Ham is pork that has been preserved through salting, smoking, or wet curing. It was traditionally made only from the leg of swine. Ham is made around the world, including a number of highly coveted regional specialties, such as Westphalian ham, technically a processed meat, ham may refer to a product which has been through mechanical re-forming. The precise nature of meat termed ham is controlled in a number of areas, often by statute, including the United States and European Union. In addition, numerous ham products have specific geographical naming protection, such as Prosciutto di Parma and Prosciutto Toscano PDO in Europe, and Smithfield ham in the US. The preserving of pork leg as ham has a long history, there are claims that the Chinese were the first people to mention the production of cured ham. Larousse Gastronomique claims an origin from Gaul and it was certainly well established by the Roman period, as evidenced by an import trade from Gaul mentioned by Marcus Terentius Varro in his writings.
The modern word ham is derived from the Old English ham or hom meaning the hollow or bend of the knee and it began to refer to the cut of pork derived from the hind leg of a swine around the 15th century. Preservation methods include curing and salting, in many countries the term is now protected by statute, with a specific definition. In addition to the categories, some processing choices can affect legal labeling. However, injecting smoke flavor is not legal grounds for claiming the ham was smoked, hams can only be labeled honey-cured if honey was at least 50% of the sweetener used, is at least 3% of the formula, and has a discernible effect on flavor. So-called lean and extra lean hams must adhere to maximum levels of fat, Ham re-formed from smaller pieces into a larger block has to be labeled in many jurisdictions. Ham is produced by preserving and flavoring raw pork by salting, besides salt, several ingredients may be used to obtain flavoring and preservation, from black pepper to the precious saffron.
Traditional dry cure hams may use only salt as the agent, such as with San Daniele or Parma hams. This process involves cleaning the raw meat, covering it in salt while it is gradually pressed – draining all the blood, in Tuscan Ham different spices and herbs are added to salt during this step. Specific ingredients may be used to flavour and taste during this step. The hams are washed and hung in a dark, temperature-regulated place until dry and it is hung to air for another period of time. Some dry cured hams, such as the Jinhua ham, take approximately 8 to 10 months to complete, most modern dry cure hams use nitrites, which are added along with the salt, although following a similar methodology
The sandwich began as a portable finger food in the Western world, though over time it has become prevalent worldwide. Sandwiches are a type of lunch food, taken to work, school. The bread can be plain, or coated with condiments such as mayonnaise or mustard, to enhance its flavour. As well as being homemade, sandwiches are widely sold in restaurants. There are both savoury sandwiches, such as deli sandwiches, and sweet sandwiches, such as a peanut butter. The sandwich is considered to be the namesake of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, the Wall Street Journal has described it as Britains biggest contribution to gastronomy. The modern concept of a sandwich using slices of bread can arguably be traced to 18th-century Europe, flat breads of only slightly varying kinds have long been used to scoop or wrap small amounts of food en route from platter to mouth throughout Western Asia and northern Africa. From Morocco to Ethiopia to India, bread is baked in flat rounds, during the Middle Ages in Europe, thick slabs of coarse and usually stale bread, called trenchers, were used as plates.
After a meal, the food-soaked trencher was fed to a dog or to beggars at the tables of the wealthy, initially perceived as food that men shared while gaming and drinking at night, the sandwich slowly began appearing in polite society as a late-night meal among the aristocracy. It was at the time that the European-style sandwich finally began to appear outside of Europe. In the United States, the sandwich was first promoted as a meal at supper. By the early 20th century, as became a staple of the American diet. The first written usage of the English word appeared in Edward Gibbons journal, in longhand and it was named after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, an 18th-century English aristocrat. It is said that he ordered his valet to bring him meat tucked between two pieces of bread, and others began to order the same as Sandwich. The rumour in its form appeared in Pierre-Jean Grosleys Londres, translated as A Tour to London in 1772. Before being known as sandwiches, this food combination seems to simply have been known as bread and meat or bread, in the United States, a court in Boston, Massachusetts ruled in 2006 that a sandwich includes at least two slices of bread.
In Spain, where the sandwich is borrowed from the English language. It is otherwise known as a bocadillo, similar usage applies in other Spanish-speaking cultures, such as Mexico, where the word torta is used for a popular variety of roll-type sandwiches
Roast beef is a dish of beef which is roasted in an oven. Essentially prepared as a meal, the leftovers can be and are often served within sandwiches and sometimes are used to make hash. A traditional side dish to roast beef is Yorkshire pudding, Roast beef is a signature national dish of England and holds cultural meaning for the English dating back to the 1731 ballad The Roast Beef of Old England. The dish is so synonymous with England and its cooking methods from the 18th century that the French nickname for the English is les Rosbifs, translucent appearance is nothing to be alarmed about. Some prefer roast beef to be served rare or pink, meaning that the center of the joint is cooked so that it retains a reddish color, others prefer roast beef to be cooked medium or well done. The beef on weck sandwich is a tradition in western New York, Roast beef is sometimes served with horseradish or horseradish sauce. In Denmark it is used in open sandwiches, called smørrebrød. Roasting Beef The Roast Beef of Old England Roast Beef at Wikibook Cookbooks Media related to Roast beef at Wikimedia Commons
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
An hors doeuvre, appetizer, or starter is a small dish served before a meal. Some hors doeuvres are served cold, others hot, Hors doeuvres may be served at the dinner table as a part of the meal, or they may be served before seating. Formerly, hors doeuvres were served between courses, typically smaller than a main dish, it is often designed to be eaten by hand. Hors doeuvre in French means outside the work—that is, not part of the set of courses in a meal. Appetizer is a synonym for hors doeuvre, starter is sometimes used to denote an hors doeuvre, sometimes to denote more substantial courses, known in Europe and North America as entrées. A small number of historians believe that the tradition may have begun in Russia. However, it may be that the custom originated in China, possibly coming through Steppes, into Russia, France, the tradition may have reached Italy and the Balkan nations through Russia or Persia. Many national customs are related, including the Swedish smörgåsbord, Russian zakuska, Lebanese mezze, during the Roman Period the meal practice was to have two main courses which were supplemented before the meal with small amounts of fish, cheeses and even stuffed dormice.
These would be served at the start of the known as either gustatio or promulsis. The Greeks called the appetizer course propoma, during the Middle Ages formal French meals were served with entremets between the serving of plates. These secondary dishes could be either actual food dishes, or elaborate displays, in the 14th century, recipes for entremets were mostly made with meat, fish and vegetables. Along with this came elaborate silver and ceramic table displays as well as pièces montées, the entremets were placed between the other dishes within the main work of the meal. At about this time in the 17th century, smaller dishes began to be served by being placed outside the work of symmetrically placed dishes. These were known as hors doeuvre, Hors doeuvres were originally served as a canapé of small toasted bread with a savoury topping before a meal. In the French publication Les plaisirs de la table, Edouard Nignon stated that hors doeuvres originated in Asia and he went on to state that the French considered hors-doeuvres to be superfluous to a well cooked meal.
Service à la française continued in Europe until the early 19th century, after the 19th century the entremet would become almost exclusively a sweet dish or dessert with the British custom of the savoury being the only remaining tradition of the savoury entremet. The style of formal dining changed drastically in the 19th century, some traditional hors doeuvres would remain on the table throughout the meal. These included olives, nuts and radishes, the changing, contemporary hors doeuvres, sometimes called dainty dishes became more complicated in preparation
Boiled eggs are eggs cooked with their shells unbroken, usually by immersion in boiling water. Hard-boiled eggs are cooked so that the egg white and egg yolk both solidify, while for an egg the yolk, and sometimes the white, remain at least partially liquid. A few different methods are used to make boiled eggs other than simply immersing them in boiling water, Boiled eggs can be cooked below the boiling temperature, via coddling, or they can be steamed. The egg timer was named due to its usage in timing the boiling of eggs. Boiled eggs are a popular breakfast food in countries around the world. There are variations both in desired doneness and in the method of how eggs are boiled, and a variety of gadgets for eggs exist. These variations include, Baked eggs Baking eggs in an oven instead of boiling in water, Baked eggs are identical to boiled eggs but the shells peel more easily. Starting temperature Room temperature or from a refrigerator, eggs may be left out overnight to come to room temperature, preparation Some pierce the eggs beforehand with an egg piercer to prevent cracking.
There is much debate on this subject, ekelund et al. in Why eggs should not be pierced claimed that pricking caused egg white proteins to be damaged and was therefore to be discouraged. Others recommend against this, or add vinegar to the water to prevent the white from billowing in case of cracking, for this purpose, table salt can be used. A cradle is advocated as reducing cracking, since the eggs do not roll around loose, to remove, one may allow the water to cool, pour off the boiling water, or remove the cradle. Steaming Eggs are taken straight from the refrigerator and placed in the steamer at full steam, the eggs will not crack due to sudden change in temperatures. At full steam, soft-boiled eggs are ready in 6 minutes, as the eggs are cooked by a steam source, there is no variation of water temperature and hence cooking time, no matter how many eggs are placed in the steamer. Sous vide Rather than cooking in boiling water, boiled eggs can be made by cooking/coddling in their shell sous vide in hot water at temperatures anywhere from 60 to 85 °C.
It turns out that the egg white cooks at 75 °C and the yolk. Cooking time There is substantial variation, with cooking time being the variable affecting doneness. It usually varies from 10–17 minutes for large hard-boiled eggs, 1–4 minutes for large soft-cooked eggs. Cooling After eggs are removed from heat, some cooking continues to occur, particularly of the yolk, due to residual heat, for this reason some allow eggs to cool in air or plunge them into cold water as the final stage of preparation
A trencher is a type of tableware, commonly used in medieval cuisine. A trencher was originally a round of bread used as a plate. At the end of the meal, the trencher could be eaten with sauce, the trencher evolved into a small plate of metal or wood, typically circular and completely flat, without the lip or raised edge of a plate. Trenchers of this type are used, typically for serving food that does not involve liquid. An individual salt dish or squat open salt cellar placed near a trencher was called a trencher salt, a trencherman is one devoted to eating and drinking, often to excess, one with a hearty appetite, a gourmand. A secondary use, generally archaic, is one who frequents anothers table, a trencher-fed pack is a pack of foxhounds or harriers in which the hounds are kept individually by hunt members and only assembled as a pack to hunt. Usually, a pack of hounds are maintained together as a pack in kennels, turn the Trencher was a traditional childrens party game in which an adult spun a platter on its edge in the middle of a seated ring of children.
The child whose name was called had to stand and run to catch the platter before it fell, failure entailed a forfeit or minor ordeal. The game was current as late as the mid twentieth century, in Virgils Aeneid, trenchers are the object of a prophecy. In bk.7, when the Trojans eat the trenchers after a frugal feast, Aeneas son Ascanius jokes that they are so hungry they would have eaten the tables, at which point Aeneas realises that the prophecy has been fulfilled. However, he reattributes the prophecy to his father, This episode is alluded to in Allen Tates poem, The Mediterranean. After the meal, the sauce-soaked trenchers were probably distributed to servants or the poor, food was served on platters, commonly one platter to two diners, from which they transferred it to their trenchers. Shakespeare used the term in at least eleven of his plays. The term appears commonly throughout George R. R. Martins A Song of Ice and Fire series, such as this excerpt from A Dance with Dragons, The beer was brown, the bread black and she served it in a trencher hollowed out of a stale loaf.
Bread bowl Edible tableware Sop Frumenty Medieval cuisine Great hall
Head cheese or brawn is a cold cut that originated in Europe. A version pickled with vinegar is known as souse, head cheese is not a dairy cheese, but a terrine or meat jelly made with flesh from the head of a calf or pig, or less commonly a sheep or cow, and often set in aspic. The parts of the head used vary, but the brain, the tongue, and sometimes the feet and heart, may be included. It can be made from trimmings from pork and veal, head cheese may be flavored with onion, black pepper, bay leaf and vinegar. It is usually eaten cold or at room temperature, meat jellies were made of the cleaned head of the animal, which was simmered to produce stock, a peasant food made since the Middle Ages. When cooled, the stock congeals because of the natural gelatin found in the skull, the aspic may need additional gelatin, or more often, reduction to set properly. The term head cheese is used in North America, potted heid in Scotland, brawn elsewhere in Britain, the term souse for the pickled variety is North American and West Indian.
Austria In Austria, head cheese is known as Presswurst, Sulz or Schwartamaga in the most western regions, depending on the region, its often served with a light dressing. Bulgaria In Bulgaria, the meal пача is prepared from pigs heads, the broth is heavily seasoned with garlic before cooling. Croatia This cut is known as hladetina, and is commonly produced after the traditional slaughter of pigs. A strongly seasoned version of this cut is called tlačenica or švargla, the name švargl is used for a variant where the chopped parts are stuffed inside the pigs stomach, similar to Scottish haggis. Cyprus in Cyprus it is made with pork and known as zalatina and it is often seasoned with lemon juice. Other ingredients include onion, allspice, vinegar, carrot, root celery, and sometimes eggs. A similar product, tlačenka, is basically huspenina with some meat, chopped liver. Tlačenka is generally thicker than huspenina, and it is eaten with chopped onions. A rolled version made in a similar way exists.
Estonia Sült is similar to the German or Croatian dish, but is usually less seasoned and is made from higher quality meat, sometimes carrots or greens are added. It is a traditional Christmas dish, but is sold in stores year round, the traditional sült is made from pork using its gelatinous parts
A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small pieces of food, which may be mixed with a sauce or salad dressing. They are typically served cold, although some, such as south German potato salad, are served warm, salads may contain vegetables, cheese, cooked meat, eggs and nuts. Garden salads use a base of leafy greens like lettuce, kale or spinach, other types include bean salad, tuna salad, Greek salad, and Japanese sōmen salad. The sauce used to flavor a salad is commonly called a salad dressing, well-known types include ranch, Thousand Island, vinaigrette comes in many varieties, one version is a mixture of olive oil, balsamic vinegar and seasonings. Salads may be served at any point during a meal, such as, Appetizer salads, side salads, to accompany the main course as a side dish. Main course salads, usually containing a portion of heartier fare, such as chicken breast, dessert salads, sweet versions containing fruit, sweeteners or whipped cream, or just fruit, which is called a fruit salad.
The word salad comes from the French salade of the meaning, from the Latin salata. In English, the word first appears as salad or sallet in the 14th century, salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty oil-and-vinegar dressings during Roman times. The Romans and ancient Greeks ate mixed greens with dressing, in his 1699 book, Acetaria, A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens covered with creamy mustard dressing, chervil, oil used on salads can be found in the 17th century colony of New Netherland. Curaçao Papers page 234 In a 1653 inventory in New Netherland dressing can be found, council Minutes Volume V, page 78 The United States popularized mixed greens salads in the late 19th century. Salads including layered and dressed salads were popular in Europe since Greek imperial, several other regions of the world adopted salads throughout the second half of the 20th century.
From Europe and the Americas to China and Australia, salads are sold in supermarkets, at restaurants, in the US market, restaurants will often have a Salad Bar laid out with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad. Salad restaurants were earning more than $300 million in 2014, a green salad or garden salad is most often composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket. The salad leaves may be cut or torn into bite-sized fragments and tossed together and they are often adorned with garnishes such as nuts or croutons. A wedge salad is made from a head of lettuce halved or quartered, vegetables other than greens may be used in a salad. Common raw vegetables used in a salad include cucumbers, tomatoes, spring onions, red onions, celery, a bound salad can be composed or tossed. They are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise, one portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop
Cheese is a food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, goats, during production, the milk is usually acidified, and adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form, Some cheeses have molds on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature, hundreds of types of cheese from various countries are produced. Their styles and flavors depend on the origin of the milk, whether they have been pasteurized, the content, the bacteria and mold, the processing. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents, the yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto. Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as pepper, garlic. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice, most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, the addition of rennet completes the curdling.
Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available, most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, calcium, generally speaking, hard cheeses, such as parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goats milk cheese. The long storage life of some cheeses, especially when encased in a protective rind, There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a plastic on the inside. A specialist seller of cheese is known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, the cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory, selecting the cheese menu, receiving and ripening. The word cheese comes from Latin caseus, from which the modern word casein is derived, the earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means to ferment, become sour.
The word cheese comes from chese and cīese or cēse, the Online Etymological Dictionary states that cheese comes from Old English cyse, cese. from West Germanic *kasjus, from Latin caseus cheese. The Online Etymological Dictionary states that the word is of. unknown origin, perhaps from a PIE root *kwat- to ferment, Old Norse ostr, Danish ost, Swedish ost are related to Latin ius broth, juice. When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries supplies and it is from this word that the French fromage, proper Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj, and Provençal furmo are derived
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him