Operation Deny Flight
Operation Deny Flight was a North Atlantic Treaty Organization operation that began on 12 April 1993 as the enforcement of a United Nations no-fly zone over Bosnia and Herzegovina. The United Nations and NATO expanded the mission of the operation to include providing close air support for UN troops in Bosnia and carrying out coercive air strikes against targets in Bosnia. Twelve NATO members contributed forces to the operation and, by its end on 20 December 1995, NATO pilots had flown 100,420 sorties; the operation played an important role in shaping both the Bosnian War and NATO. The operation included the first combat engagement in NATO's history, a 28 February 1994 air battle over Banja Luka, in April 1994, NATO aircraft first bombed ground targets in an operation near Goražde; these engagements helped show that NATO had adapted to the post-Cold War era and could operate in environments other than a major force on force engagement on the plains of Central Europe. Cooperation between the UN and NATO during the operation helped pave the way for future joint operations.
Although it helped establish UN-NATO relations, Deny Flight led to conflict between the two organizations. Most notably, significant tension arose between the two after UN peacekeepers were taken as hostages in response to NATO bombing; the operations of Deny Flight spanned more than two years of the Bosnian War and played an important role in the course of that conflict. The no-fly zone operations of Deny Flight proved successful in preventing significant use of air power by any side in the conflict. Additionally, the air strikes flown during Deny Flight led to Operation Deliberate Force, a massive NATO bombing campaign in Bosnia that played a key role in ending the war. In October 1992, at the beginning of the Bosnian War, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 781; this resolution prohibited unauthorized military flights in Bosnian airspace. Following the resolution, NATO began Operation Sky Monitor during which NATO forces monitored violations of the no-fly zone, without taking any military action against violators.
By April 1993, NATO forces had documented more than 500 violations of the no-fly zone. In response to these "blatant" violations of Bosnian air space, implicitly of resolution 781, the UN Security Council issued Resolution 816. While Resolution 781 prohibited only military flights, Resolution 816 prohibited all flights in Bosnian air space, except for those expressly authorized by the UN Flight Coordination Center in Zagreb; the resolution authorized UN member states to "take all necessary measures... to ensure compliance" with the no-fly zone restrictions. In response to this resolution, NATO commenced Operation Deny Flight on 12 April 1993. Deny Flight was intended only to enforce the no-fly zone; the US had taken unilateral actions to aid civilians caught in the conflict by dropping humanitarian supplies into Bosnia under Operation Provide Promise, many US officials argued for the use of military force. These officials were eager to expand US air operations through Deny Flight, hoping that an aggressive no-fly zone and possible air strikes would end the conflict more quickly.
NATO forces suffered its first loss on the second day of operations, when a French Mirage 2000 crashed in the Adriatic Sea due to mechanical failure. The pilot ejected safely. After its adoption, Operation Deny Flight was successful in preventing fixed-wing aircraft from flying over restricted air space in Bosnia. During the monitoring phase of Operation Sky Monitor, unauthorized fixed-wing flights averaged twenty per month, but during Deny Flight, the average was three. During the conflict, there were only an estimated 32 fixed-wing military aircraft in Bosnia, all of them former Yugoslav National Army planes under the control of the Bosnian Serbs. Thus, NATO needed to prevent incursions into Bosnian airspace from Croatia and Serbia; the first serious violation to the no-fly zone came on 28 February 1994, when six Serb J-21 Jastreb jets bombed a Bosnian factory. US Air Force F-16s shot down four of the six Serb jets over Banja Luka; this engagement was the first combat engagement of Operation Deny Flight, its only significant air-to-air combat engagement.
More the Banja Luka incident was the first combat engagement in the history of NATO. The Serbs acknowledged the loss of a fifth aircraft in the incident. While Deny Flight was successful in stopping flights of fixed-wing aircraft, NATO forces found it difficult to stop helicopter flights, which presented a more complicated challenge. All sides in the conflict used helicopters extensively for non-military purposes, some of these flights were authorized by the UN. Under the operation's rules of engagement, NATO fighters were only authorized to shoot down helicopters that committed a hostile act. Otherwise, NATO fighters issued orders to "land or exit", in other words, land the aircraft or leave the no-fly zone. Helicopters in Bosnian airspace complied with these orders by landing, but took off again after NATO forces departed. None of the parties in the conflict respected the ban on helicopter flights, as evidenced when Ratko Mladić responded to a BBC journalist's question about his violation of the ban with the statement, "The commander of the Bosnian Serb armed forces does not ride on a donkey."Deceptive markings on helicopters further complicated matters for NATO pilots.
Many of the combatants painted their helicopters to look like those of organizations that the UN's Zagreb Flight Coordination Center had authorized to fly in restricted spa
Republika Srpska is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Situated in the northern and eastern parts of the country, it is defined by its rich natural heritage, encompassing dense forests and rivers, its largest city and de facto capital, on the river Vrbas, is Banja Luka. The territory that now makes up Republika Srpska subject to Illyrian and Celtic settlement, was invaded by the Slavs in the 6th and 7th centuries and, in the mediaeval era, it was variously ruled by the Byzantine Empire, mediaeval Serbian states, the Frankish Empire, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Bosnia, the mediaeval Kingdom of Hungary and, by the end of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire. After centuries of Ottoman-Habsburg conflict, the area became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in 1918 following World War I. Following World War II, it became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as part of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The creation of the modern entity of Republika Srpska dates to 1991, when six Serb Autonomous Regions united during the Yugoslav Wars. It achieved international recognition following the Dayton Accords and the end of the Bosnian War in 1995. Today, Republika Srpska maintains a parliamentary-style government, with the National Assembly holding legislative power within the entity. Republika Srpska is centralised, although it is split into 2nd-level administrative units, or opštine, of which there are 56; the legislature holds 83 seats, the current session is the ninth since the formation of Republika Srpska. Republika Srpska translated from Serbo-Croatian, means'Serb Republic'. Although the name Republika Srpska is variously glossed in English as'Serb Republic','Bosnian Serb Republic', or'Republic of Srpska', the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina and English-language news sources such as the BBC, The New York Times, The Guardian refer to the entity by its untranslated name. According to Glas Srpske, a Bosnian Serb daily, the modern entity's name was created by its first minister of culture, Ljubomir Zuković.
Archaeological evidence in Republika Srpska, as well as bordering areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina, attest to settlement since the Paleolithic. In 1976, near the modern-day town of Stolac in the then-relatively hospitable Neretva basin, archaeological artifacts in the form of cave engravings in Badanj and deer bones in the area were discovered to show hunter-gatherer settlement from as far back as 14,000 to 10,000 BC. Within the wider region of Herzegovina, similar discoveries tie the region's early settlement to Montenegro and coastal Croatia. With the Neolithic, came more permanent settlement; this occurred along the rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as farming spread from the southeast. A variety of idols of female character, were found in the Butmir site, along with dugouts. With the Indo-European migrations of the Bronze Age came the first use of metal tools in the region. Along with this kurgans. Remains of these mounds can be found in northwestern Bosnia near Prijedor, testament to not only denser settlement in the northern core of today's Republika Srpska but Bronze Age relics.
With the influx of the Iron Age, the Glasinac culture, developing near Sokolac in eastern Republika Srpska, was one of the most important of the country's long-standing Indo-European inhabitants, the Illyrians. These Illyrians—the Autariatae—were influenced by the Celts after the Gallic invasion of the Balkans. With the end of the Illyrian Wars, most of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska came under Roman control, within the province of Illyricum. In this period, the Romans consolidated the region through the construction of a dense road network, the Romanisation of the local population. Among these roads was the Via Argentaria, or the'Silver Way', which transported silver from the eastern mines of Bosnia to Roman population centres. Modern placenames, such as the Una river and the Sana river in the northwest, have Latin origins, meaning "the one" and the "healthy", respectively; this rule was not uninterrupted, however. Following 20 AD, the entirety of the country was conquered by the Romans and it was split between Pannonia and Dalmatia.
The most prominent Roman city in Bosnia was the small Servitium, near modern-day Gradiška in the northern part of the entity. Christianity spread to the region late at least due to the countryside's mountainous nature and its lack of large settlements. In the fourth century, the country began to be Christianised en masse. With the split of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires in 395, modern-day Republika Srpska fell under the Western Roman Empire. Testament to its and Bosnia and Herzegovina's religious polarization, it was conquered as a frontier of the Eastern Roman Empire, a harbinger for religious division to come. With the loosening of Roman grip on the region came the Migration Period which, given Republika Srpska's position in southeastern Europe, involved a wide variety of peoples. Among the first was the invasion of Germanic peoples from the east, the territory became a part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in 476. By 535, the territory was taken once again by the Byzantine Empire. At this time, the Empire's grip was once again loose, Slavs, including the Serbs and the Croats, invaded the s
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Lieutenant General Richard Arthur David Applegate CB OBE is a former Quartermaster-General and Master-General of the Ordnance to the Army. He is now a Director of Eagle Strategic Consulting Ltd.. Applegate was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1974. Between 1992 and 1994 he was Military Assistant and Speechwriter to three different Supreme Allied Commanders Europe and became Commanding Officer 19th Regiment Royal Artillery - The Highland Gunners. After a staff appointment where he was responsible for conceptual development of the British Army, he moved on to be Commander Royal Artillery for 3rd Division followed by an appointment as Director of Equipment Capability. In 1995 he was deployed at short notice with his artillery regiment to Bosnia under command UNPROFOR as commander of the UK/FR/NL artillery group within the ad hoc UNPROFOR Rapid Reaction Force and after the Dayton Agreement, he was assigned to the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, his artillery group based in Sarajevo and on Mount Igman provided surveillance and indirect fire in support of UNPROFOR and NATO's Operation Deliberate Force.
In 1999 he was Deputy Commander of the British Forces entering Kosovo. In 2004 he was appointed Capability Manager for Battlefield Manoeuvre and in June 2006 he became Master-General of the Ordnance. In February 2007 he became Chief of Materiel and a Main Board member of the new Defence Equipment and Support organisation, with specific responsibility for Defence's supply chain and support to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, he became Quartermaster-General. He moved on from this post in September 2009 to become a Defence Career Partner on attachment to a number of international companies in preparation to compete for the post of Chief of Defence Materiel for the UK MoD, he is a Colonel Commandant of the Royal Artillery and Honorary Colonel of 19th Regiment, Royal Artillery. Applegate was appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 2010 Birthday Honours and Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1996 Operational Honours List, he was awarded the US Legion of Merit in 2007 and was made a Legionnaire de 1ère classe in 1996 for combat command of French Foreign Legion troops in Bosnia.
He is a Companion of the Chartered Management Institute, Fellow of the City & Guilds of London Institute and an alumnus of the British Joint Higher Command and Staff Course
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Bernard Janvier is a former general of the French Army who served in the French Foreign Legion spearheading and putting in place effective resolving forces. He first took part in the Algerian War, he spearheaded at the head of the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment 2e REP in a peacekeeping mission in Lebanon. He was designated as the commander of Division Daguet during the First Gulf War. Four years he was assigned UNPROFOR in charge of peacekeeping during the Bosnian War, his father Pierre, was an officer in the gendarmerie. Bernard conducted his studies at the Orange College, at schools in Nice and Algeria and the University of Rennes. Admitted to the École militaire interarmes at Coetquidan, on October 1, 1958, in quality of a Saint-Cyrien, « Général Bugeaud », he conducted his course application at the infantry school in Nimes, on September 15, 1960. On December 1, 1960, he joined the center of perfection of the infantry cadres 2 at Philippeville in Algeria was assigned to on January 1, 1961 to the 1st battalion of the 1st Tirailleurs Regiment in quality as a commando chief.
Assigned to the 1st Foreign Regiment 1e RE during the month of July 1962, he was assigned on August 1, 1962 to the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment 2e REP, regiment with which he conducted a tour in North Africa from August 1962 to September 1964. From 1964 to 1967, he served in Madagascar and at the Comoros at the corps of the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment 3e REI, successively as assistant officer in a combat unit a corps general staff headquarters officer, he was promoted to the rank of Captain on January 1, 1967. Repatriated, he followed the Captain's course at the infantry application school the 33rd promotion of the generals staff headquarters school in quality as a candidate, as of December 1, 1968, he commanded from 1968 to 1970, a company of the 9th Parachute Chasseur Regiment 9e RCP from 1970 to 1972, as a company officer at the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr at Saint-Cyr Coëtquidan. Following, he occupied at the corps of the school, the functions of assistant chief of general information and general military formation during two years.
Candidate at the 88th promotion of superior war school, from September 1974 to May 1976, he served from June 1976 to August 1978, as an officer treating the bureau of personnel effectifs of the general staff headquarters of the French Army. He was promoted to Chef de bataillon on October 1, 1974. Successively, assigned as bureau chief of instruction and operations second commanding officer at the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment 2e REP, from August 1978 to September 1981, he participated to « Operation Tacaud » in Tchad in quality as the inter-arm group commandant « Phœnix », from November 1979 to April 1980, he received his Lieutenant-colonel rank on October 1, 1978. In 1981, he was assigned as general staff headquarters officer of the general inspection of the French Army. Designated as regimental commander of the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment 2e REP at Calvi, in 1982, he spearheaded the regiment in « Operation Épaulard I », within the cadre force of the Multinational Force in Lebanon from August to September 1982, in Beirut, charged in repatriating President Arafat.
He was accordingly promoted to the rank of Colonel on October 1, 1982. He participated to « Operation Manta » in Tchad, as commandant in the inter-arm group from January to May 1984. From 1984 to 1987, he exercised the functions of section chief of personnel, in the bureau of personnel-effectif at the general staff headquarters of the French Army. On August 1, 1987, he was the assistant general commanding officer of the 6th Light Armoured Division 6e DLB, at Nimes, on March 1, 1988, he was admitted to the 1st section of officer generals. On July 1, 1989, he was the chief of the division of the organization and logistics at the general staff headquarters of the Armies. In May 1990, he commanded « Operation Requin » at Port-Gentil in Gabon. On February 7 to April 30, 1991, he commanded Division Daguet in Saudi Arabia Iraq. At this title, he had under his commandment 4300 U. S. soldiers. He was promoted the Général de division on April 1, 1991. On May 1, 1991, he was designated in charge of missions near the chief of the general staff headquarters of the Armies before assuming command of the 6th Light Armoured Division 6e DLB, at Nîmes, on June 1, 1991 until September 5, 1993.
He was designated as chief of the general staff headquarters of the inter-arm operational planning, on December 6, 1993. He was accordingly elevated to the rank designation of Général de corps d'armée on July 1, 1994. On February 1, 1995, he was placed at the disposition of the Chief of Staff of the French Army and received on March 1, 1995, the chief commandment of the peacekeeping force of the united Nations for ex-Yugoslavia and assured the in second commandment functions of the force placed for the peace plan in Bosnia. Towards the end of the mission, he was placed at the disposition of Chief of Staff of the French Army, on February 19, 1996. On July 1996, he was nominated as a member of the superior council of the French Army. On September 1, 1996, he was nominated as director of the Institute of High Studies of National Defense and of the
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton–Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, United States, on 1 November 1995, formally signed in Paris, France, on 14 December 1995. These accords put an end to the 3 1⁄2 - one of the Yugoslav Wars. Though basic elements of the Dayton Agreement were proposed in international talks as early as 1992, these negotiations were initiated following the unsuccessful previous peace efforts and arrangements, the August 1995 Croatian military Operation Storm and its aftermath, the government military offensive against the Republika Srpska, conducted in parallel with NATO's Operation Deliberate Force. During September and October 1995, world powers, gathered in the Contact Group, applied intense pressure to the leaders of the three sides to attend the negotiations in Dayton, Ohio; the conference took place from 1–21 November 1995.
The main participants from the region were the President of the Republic of Serbia Slobodan Milošević, President of Croatia Franjo Tuđman, President of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegović with his Foreign Minister Muhamed Šaćirbeg. The peace conference was led by US Secretary of State Warren Christopher, negotiator Richard Holbrooke with two Co-Chairmen in the form of EU Special Representative Carl Bildt and the First Deputy Foreign Minister of Russia Igor Ivanov. A key participant in the US delegation was General Wesley Clark; the head of the UK's team was Pauline Neville-Jones, political director of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The UK military representative was Col Arundell David Leakey. Paul Williams, through the Public International Law & Policy Group served as legal counsel to the Bosnian Government delegation during the negotiations; the secure site was chosen in order to remove all the parties from their comfort zone, without which they would have little incentive to negotiate.
Curbing the participants' ability to negotiate via the media was a important consideration. Richard Holbrooke wanted to prevent posturing through early leaks to the press. After having been initiated in Dayton, Ohio, on 21 November 1995, the full and formal agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995 and witnessed by Spanish Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez, French President Jacques Chirac, U. S. President Bill Clinton, UK Prime Minister John Major, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin; the agreement's main purpose is to promote peace and stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to endorse regional balance in and around the former Yugoslavia, thus in a regional perspective. The present political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its structure of government were agreed upon, as part the constitution that makes up Annex 4 of the General Framework Agreement concluded at Dayton. A key component of this was the delineation of the Inter-Entity Boundary Line to which many of the tasks listed in the Annexes referred.
The State of Bosnia Herzegovina was set as of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina and of the Republika Srpska. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a complete state, as opposed to a confederation. Although decentralised in its entities, it would still retain a central government, with a rotating State Presidency, a central bank and a constitutional court; the agreement mandated a wide range of international organizations to monitor and implement components of the agreement. The NATO-led IFOR was responsible for implementing military aspects of the agreement and deployed on 20 December 1995, taking over the forces of the UNPROFOR; the Office of the High Representative was charged with the task of civil implementation. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe was charged with organising the first free elections in 1996. On 13 October 1997, the Croatian 1861 Law Party and the Bosnia-Herzegovina 1861 Law Party requested the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina to annul several decisions and to confirm one decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and, more to review the constitutionality of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina since it was alleged that the agreement violated the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina in a way that it undermined the integrity of the state and could cause the dissolution of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Court reached the conclusion that it is not competent to decide the dispute in regards to the mentioned decisions since the applicants were not subjects that were identified in Article VI.3 of the Constitution on those who can refer disputes to the Court. The Court rejected the other request: the Constitutional Court is not competent to evaluate the constitutionality of the General Framework Agreement as the Constitutional Court has in fact been established under the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to uphold this Constitution The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted as Annex IV to the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, there cannot be a conflict or a possibility