version 7 but not 8, GNU Hurd unofficially. GNU/kFreeBSD was released as a technology preview for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, lacked the amount of software available in Debian's Linux distribution. Official support for kFreeBSD was removed for version 8, which did not provide a kFreeBSD-based distribution. Several flavors of the Linux kernel exist for each port. For example, the i386 port has flavors for IA-32 PCs supporting Physical Address Extension and real-time computing, for older PCs, for x86-64 PCs.
The Linux kernel does not contain firmware without sources, although such firmware is available in non-free packages and alternative installation media. Debian offers CD images built for Xfce, the default desktop on CD, DVD images for GNOME, KDE and others. MATE is supported, while Cinnamon support was added with Debian 8.0 Jessie. Less common window managers such as Enlightenment, Fluxbox, IceWM, Window Maker and others are available; the default desktop environment of version 7.0 Wheezy was temporarily switched to Xfce, because GNOME 3 did not fit on the first CD of the set. The default for the version 8.0 Jessie was changed again to Xfce in November 2013, back to GNOME in September 2014. Several parts of Debian are translated into languages other than American English, including package descriptions, configuration messages and the website; the level of software localization depends on the language, ranging from the supported German and French to the hardly translated Creek and Samoan. The installer is available in 73 languages.
Debian offers CD images for installation that can be downloaded using BitTorrent or jigdo. Physical disks can be bought from retailers; the full sets are made up of several discs, but only the first disc is required for installation, as the installer can retrieve software not contained in the first disc image from online repositories. Debian offers different network installation methods. A minimal install of Debian is available via the netinst CD, whereby Debian is installed with just a base and added software can be downloaded from the Internet. Another option is to boot the installer from the network. Installation images can be used to create a bootable USB drive; the default bootstrap loader is GNU GRUB version 2, though the package name is grub, while version 1 was renamed to grub-legacy. This conflicts with e.g. Fedora, where grub version 2 is named grub2; the default desktop may be chosen from the DVD boot menu among GNOME, KDE Plasma, Xfce and LXDE, from special disc 1 CDs. Debian releases live install images for CDs, DVDs and USB thumb drives, for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, with a choice of desktop environments.
These Debian Live images allow users to boot from removable media and run Debian without affecting the contents of their computer. A full install of Debian to the computer's hard drive can be initiated from the live image environment. Personalized images can be built with the live-build tool for discs, USB drives and for network booting purposes. Debian was first announced on August 16, 1993, by Ian Murdock, who called the system "the Debian Linux Release"; the word "Debian" was formed as a portmanteau of the first name of his then-girlfriend Debra Lynn and his own first name. Before Debian's release, the Softlanding Linux System had been a popular Linux distribution and the basis for Slackware; the perceived poor maintenance and prevalence of bugs in SLS motivated Murdock to launch a new distribution. Debian 0.01, released on September 15, 1993, was the first of several internal releases. Version 0.90 was the first public release, providing support through mailing lists hosted at Pixar. The release included the Debian Linux Manifesto, outlining Murdock's view for the new operating system.
In it he called for the creation of a distribution to be maintained in the spirit of Linux and GNU. The Debian project released the 0.9x versions in 1994 and 1995. During this time it was sponso
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people via the Internet. Crowdfunding is a form of alternative finance. In 2015, over US$34 billion was raised worldwide by crowdfunding. Although similar concepts can be executed through mail-order subscriptions, benefit events, other methods, the term crowdfunding refers to Internet-mediated registries; this modern crowdfunding model is based on three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea or project to be funded, individuals or groups who support the idea, a moderating organization that brings the parties together to launch the idea. Crowdfunding has been used to fund a wide range of for-profit, entrepreneurial ventures such as artistic and creative projects, medical expenses and community-oriented social entrepreneurship projects, it has been criticised for funding quackery costly and fraudulent cancer treatments. Crowdfunding has a long history with several roots.
Books have been crowdfunded for centuries: authors and publishers would advertise book projects in praenumeration or subscription schemes. The book would be written and published if enough subscribers signaled their readiness to buy the book once it was out; the subscription business model is not crowdfunding, since the actual flow of money only begins with the arrival of the product. The list of subscribers has, the power to create the necessary confidence among investors, needed to risk the publication. War bonds are theoretically a form of crowdfunding military conflicts. London's mercantile community saved the Bank of England in the 1730s when customers demanded their pounds to be converted into gold - they supported the currency until confidence in the pound was restored, thus crowdfunded their own money. A clearer case of modern crowdfunding is Auguste Comte's scheme to issue notes for the public support of his further work as a philosopher; the "Première Circulaire Annuelle adressée par l'auteur du Système de Philosophie Positive" was published on 14 March 1850, several of these notes and with sums have survived.
The cooperative movement of the 19th and 20th centuries is a broader precursor. It generated collective groups, such as community or interest-based groups, pooling subscribed funds to develop new concepts and means of distribution and production in rural areas of Western Europe and North America. In 1885, when government sources failed to provide funding to build a monumental base for the Statue of Liberty, a newspaper-led campaign attracted small donations from 160,000 donors. Crowdfunding on the internet first gained popular and mainstream use in the arts and music communities; the first noteworthy instance of online crowdfunding in the music industry was in 1997, when fans underwrote an entire U. S. tour for the British rock band Marillion, raising US$60,000 in donations by means of a fan-based Internet campaign. They subsequently used this method to fund their studio albums. In the film industry, independent writer/director Mark Tapio Kines designed a website in 1997 for his then-unfinished first feature film Foreign Correspondents.
By early 1999, he had raised more than US$125,000 on the Internet from at least 25 fans, providing him with the funds to complete his film. In 2002, the "Free Blender" campaign was an early software crowdfunding precursor; the campaign aimed for open-sourcing the Blender 3D computer graphics software by collecting €100,000 from the community while offering additional benefits for donating members. The first company to engage in this business model was the U. S. website ArtistShare. As the model matured, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as Kiva, IndieGoGo, Kickstarter, GoFundMe, YouCaring; the phenomenon of crowdfunding is older than the term "crowdfunding". According to wordspy.com, the earliest recorded use of the word was in August 2006. The Crowdfunding Centre's May 2014 report identified two primary types of crowdfunding: Rewards crowdfunding: entrepreneurs presell a product or service to launch a business concept without incurring debt or sacrificing equity/shares.
Equity crowdfunding: the backer receives shares of a company in its early stages, in exchange for the money pledged. Reward-based crowdfunding has been used for a wide range of purposes, including motion picture promotion, free software development, inventions development, scientific research, civic projects. Many characteristics of rewards-based crowdfunding called non-equity crowdfunding, have been identified by research studies. In rewards-based crowdfunding, funding does not rely on location; the distance between creators and investors on Sellaband was about 3,000 miles when the platform introduced royalty sharing. The funding for these projects is distributed unevenly, with a few projects accounting for the majority of overall funding. Additionally, funding increases as a project nears its goal, encouraging what is called "herding behavior". Research shows that friends and family account for a large, or majority, portion of early fundraising; this capital may encourage subsequent funders to invest in the project.
While funding does not depend on location, observation shows that funding is tied to the locations of traditional financing options. In reward-based crowdfunding, funders are too hopeful about project returns and must revise expectations when returns are not met. Equity crowdfunding is the collective effort of individuals to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations through the provision of finance in the form of equity. In the United States, legislation, m
Lawrence Rosen (attorney)
Lawrence Rosen is an attorney and computer specialist. He is a founding partner of Rosenlaw & Einschlag, a Californian technology law firm, specializing in intellectual property protection and business transactions for technology companies, he served as general counsel and secretary of the Open Source Initiative, participates in open source foundations and projects, such as the Apache Software Foundation, Python Software Foundation, the Free Standards Group. Rosen was a lecturer in Law at Stanford Law School in Spring 2006, he is the author of the Open Software License. He is a member of the board of the Open Web Foundation. Rosen was a director of the Apache Software Foundation from July 2011 to March 2012. Lawrence Rosen's page at Rosenlaw & Einschlag
Freemium, a portmanteau of the words "free" and "premium", is a pricing strategy by which a product or service is provided free of charge, but money is charged for additional features, services, or virtual or physical goods. The business model has been in use by the software industry since the 1980s as a licensing scheme. A subset of this model used by the video game industry is called free-to-play; the business model has been in use for software since the 1980s. This is in a time-limited or feature-limited version to promote a paid-for full version; the model is suited to software as the cost of distribution is negligible. Thus little is lost by giving away free software licenses as long as significant cannibalization is avoided; the term freemium to describe this model appears to have been created only much in response to a 2006 blog post by venture capitalist Fred Wilson summarizing the model:Give your service away for free ad supported but maybe not, acquire a lot of customers efficiently through word of mouth, referral networks, organic search marketing, etc. offer premium priced value added services or an enhanced version of your service to your customer base.
Jarid Lukin of Alacra, one of Wilson's portfolio companies suggested the term "freemium" for this model. In 2009, Chris Anderson published the book Free, which examines the popularity of this business model; as well as for traditional software and services, it is now often used by Web 2.0 and open source companies. In 2014, Eric Seufert published the book Freemium Economics, which attempts to deconstruct the economic principles of the freemium model and prescribe a framework for implementing them into software products; the freemium model is related to tiered services. It has become a popular model, with notable examples including LinkedIn, in the form of a "soft" paywall, such as those employed by The New York Times and by Press+. A freemium model is sometimes used to build a consumer base when the marginal cost of producing extra units is low. In the US, in the Christian 501 3 religious education sector, Christian Leaders Institute uses the freemium model to train Christian leaders. CLI offers free training to individuals, who receive "unofficial" certificates and degrees at no charge.
The infrastructure cost to provide this training and these "unofficial" awards is supported by donations to the mission, which receive tax deductions in the United States. If CLI students want official awards, they are required to make minimal "non-tax deductible" donations that cover the costs of individual processing and delivery. Other examples include free-to-play games -- video games. Video game publishers of free-to-play games rely on other means to generate revenue – such as optional in-game virtual items that can be purchased by players to enhance game-play or aesthetics. Ways in which the product or service may be restricted in the free version include: Limited features: A free video chat client may not include three-way video calling. Most free-to-play games fall into this category, as they offer virtual items that are either impossible or slow to purchase with in-game currency but can be purchased with real-world money. Limited capacity: For example, SQL Server Express is restricted to databases of 10GB or less.
Limited use license: For example, most Autodesk or Microsoft software products with full features are free for students with an educational license. Some apps, like CCleaner, are free for personal use only. Limited use time: Most free-to-play games permit the user to play the game consecutively for a limited number of levels or turns. Limited support: Priority or real-time technical support may not be available for non-paying users. For example, Comodo offers all its software products free of charge, its premium offerings only add various kinds of technical support. Limited or no access to online services that are only available by purchasing periodic subscriptionsSome software and services make all of the features available for free for a trial period and at the end of that period revert to operating as a feature-limited free version; the user can unlock the premium features on payment of a license fee, as per the freemium model. Some businesses use a variation of the model known as "open core", in which the unsupported, feature-limited free version is open-source software, but versions with additional features and official support are commercial software.
In June 2011, PC World reported that traditional anti-virus software had started to lose market share to freemium anti-virus products. By September 2012, all but two of the 50 highest-grossing apps in the Games section of Apple's iTunes App Store supported in-app purchases, leading Wired to conclude that game developers were now required to choose between including such purchases or foregoing a substantial revenue stream. Beginning in 2013, the digital distribution platform Steam began to add numerous Free to play and Early Access games to its library, many of which utilized Freemium marketing for their in-game economies. Due to criticism that the multiplayer games falling under this were pay-to-win in nature or were low-quality and never finished development, Valve Corporation has since added stricter rules to its Early Access and Free-to-play policies. Freemium games have come under criticism from critics. Many are labelled with the derogatory term Pay2Win, a term which criticizes freemium games for giving an
United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a U. S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central District of California Eastern District of California Northern District of California Southern District of California District of Hawaii District of Idaho District of Montana District of Nevada District of Oregon Eastern District of Washington Western District of WashingtonIt has appellate jurisdiction over the following territorial courts: District of Guam District of the Northern Mariana IslandsHeadquartered in San Francisco, the Ninth Circuit is by far the largest of the thirteen courts of appeals, with 29 active judgeships; the court's regular meeting places are Seattle at the William Kenzo Nakamura United States Courthouse, Portland at the Pioneer Courthouse, San Francisco at the James R. Browning U. S. Court of Appeals Building, Pasadena at the Richard H. Chambers U. S. Court of Appeals.
Panels of the court travel to hear cases in other locations within the circuit. Although the judges travel around the circuit, the court arranges its hearings so that cases from the northern region of the circuit are heard in Seattle or Portland, cases from southern California are heard in Pasadena, cases from northern California, Nevada and Hawaii are heard in San Francisco. For lawyers who must come and present their cases to the court in person, this administrative grouping of cases helps to reduce the time and cost of travel; the large size of the current court is because both the population of the western states and the geographic jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit have increased since the U. S. Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in 1891; the court was granted appellate jurisdiction over federal district courts in California, Montana, Nevada and Washington. As new states and territories were added to the federal judicial hierarchy in the twentieth century, many of those in the West were placed in the Ninth Circuit: the newly acquired Territory of Hawaii in 1900, Arizona upon its admission to the Union in 1912, the Territory of Alaska in 1948, Guam in 1951, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1977.
The Ninth Circuit had jurisdiction over certain American interests in China, in that it had jurisdiction over appeals from the United States Court for China during the existence of that court from 1906 through 1943. However, the Philippines were never under the Ninth Circuit's jurisdiction. Congress never created a federal district court in the Philippines from which the Ninth Circuit could hear appeals. Instead, appeals from the Supreme Court of the Philippines were taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1979, the Ninth Circuit became the first federal judicial circuit to set up a Bankruptcy Appellate Panel as authorized by the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978; the cultural and political jurisdiction of the Ninth Circuit is just as varied as the land within its geographical borders. In a dissenting opinion in a rights of publicity case involving the Wheel of Fortune star Vanna White, Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski sardonically noted that "or better or worse, we are the Court of Appeals for the Hollywood Circuit."
Judges from more remote parts of the circuit note the contrast between legal issues confronted by populous states such as California and those confronted by rural states such as Alaska, Idaho and Nevada. Judge Andrew J. Kleinfeld, who maintains his judicial chambers in Fairbanks, wrote in a letter in 1998: "Much federal law is not national in scope.... It is easy to make a mistake construing these laws when unfamiliar with them, as we are, or not interpreting them as we never do." Some argue. From 1999 to 2008, of the 0.151% of Ninth Circuit Court rulings that were reviewed by the Supreme Court, 20% were affirmed, 19% were vacated, 61% were reversed. From 2010 to 2015, of the cases it accepted to review, the Supreme Court reversed around 79 percent of the cases from the Ninth Circuit, ranking its reversal rate third among the circuits; some argue the court's high percentage of reversals is illusory, resulting from the circuit hearing more cases than the other circuits. This results in the Supreme Court reviewing a smaller proportion of its cases, letting stand the vast majority of its cases.
Some argue. Chief among these is the Ninth Circuit's unique rules concerning the composition of an en banc court. In other circuits, en banc courts are composed of all active circuit judges, plus any senior judges who took part in the original panel decision. By contrast, in the Ninth Circuit it is impractical for 29 or more judges to take part in a single oral argument and deliberate on a decision en masse; the court thus provides for a limited en banc review of a randomly selected 11 judge panel. This means that en banc reviews may not reflect the views of the majority of the court and indeed may not include any of the three judges involved in the decision being reviewed in the first place; the result, according to detractors, is a high risk of intracircuit conflicts of law where different groupings of judges end up delivering contradictory opinions. That is said to cause uncertainty within the bar. However, en banc review is a relatively