The BAR 007 was a Formula One car used by British American Racing in the 2005 Formula One season. The car was driven by Jenson Button and Takuma Sato, although Sato was replaced by Anthony Davidson for the Malaysian Grand Prix as he had the flu; the team's test driver was Enrique Bernoldi along with Davidson. The team had a poor start to the season, were involved in controversy over the minimum weight of their cars, were disqualified from one race, banned from another two; the team failed to score a point until the French Grand Prix. However, the team's fortunes were turning and Jenson Button scored points in all of the last 10 races, including two podium finishes. Takuma Sato only scored one point in the entire season, was subsequently sacked from the team; the 007 was a clear evolution of the BAR 006, successful for the team, leading to their second place in the 2004 championship behind Ferrari. The new 007 car was a much tighter design and overall it was smaller than the previous 006. BAR designers managed to save significant weight over the 006 car, despite greater safety testing being required for the 2005 season.
The engine and gearbox were not left untouched either. For the 2005 season, engines had to last 2 races. Honda created a brand new V10 unit, smaller and had a better centre of gravity than the 2004 engine; the gearbox was an evolution of the 2004 unit, with some modifications to allow it to fit in better with the new tight design. Halfway through the 2005 season, BAR introduced a multi profile front wing. Both BAR-Hondas were disqualified from the San Marino Grand Prix after it was found the cars could run below the minimum weight, stated by the FIA regulations of 605 kg. BAR disagreed with the report, claiming the cars could not run with less than 6 kg of fuel, therefore that pushed them over the minimum weight, they claimed that they thought it was during race weight the rules meant, not in post-race scrutineering. The FIA decided banning them from two races, including the Monaco Grand Prix. Jenson Button acted as a summariser for ITV F1 in the Monaco Grand Prix. BAR were going to contest the disqualification, but changed their minds.
Max Mosley wanted to have the team disqualified from the entire season. The 007 was set to be the final BAR car. At the end of the 2005 season, the engine supplier since 2000, secured 100% team ownership, purchasing it from British American Tobacco, the long term sponsor of the team; the cars would remain with the BAT sponsorship throughout 2006. In July 2006, the car was used to achieve a top speed of 397.481 km/h at the Bonneville Salt Flats
Honda Indy Toronto
The Honda Indy Toronto is an annual IndyCar Series race, held in Toronto, Canada. Known as the Molson Indy Toronto, it was a Champ Car World Series race held annually from 1986 to 2007; the track has 11 turns, is a 2.874-kilometre street circuit, is located at Exhibition Place. It is IndyCar's second-longest running street race, only behind the Grand Prix of Long Beach and the fourth oldest race on the current schedule in terms of number of races run; the Toronto Indy is one of seven Canadian circuits to have held an IndyCar race, the others being Canadian Tire Motorsport Park, Mont-Tremblant, Montreal and Edmonton. In 1967, the first Indy race held in Canada was the Telegram Trophy 200, held at Mosport Park in Bowmanville, Ontario as part of the USAC Championship Car season; the race was won by Bobby Unser for his first career Indy victory. The Telegram Trophy 200 was again held in 1968 at Mosport, this time won by Dan Gurney. After a nine-year absence, IndyCars returned to the Toronto area for the Molson Diamond Indy at Mosport Park won by A. J. Foyt in 1977 and Danny Ongais in 1978.
In the spring of 1985, Molson Breweries in-house promotional division, Molstar Sports & Entertainment proposed to run a CART sanctioned IndyCar race at Exhibition Place in Toronto. Toronto City Council approved the race by two votes in July 1985 for the race to be held the following year; the first Molson Indy Toronto was won by Bobby Rahal on July 20, 1986. The event became Canada's second largest annual sporting event, eclipsed only by the Canadian Grand Prix in Montreal, with three-day attendance figures around 170,000 people. In the 1996 race, American driver Jeff Krosnoff was killed in a crash with 4 laps remaining. In that same crash, volunteer corner marshal Gary Avrin was killed, marshal Barbara Johnston received injuries in the crash. Adrián Fernández won the race; the name of the race was changed in 2006 from the Molson Indy Toronto to the Molson Grand Prix of Toronto after it was purchased by the Champ Car World Series from Molstar Sports and Entertainment. The name was changed to distance Champ Car from the rival Indy Racing League, which had gained the exclusive right to use the "Indy" name after 2002.
In 2007, after Molson dropped their title sponsorship to the race, Steelback Brewery signed a multi-year, multimillion-dollar deal to become the event’s title sponsor, renaming it the Steelback Grand Prix of Toronto. This marked the first title sponsorship change since the event started in 1986; the unification of Champ Car and the Indy Racing League was announced on February 22, 2008, the Grand Prix of Toronto's future was left in doubt. After attempts were made to preserve the race for 2008, it was confirmed on March 5, 2008, that the race had been cancelled. On May 15, 2008, Andretti Green Racing purchased the assets of the former Grand Prix of Toronto. On July 30, 2008, it was confirmed that the race would return to Toronto on July 12, 2009. On September 18, 2008, Andretti Green Racing announced that it had signed a multi-year agreement with Honda Canada Inc. for the title sponsorship of the race, henceforth named from 2009 onward as the Honda Indy Toronto. In 2016, the track layout was modified to accommodate the newly constructed Hotel X Toronto.
Under the new layout, the pit lane was moved to the opposite side of the race course, starting at the outside of turn 9 and exiting just after turn 11. This, in turn, made turn 11 a sharper turn. Michael Andretti is the all-time race win leader with seven victories. 1967: Run in two heats of 98 miles each. Second race stopped after 6 laps due to rain. 1968: Run in two heats of 98 miles each. 1990: Race shortened due to rain. 1996: Race ended with 1 1/2 laps remaining because of fatal crash on Lake Shore Boulevard. Driver Jeff Krosnoff and a track marshal were killed and the race was stopped near the impact point a lap later. 2014: First race was postponed from Saturday to Sunday morning because of rain. The second planned race is still scheduled for Sunday afternoon; because of this, both races were shortened from 85 laps to 65 to compensate for the delay. The second race however was further shortened due to time limit. 2015: Due to Toronto hosting the 2015 Pan American and Parapan American Games, the race was moved to June to avoid conflicting with the games.
NTT IndyCar Series Indy Lights Presented by Cooper Tires Canadian Touring Car Championship U. S. F2000 National Championship NASCAR Pinty's Series IMSA GT3 Cup Challenge Canada Pro Mazda Presented by Cooper Tires A variety of racing series have run as support series on the race weekend; these include: Champ Car World Series Atlantic Championship Barber Dodge Pro Series Pro Mazda Championship CASCAR Super Series Trans-Am Series Ferrari Challenge North American Touring Car Championship Motorola Cup North American Fran Am 2000 Pro Championship Canadian Formula Ford Championship Pirelli World Challenge Player's Ltd./GM Motorsport series Honda Michelin Challenge Series F1600 Super Series SPEED Energy Stadium Super Trucks List of Indycar races List of auto racing tracks in Canada Annual events in Toronto Official website Map and circuit history at RacingCircuits.info 2013 IndyCar Results Page
American open-wheel car racing
American open-wheel car racing known as Indy car racing, is a category of professional-level automobile racing in the United States and North America. As of 2019, the top-level American open-wheel racing championship is sanctioned by IndyCar. Competitive events for professional-level, single-seat open-wheel race cars have been conducted under the auspices of several different sanctioning bodies since 1902. A season-long, points-based, National Championship of drivers has been recognized in 1905, 1916, since 1920; the Indianapolis 500, which debuted in 1911, is the premier event of Indy car racing. The open-wheeled, single-seater cars have been similar to those in Formula One, though there are important differences; the fame of the Indianapolis 500 leads many to colloquially refer to the cars that compete on the American Championship circuit as "Indy cars." This form of racing has experienced high levels of popularity over the years in the post-World War II time frame. The "golden era" of the 1950s was followed by a decade of transition and innovation in the 1960s, which included increased international participation.
The sport experienced considerable growth and exposure during the rising popularity of the CART PPG Indy Car World Series in the 1980s and early 1990s. Two organizational disputes, in 1979 and 1996, led to a "split" that divided the participants among two separate sanctioning bodies. However, an official unification took place in 2008 that brought the sport back together under one single sanctioning body; the national championship was sanctioned by the Contest Board of the American Automobile Association. The AAA first sanctioned automobile motorsports events in 1902. At first it used the rules of the Automobile Club of America, but it formed its own rules in 1903, it introduced the first track season championship for racing cars in 1905. Barney Oldfield was the first champion. No official season championship was recognized from 1906–1915, single races were held. Official records regard 1916 as the next contested championship season. Years retroactive titles were named back to 1902; these post factum seasons are considered unofficial and revisionist history by accredited historians.
Racing did not cease in the United States during WWI, but the official national championship was suspended. The Indianapolis 500 itself was voluntarily suspended for 1917–1918 due to the war. In 1920, the championship resumed, despite the difficult economic climate that would follow, ran continuously throughout the Depression. Shortly after Pearl Harbor, all auto racing was suspended during World War II. From 1942 to 1945 no events were contested, banned by the U. S. government on account of rationing. Racing resumed in full in 1946; the 1946 season is unique, in that it included six Champ Car events, 71 "Big Car" races, as organizers were unsure about the availability of cars and participation. AAA ceased participation in auto racing at the end of the 1955 season, it cited a series of high-profile fatal accidents, namely Bill Vukovich at Indianapolis, the Le Mans disaster. Through 1922 and again from 1930 to 1937, it was commonplace for the cars to be two-seaters, as opposed to the aforementioned standard single-seat form.
The driver would be accompanied by a riding mechanic. The national championship was taken over by the United States Auto Club, a new sanctioning body formed by the then-owner of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Tony Hulman. Championship racing continued to grow in popularity in a stabilized environment for over two decades, with the two traditional disciplines of paved oval tracks and dirt oval tracks. During the 1950s, front-engined "roadsters" became the dominant cars on the paved oval tracks, while "upright" Champ Dirt Cars continued to dominate on dirt tracks. In the 1960s, drivers and team owners with road racing backgrounds, both American and foreign, began creeping into the series and the paved oval track cars evolved from front-engine "roadsters" to rear-engine formula-style racers. Technology and expense climbed at a rapid rate; the schedule continued to be dominated by oval tracks, but a few road course races were added to assuage the newcomers. Dirt tracks were dropped from the national championship after 1970.
During the 1970s, the increasing costs began to drive some of the traditional USAC car owners out of the sport. The dominant teams became Penske, Gurney, McLaren, all run by people with road racing backgrounds. There was a growing dissent between these teams and USAC management. Events outside Indianapolis were suffering from low attendance, poor promotion; the Indy 500 was televised on a same day tape delayed basis on ABC, most of the other races had little or no coverage on television. Towards the end of the decade, the growing dissent prompted several car owners to consider creating a new sanctioning body to conduct the races. Meanwhile, two events had a concomitant effect on the situation. Tony Hulman, president of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and founder of USAC, died in the fall of 1977. A few months eight key USAC officials were killed in a plane crash. By the end of 1978, the owners had broken away and founded Championship Auto Racing Teams to wrest control of Championship racing away from USAC.
Championship Auto Racing Teams was formed by most of the existing team owners, with some initial assistance from the SCCA. Therefore, there were two national championships run each by USAC and CART; the Indianapolis 500 remained under USAC sanction. The top teams allied to CART, the CART championship became the more prestigious national championship. USAC
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
An electric vehicle called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include, but are not limited to, road and rail vehicles and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electric spacecraft. EVs first came into existence in the mid-19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for 100 years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types. In the 21st century, EVs saw a resurgence due to technological developments, an increased focus on renewable energy.
A great deal of demand for electric vehicles developed and a small core of do-it-yourself engineers began sharing technical details for doing electric vehicle conversions. Government incentives to increase adoptions were introduced, including in the United States and the European Union. Electric vehicles are expected to increase from 2% of global share in 2016 to 22% in 2030. Electric motive power started in 1827, when Hungarian priest Ányos Jedlik built the first crude but viable electric motor, provided with stator and commutator, the year after he used it to power a tiny car. A few years in 1835, professor Sibrandus Stratingh of the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, built a small-scale electric car, between 1832 and 1839, Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells. Around the same period, early experimental electrical cars were moving on rails, too. American blacksmith and inventor Thomas Davenport built a toy electric locomotive, powered by a primitive electric motor, in 1835.
In 1838, a Scotsman named Robert Davidson built an electric locomotive that attained a speed of four miles per hour. In England a patent was granted in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, similar American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in 1847; the first mass-produced electric vehicles appeared in America in the early 1900s. In 1902, "Studebaker Automobile Company" entered the automotive business with electric vehicles, though it entered the gasoline vehicles market in 1904. However, with the advent of cheap assembly line cars by Ford, electric cars fell to the waysideDue to the limitations of storage batteries at that time, electric cars did not gain much popularity, however electric trains gained immense popularity due to their economies and fast speeds achievable. By the 20th century, electric rail transport became commonplace. Over time their general-purpose commercial use reduced to specialist roles, as platform trucks, forklift trucks, tow tractors and urban delivery vehicles, such as the iconic British milk float.
Electrified trains were used for coal transport, as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the mines. Switzerland's lack of natural fossil resources forced the rapid electrification of their rail network. One of the earliest rechargeable batteries - the nickel-iron battery - was favored by Edison for use in electric cars. EVs were among the earliest automobiles, before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines, electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early 1900s, they were produced by Baker Electric, Columbia Electric, Detroit Electric, others, at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. In fact, in 1900, 28 percent of the cars on the road in the USA were electric. EVs were so popular that President Woodrow Wilson and his secret service agents toured Washington, DC, in their Milburn Electrics, which covered 60–70 mi per charge. A number of developments contributed to decline of electric cars. Improved road infrastructure required a greater range than that offered by electric cars, the discovery of large reserves of petroleum in Texas and California led to the wide availability of affordable gasoline/petrol, making internal combustion powered cars cheaper to operate over long distances.
Internal combustion powered cars became easier to operate thanks to the invention of the electric starter by Charles Kettering in 1912, which eliminated the need of a hand crank for starting a gasoline engine, the noise emitted by ICE cars became more bearable thanks to the use of the muffler, which Hiram Percy Maxim had invented in 1897. As roads were improved outside urban areas electric vehicle range could not compete with the ICE; the initiation of mass production of gasoline-powered vehicles by Henry Ford in 1913 reduced the cost of gasoline cars as compared to electric cars. In the 1930s, National City Lines, a partnership of General Motors and Standard Oil of California purchased many electric tram networks across the country to dismantle them and replace them with GM buses; the partnership was convicted of conspiring to monopolize the sale of equipment and supplies to their subsidiary companies, but were acquitted of conspiring to monopolize the provision of transportation services.
In January 1990, General Motors' President introduced its EV concept two-seater, the "Impact", at the Los Angeles Auto Show. That September, the California Air Resources Board mandated major-automaker sales of EVs, in phases
Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps
The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps is a motor-racing circuit located in Stavelot, Belgium. It is referred to as Spa and is the venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix, the Spa 24 Hours and 1000 km Spa endurance races, it is home to the all-Volkswagen club event, 25 Hours of Spa, run by the Uniroyal Fun Cup. It is one of the most challenging race tracks in the world due to its fast and twisty nature. Spa is a favourite circuit of many racing fans. Despite its name, the circuit is not in Spa but lies in the vicinity of the town of Francorchamps within the boundaries of the municipality of Stavelot, with a part in the boundaries of Malmedy. Designed in 1920 by Jules de Thier and Henri Langlois Van Ophem, the original course used public roads between the Belgian towns of Francorchamps and Stavelot; the track was intended to have hosted its inaugural race in August 1921, but this event had to be cancelled as there was only one entrant. The first car race was held at the circuit in 1922, 1924 saw the first running of the now famous 24 Hours of Francorchamps race.
The circuit was first used for Grand Prix racing in 1925. The original Spa-Francorchamps circuit was a speed course, with drivers managing higher average speeds than on other race tracks. At the time, the Belgians took pride in having a fast circuit, to improve average speeds, in 1939 the former slow uphill U-turn at the bottom of the Eau Rouge creek valley, called the Ancienne Douane, was cut short with a faster sweep straight up the hill, called the Raidillon. At Eau Rouge, southbound traffic was allowed to use the famous uphill corner, while the opposite downhill traffic had to use the old road and U-turn behind the grandstands, rejoining the race track at the bottom of Eau Rouge; the old race track continued through the now-straightened Kemmel curves to the highest part of the track went downhill into Les Combes, a fast banked downhill left-hand corner towards Burnenville, passing this village in a fast right hand sweep. Near Malmedy, the Masta straight began, only interrupted by the Masta Kink between farm houses before arriving at the town of Stavelot.
The track progressed through an uphill straight section with a few bends called La Carriere, going through two high-speed turns before braking hard for the La Source hairpin, that rejoined the downhill start finish section. Spa is located in the Belgian Ardennes countryside, the old circuit was, still is, used as everyday public road, there were houses, electric poles and other obstacles located right next to the track. Before 1970, there were no safety modifications of any kind done to the circuit and the conditions of the circuit were, aside from a few straw bales identical to everyday civilian use. Former Formula One racing driver and team owner Jackie Oliver was quoted as saying "if you went off the road, you didn't know what you were going to hit". Spa-Francorchamps was the fastest road circuit in Europe at the time, it had a reputation for being dangerous and fast – it demanded calmness from drivers, most were frightened of it; the old Spa circuit was unique in that speeds were high with hardly any let-up at all for three to four minutes.
This made it an extraordinarily difficult mental challenge, because most of the corners were taken at more than 180 miles per hour and were not quite flat – every corner was as important as the one before it. If a driver lifted the throttle more than expected whole seconds, not tenths, would be lost; the slightest error of any kind carried multiple harsh consequences, but this worked inversely: huge advantages could be gained if a driver came out of a corner faster. Like the Nürburgring and Le Mans circuits, which ran on public roads, Spa became notorious for fatal accidents, as there were many deaths each year at the ultra-high-speed track. At the 1960 Belgian Grand Prix, two drivers, Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey, were both killed within 15 minutes and Stirling Moss had crashed at Burnenville during practice and was injured; when Armco crash barriers were added to the track in 1970, deaths became less frequent, but the track was still notorious for other factors. The Ardennes forest had unpredictable weather and there were parts where it was raining and the track was wet, other parts where the sun was shining and the track was dry.
This factor was a commonality on long circuits, but the unpredictable weather at Spa, combined with the fact that it was a track with all but one corner being high-speed, made it one of the most dangerous race tracks in the world. As a result, the Formula 1 and motorcycle Grands Prix and 1000km sportscar races saw smaller than usual fields at Spa because most drivers and riders feared the circuit and did not like racing there. Multiple fatalities during the 1973 and 1975 24 Hours of Spa touring car races more or less sealed the old circuit's fate, by 1978, the last year Spa was in its original form, the only major races held there were the Belgian motorcycle Grand Prix and the Spa 24 Hours touring car race. In 1969, the Belgian Grand Prix was boycotted by the F1 drivers because of the extreme danger of Spa. There had been ten car racing fatalities in total at the track in the 1960s, including five in the two years previous
A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses. These vehicles had two or four wheels and were used to carry passengers and/or a load, they were once common worldwide, but they have been replaced by automobiles and other forms of self-propelled transport. A wide variety of arrangements of horses and vehicles have been used, from chariot racing, which involved a small vehicle and four horses abreast, to horsecars or trollies, which used two horses to pull a car, used in cities before electric trams were developed. A two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle is a cart. Four-wheeled vehicles have many names – one for heavy loads is most called a wagon. Light carts and wagons can be pulled by donkeys, ponies or mules. Other smaller animals are used, such as large dogs and goats. Heavy wagons and agricultural implements can be pulled by other large draught animals such as oxen, water buffalo, yaks or camels and elephants. Vehicles pulled by one animal have two shafts.
Two animals in single file are referred to as a tandem arrangement, three as a randem. Vehicles which are pulled by a pair have a pole. Other arrangements are possible, for example, three or more abreast, a wheel pair with a single lead animal, or a wheel pair with three lead animals abreast. Heavy loads sometimes had an additional team behind to slow the vehicle down steep hills. Sometimes at a steep hill with frequent traffic, such a team would be hired to passing wagons to help them up or down the hill. Horse-drawn carriages have been in use for at least 3,500 years. Two-wheeled vehicles are balanced by the distribution of weight of the load over the axle, held level by the animal – this means that the shafts must be fixed rigidly to the vehicle's body. Four-wheeled vehicles remain level on their own, so the shafts or pole are hinged vertically, allowing them to rise and fall with the movement of the animals. A four-wheeled vehicle is steered by the shafts or pole, which are attached to the front axle.
From the 15th century drivers of carts were known as Carmen, in London were represented by the Worshipful Company of Carmen. Ambulance: much the same purpose as the modern sense. Details of the design varied but would be a built and well-sprung, enclosed vehicle with provision for seated casualties and stretchers. Barouche: an elegant, high-slung, open carriage with a seat in the rear of the body and a raised bench at the front for the driver, a servant. Berlin: A four-wheeled covered carriage developed in the 17th century. Brake: Describes several types of vehicles. A large, four-wheeled carriage frame, circa late 19th and early 20th century. Britzka: A long, spacious carriage of four wheels, pulled by two horses. Brougham: A specific, light four-wheeled carriage, circa mid 19th century. Buckboard: A simple four-wheeled wagon, circa early 19th century. Bus: see omnibus As the name implies, a large vehicle; as a horse-drawn vehicle, circa early 19th century. Buggy: a light, four-wheeled carriage driven by its owner.
Cab: a shortening of cabriolet. Joseph Hansom based the design of his public hire vehicle on the cabriolet so the name cab stuck to vehicles for public hire. Cabriolet: Calash or Calèshe: see barouche: A four-wheeled, shallow vehicle with two double seats inside, arranged vis-à-vis, so that the sitters on the front seat faced those on the back seat. Cape cart: A two-wheeled four-seater carriage drawn by two horses and used in South Africa. Cariole: A light, two- or four-wheeled vehicle, open or covered, drawn by a single horse. Carriage: in the late eighteenth century equivalent to the modern word "vehicle", it came to be restricted to "passenger vehicle" and to "private, enclosed passenger vehicle". This last is the sense adopted by the linked article. Carryall: A type of carriage used in the United States in the 19th century, it is a light, four-wheeled vehicle drawn by a single horse and with seats for four or more passengers. Chaise: A light two- or four-wheeled traveling or pleasure carriage, with a folding hood or calash top for one or two people.
Charabanc: A larger wagon pulled by multiple horses. Cidomo: a form of horse-drawn carriage popular in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. Clarence: A closed, four-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle with a projecting glass front and seats for four passengers inside. Coach: A large closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman. Coupé: The horse-drawn carriage equivalent of a modern coupe automobile. Covered wagon: the name given to canvas-topped farm wagons used by North American settlers to move both their families and household goods westward. Varieties of this wagon include the Conestoga prairie schooner. Curricle: A smart, light two-wheeled chaise or "chariot", large enough for the driver and a passenger and drawn by a matched pair of horses. Diligence: a French stagecoach; the 19th-century ones came in three sizes, La petite diligence