A triathlon is a multiple-stage competition involving the completion of three continuous and sequential endurance disciplines. While many variations of the sport exist, triathlon, in its most popular form, involves swimming, triathletes compete for fastest overall course completion time, including timed transitions between the individual swim and run components. The word triathlon is of Greek origin from τρεῖς or treis, a transition area is set up where the athletes change gear for different segments of the race. This is where the switches from swimming to cycling and cycling to running occur and these areas are used to store bicycles, performance apparel, and any other accessories needed for the next stage of the race. The transition from swim to bike is referred to as T1, the athletes overall time for the race includes time spent in T1 and T2. Transition areas vary in size depending on the number of participants expected, in addition, these areas provide a social headquarters before the race.
The nature of the focuses on persistent and often periodized training in each of the three disciplines, as well as combination workouts and general strength conditioning. Triathlon is considered by some to have its beginnings in 1920s France and this race is held every year in France near Joinville-le-Pont, in Meulan and Poissy. An earlier tri-sport event in 1902 featured running, there are documented tri-sport events featuring running, swimming, & cycling in 1920,1921,1945, and the 1960s. In 1920, the French newspaper L´Auto reported on a competition called Les Trois Sports with a 3 km run,12 km bike, and those three parts were done without any break. Another event was held in 1921 in Marseilles with the order of events bike-run-swim, the first modern swim/bike/run event to be called a triathlon was held at Mission Bay, San Diego, California on September 25,1974. The race was conceived and directed by Jack Johnstone and Don Shanahan, members of the San Diego Track Club, and was sponsored by the track club.
It was reportedly not inspired by the French events, although a race the year at Fiesta Island, San Diego. The International Triathlon Union was founded in 1989 as the governing body of the sport, with the chief goal, at that time. In addition, the ITU has a Long Distance Triathlon series, the World Triathlon Corporation is a private company that sanctions and organizes the Ironman and Ironman 70.3 races each year. These races serve as qualifying events for their own annual World Championships, the Ironman World Championship is held annually in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii in October while the Ironman 70.3 World Championship is held in September and changes location each year. The Ironman and Iron brands are property of the WTC, long-distance multi-sport events organized by groups other than the WTC may not officially be called Ironman or Iron races. For its part, the ITU does not sanction WTC races, however, USAT uses a combination of ITU, the Challenge Family brand produces long-distance events around the world, and includes events like Challenge Roth
A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft which is propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle. The word kayak originates from the Greenlandic language, where it is the word qajaq, in the UK the term canoe is often used when referring to a kayak. The traditional kayak has a deck and one or more cockpits. Kayaks are being sailed, as well as propelled by means of electric motors. The kayak was first used by the indigenous Aleut, Yupik, kayaks were originally developed by the Inuit and Aleut. They used the boats to hunt on inland lakes and coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic, Bering Sea and these first kayaks were constructed from stitched seal or other animal skins stretched over a wood or whalebone-skeleton frame. Kayaks are believed to be at least 4,000 years old, the oldest existing kayaks are exhibited in the North America department of the State Museum of Ethnology in Munich. Native people made many types of boat for different purposes, the baidarka, developed by indigenous cultures in Alaska, was made in double or triple cockpit designs, for hunting and transporting passengers or goods.
An umiak is an open sea canoe, ranging from 17 to 30 feet, made with seal skins. It is considered a kayak although it was originally paddled with single-bladed paddles, native builders designed and built their boats based on their own experience and that of the generations before them, passed on through oral tradition. A special skin jacket, was laced to the kayak. This enabled the eskimo roll to become the method of regaining posture after capsizing, especially as few Inuit could swim. Inuit kayak builders had specific measurements for their boats, the length was typically three times the span of his outstretched arms. The width at the cockpit was the width of the builders hips plus two fists, the typical depth was his fist plus the outstretched thumb. Thus typical dimensions were about 17 feet long by 20–22 inches wide by 7 inches deep and this measurement system confounded early European explorers who tried to duplicate the kayak, because each kayak was a little different. Most of the Aleut people in the Aleutian Islands eastward to Greenland Inuit relied on the kayak for hunting a variety of seals, though whales.
Skin-on-frame kayaks are still being used for hunting by Inuit people in Greenland, because the smooth and flexible skin glides silently through the waves. In other parts of the home builders are continuing the tradition of skin on frame kayaks, usually with modern skins of canvas or synthetic fabric
Manly, New South Wales
Manly is a beach-side suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 17 kilometres north-east of the Sydney central business district and is the centre of the local government area of Northern Beaches Council. Manly was named by Captain Arthur Phillip for the people living there, stating that their confidence. These men were of the Kay-ye-my clan and Colebee spoke to them and Bennelong asked for Governor Phillip. Captain Nepean sent the Boatswain back to Governor Phillip at South Head, the Aboriginal men cut large chunks of whale off and put them in the boat for Governor Phillip. The military party proceeded on their walk to Broken Bay, when Governor Phillips party arrived to see the Aboriginal men they held friendly conversation with Bennelong and Colebee for over half an hour. Later an older Aboriginal man appeared with a spear, Captain Tench remarked that he was seemingly a stranger and little acquainted with Bennelong and Colebee. The Governor moved towards this man and the man became agitated, Governor Phillip threw down his dirk to appease the man crying out confidently.
The spear was thrown and Governor Phillip was hit in the shoulder, the muskets were brought to shore but only one would fire. The spear was broken and all hastened to Port Jackson. Manly had been envisaged as a resort by Henry Gilbert Smith in the 1850s. In 1853 Smith acquired two parcels of land. Initially John had chartered a paddle steamer to Manly and other vessels visited on an ad hoc excursion basis, Smith built a wharf in 1855 and eventually acquired an interest in steamers himself and soon more regular services to Manly had commenced. By 1873, Smith had sold the lease to the wharf and his share of the steamers to the operators of the ferries and eventually ownership passed to the once famous Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company. It was the Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company which coined the expression about Manly being Seven miles from Sydney, the Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company played an important part in Manlys development. It built several attractions including a large pool and bathing pavilion.
In 1972 the company was sold to Brambles Limited and in 1974 to the Government of New South Wales and it is now part of Sydney Ferries. It was Australias first overseas military adventure, and the Little Boy from Manly, became a symbol either of patriotism or, among opponents of the adventure, especially due to a cartoon by Livingston Hopkins of The Bulletin
The front crawl or forward crawl, known as the Australian crawl or American crawl, is a swimming stroke usually regarded as the fastest of the four front primary strokes. As such, the front crawl stroke is almost universally used during a swimming competition. It is one of two long axis strokes, the one being the backstroke. Unlike the backstroke, the stroke, and the breaststroke. This style is referred to as the Australian crawl although this can sometimes refer to a more specific variant of front crawl. The face-down swimming position allows for a range of motion of the arm in the water, as compared to the backstroke. The above-water recovery of the stroke reduces drag, compared to the recovery of breaststroke. The alternating arms allow some rolling movement of the body for an easier recovery compared to, for example, the alternating arm stroke makes for a relatively constant speed throughout the cycle. The front crawl style has been in use since ancient times, there is an Egyptian bas relief piece dating to 2000 BCE showing it in use.
In the Western world, the stroke, which would be refined into the front crawl, was first seen in a swimming race held in 1844 in London. The Anishinaabe Flying Gull and Tobacco had been invited by the British Swimming Society to give an exhibition at the baths in High Holborn. They raced against each other for a medal to be presented by the society. Sometime around 1873, British swimmer John Arthur Trudgen learned the front crawl from native South Americans during a trip to Argentina, Trudgen applied the more common sidestroke kick instead of the flutter kick used by the Native Americans. This hybrid stroke was called the Trudgen stroke, because of its speed, this stroke quickly became popular. This style was improved by the Australian champion swimmer, Richmond Dick Cavill who developed the stroke with his brother Tums. They were inspired by Alick Wickham, a young Solomon Islander living in Sydney who swam a version of the stroke that was popular in his home island at Roviana lagoon. The Cavills modified their swimming stroke using this as inspiration, the American swimmer Charles Daniels made modifications to a six-beat kick, thereby creating the American crawl.
The starting position for front crawl is known as the streamline position, the swimmer starts on the stomach with both arms stretched out to the front and both legs extended to the back
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space.
As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary.
The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills
The Olympic Games are considered the worlds foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in changes to the Olympic Games. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, as a result, the Olympics has shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship, World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916,1940, and 1944 Games.
Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games, the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals, silver, the Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame.
The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to themselves to the world. The Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, competition was among representatives of several city-states and kingdoms of Ancient Greece. These Games featured mainly athletic but combat such as wrestling. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished. This cessation of hostilities was known as the Olympic peace or truce and this idea is a modern myth because the Greeks never suspended their wars. The truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, FRS, commonly known simply as Lord Byron, was a British poet, politician, and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. Among his best-known works are the narrative poems, Don Juan and Childe Harolds Pilgrimage. Byron is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains widely read and influential and he travelled extensively across Europe, especially in Italy, where he lived for seven years with the struggling poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. Later in his life, Byron joined the Greek War of Independence fighting the Ottoman Empire. He died in 1824 at the age of 36 from a fever contracted while in Missolonghi, ethel Colburn Mayne states that George Gordon Byron was born on 22 January 1788 in a house on 24 Holles Street in London. However, Robert Charles Dallas in his Recollections states that Byron was born in Dover and he was the son of Captain John Mad Jack Byron and his second wife, the former Catherine Gordon, a descendant of Cardinal Beaton and heiress of the Gight estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
Byrons father had seduced the married Marchioness of Carmarthen and, after she divorced her husband. His treatment of her was described as brutal and vicious, in order to claim his second wifes estate in Scotland, Byrons father took the additional surname Gordon, becoming John Byron Gordon, and he was occasionally styled John Byron Gordon of Gight. Byron himself used this surname for a time and was registered at school in Aberdeen as George Byron Gordon, at the age of 10, he inherited the English Barony of Byron of Rochdale, becoming Lord Byron, and eventually dropped the double surname. Byrons paternal grandparents were Vice-Admiral the Hon. John Foulweather Jack Byron, vice Admiral John Byron had circumnavigated the globe, and was the younger brother of the 5th Baron Byron, known as the Wicked Lord. He was christened, at St Marylebone Parish Church, George Gordon Byron after his maternal grandfather George Gordon of Gight, a descendant of James I of Scotland, Mad Jack Byron married his second wife for the same reason that he married his first, her fortune.
In a move to avoid his creditors, Catherine accompanied her husband to France in 1786. He was born on 22 January in lodgings at Holles Street in London, Catherine moved back to Aberdeenshire in 1790, where Byron spent his childhood. His father soon joined them in their lodgings in Queen Street, Catherine regularly experienced mood swings and bouts of melancholy, which could be partly explained by her husbands continuing to borrow money from her. As a result, she fell even further into debt to support his demands and it was one of these importunate loans that allowed him to travel to Valenciennes, where he died in 1791. When Byrons great-uncle, the wicked Lord Byron, died on 21 May 1798, described as a woman without judgment or self-command, Catherine either spoiled and indulged her son or vexed him with her capricious stubbornness. Her drinking disgusted him, and he often mocked her for being short and corpulent and she once retaliated and, in a fit of temper, referred to him as a lame brat.
Langley-Moore questions the Galt claim that she over-indulged in alcohol, upon the death of Byrons mother-in-law Judith Noel, the Hon
One of its boundaries has the tripoint of Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire. The 2011 Census recorded the population as 11,619. The first record of Henley is from 1179, when it is recorded that King Henry II had bought land for the making of buildings, King John granted the manor of Benson and the town and manor of Henley to Robert Harcourt in 1199. A church at Henley is first mentioned in 1204, in 1205 the town received a paviage grant, and in 1234 the bridge is first mentioned. In 1278 Henley is described as a hamlet of Benson with a chapel, the street plan was probably established by the end of the 13th century. As a demesne of the crown it was granted in 1337 to John de Molyns and it is said that members for Henley sat in parliaments of Edward I and Edward III, but no writs have been found to substantiate this. The existing Thursday market, it is believed, was granted by a charter of King John. A market was certainly in existence by 1269, the jurors of the assize of 1284 said that they did not know by what warrant the earl of Cornwall held a market, the existing Corpus Christi fair was granted by a charter of Henry VI.
During the Black Death pandemic that swept through England in the 14th century, to the west it included Bell Street and the Market Place. Henry VIII granted the use of the mayor and burgess. The original charter was issued by Elizabeth I but replaced by one from George I in 1722, Henley suffered at the hands of both parties in the Civil War. Later, William III rested here on his march to London in 1688, at the recently rebuilt Fawley Court. The towns period of prosperity in the 17th and 18th centuries was due to manufactures of glass and malt, Henley-on-Thames supplied London with timber and grain. A workhouse to accommodate 150 people was built at West Hill in Henley in 1790, Henley Bridge is a five arched bridge across the river built in 1786. It is a Grade I listed building, during 2011 the bridge underwent a £200,000 repair programme after being hit by the boat Crazy Love in August 2010. About a mile upstream of the bridge is Marsh Lock, chantry House is the second Grade I listed building in the town.
It is unusual in having more storeys on one side than on the other, the Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin is nearby, and has a 16th-century tower. The Old Bell is a pub in the centre of Henley, the building has been dated from 1325, the oldest-dated building in the town
A swimming cap, swim cap or bathing cap, is a tightly fitted, skin-tight garment, commonly made from silicone, latex or lycra, worn on the head by recreational and competitive swimmers. Caps are worn for various reasons, competitive swim caps reduce drag in the water caused by loose hair. During longer swimming sessions, a swim cap keeps the head warm. In some countries swimming caps are required before entering the swimming pool, swim caps were made of rubberized fabric during the early 20th century. By the 1920s they were made of latex, the earliest chin strap caps were known as aviators style caps as they resembled the strapped leather helmets of flyers of the day. During the 1940s swim caps became scarce as rubber was needed for war materials and it was a lucky girl who had a swim cap to protect her wave during that period. The permanent wave hairstyle took time to obtain and was expensive, the 1950s saw decorated caps come into vogue, and during the 1960s colorful flower petal swim caps became popular.
Mens long hair styles of the late 1960s and early 1970s made swimming pool operators change rules requiring swim caps for swimmers with long hair, without swim cap requirements wearing swim caps fell out of fashion during the early 1970s. Competitive swimming in the 1980s and 1990s and the construction of indoor lap swimming pools for fitness swimming. Many swimmers have trouble finding a cap that keeps their hair dry. Double capping—wearing two swim caps—can provide a tighter swim cap seal, an inner silicone or latex swim cap pulled low over the ears worn under a second traditional style chin strap swim cap with an inner seal may provide the protection desired. Double capping is used by participants of open water swimming to provide warmth, during the 2012 Olympics held in London U. K. some swimmers wore double swim caps. The English Channel Swimming and Piloting Federation and the Channel Swimming Association state that one standard swim cap may be used for official English Channel record swims, the cap must be approved by the official observer who accompanies the swimmer on the pilot boat across the channel.
Swim caps that have neoprene within the cap construction such as the Barracuda Hothead, several other long distance swims such as the Santa Catalina Channel California swim have similar rules for record swims. Swim caps worn for open water swims should be of visible colors that contrast with the water so that observers may safely monitor them, for swimming competition, different swimmers use different types of caps. The most common being made of silicone, when at a swim meet, a coach will normally provide the swimmer with a latex cap with the club logo. As one gets into more serious swimming, the use of dome caps may come into play, a dome cap is a swimming cap that is very tight and has internal structure to ensure that your head is completely smooth. This is done to decrease drag that lumps of hair sticking up in a cap may cause
Salford Quays is an area of Salford, Greater Manchester, near the end of the Manchester Ship Canal. Previously the site of Manchester Docks, it one of the first and largest urban regeneration projects in the United Kingdom following the closure of the dockyards in 1982. Built by the Manchester Ship Canal Company, Salford Docks was the larger of two sections made up Manchester Docks, the other being Pomona Docks to the east. They were opened in 1894 by Queen Victoria and spanned 120 acres of water and 1,000 acres of land and they closed in 1982, resulting in the loss of 3000 jobs. In 1983 Salford City Council acquired parts of the docks covering 220 acres from the Manchester Ship Canal Company with the aid of a land grant. The area was rebranded as Salford Quays and redevelopment by Urban Waterside began in 1985 under the Salford Quays Development Plan, within two years the quality was sufficient to introduce 12,000 coarse fish, which have thrived in the environment. Between 1986 and 1990 the infrastructure of the docks was modified to create a waterway network.
Roads and bridges were built and a promenade along the waterfront constructed and landscaped and watersports facilities were provided and a railway swing bridge moved to cross Dock 9. A hotel, housing, offices were built on Piers 5 and 6 followed by developments on Pier 7. Public funding and private investment totalled around £280 million by the early 1990s and it had secured £64 million in funding by 22 February 1996. The Lowry stands at the end of Pier 8, largely surrounded by the waters of the Manchester Ship Canal. Designed by James Stirling and Michael Wilford, it opened on 28 April 2000 and houses the 1,730 seat Lyric theatre, there are cafes, bars and a restaurant at the south-western end of the building. The centre is associated with L. S. Lowry, the Imperial War Museum North, on Trafford Wharf Road in Trafford Park, overlooks the Manchester Ship Canal on the opposite bank to the Lowry and MediaCityUK. The area was bombed during the Manchester Blitz in December 1940. The museum, designed by architect Daniel Libeskind, opened in July 2002 and its structure was designed to be a metaphor for a world shattered by war with sloping walls and ceilings.
Three areas, the Air and Water Shards house exhibition and gallery space, public areas, at the moment, the exhibition is dedicated to Medicine Through Time. The museum currently has an artifact from the New York 9/11 Twin Tower disaster. MediaCityUK is a 200-acre mixed-use property development on Pier 9 of the Quays with a focus on creative industries and it was developed by the Peel Group
Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen and part of Copenhagen Inner City. The island is dominated by the vast Christiansborg Palace which houses the Danish Parliament, the Supreme Court of Denmark, the Prime Ministers Office, the site used to consist of several small natural islands in the sound between the islands of Zealand and Amager. On the largest of these, Bishop Absalon of Roskilde constructed a castle in 1167. In 1250 the castle was extended with two towers to get the appearance that is now depicted on Copenhagens Coat of Arms. The castle was conquered by the Hanseatic League 1368 and pulled down the year as part of peace terms. Shortly after Copenhagen Castle was built on the site and it became the residence for the Danish king in 1443. However, the took place in a rather haphazard way and continued during the reign of the following kings. Probably during the reign of Christian III a building was constructed on the quay of the canal in front of the castle to house the Chancellery.
During the reign of Christian III and Frederick II an arsenal was constructed by the south of the castle. Under King Christian IV Slotsholmen saw considerable development, especially in the part of the island. Here a new harbour was established, surrounded on one side by an Arsenal. Other new buildings constructed were the Stock Exchange and the Brewhouse, all four of these historic buildings are still there today. By the time of the introduction of the monarchy in 1660. During the reign of King Frederick III, further lack of space in the led to the construction in 1665-1673 of an additional building between the Supply Depot and the Arsenal. This building, still visible today, was to house the Cabinet of curiosities of the king, founded about 1650, during the reign of King Frederick IV, a magnificent administration building was constructed in 1716-21 next to the palace adjacent to the Supply Depot. This new building was to house the chancelleries, thus replacing the previous chancellery building situated by the canal, the new chancellery building was connected to the castle by an arched passageway, thus allowing the king to stay in close contact with his government.
The Chancellery Building has functioned as the heart of the administration for almost 300 years. Several renovations were made, most notably by Frederick IV in 1721-29 and this rebuilding thoroughly changed the irregular appearance of the castle to a more regular shape
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa