SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Operation Downfall

Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of the Japanese home islands near the end of World War II in Asia. The planned operation was canceled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet declaration of war and the invasion of Manchuria; the operation had two parts: Operation Coronet. Set to begin in November 1945, Operation Olympic was intended to capture the southern third of the southernmost main Japanese island, Kyūshū, with the captured island of Okinawa to be used as a staging area. In early 1946 would come Operation Coronet, the planned invasion of the Kantō Plain, near Tokyo, on the main Japanese island of Honshu. Airbases on Kyūshū captured in Operation Olympic would allow land-based air support for Operation Coronet. If Downfall had taken place, it would have been the largest amphibious operation in history. Japan's geography made; the Japanese planned an all-out defense of Kyūshū, with little left in reserve for any subsequent defense operations.

Casualty predictions varied but were high. Depending on the degree to which Japanese civilians would have resisted the invasion, estimates ran up into the millions for Allied casualties. Responsibility for the planning of Operation Downfall fell to American commanders Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur and the Joint Chiefs of Staff—Fleet Admirals Ernest King and William D. Leahy, Generals of the Army George Marshall and Hap Arnold. At the time, MacArthur was being considered for promotion to the special "super rank" of six-star General of the Armies, so as to be granted operational authority over other five-star officers. However, the proposal to promote MacArthur was only at the level of informal discussion by the time World War II ended. At the time, the development of the atomic bomb was a closely guarded secret, known only to a few top officials outside the Manhattan Project, the initial planning for the invasion of Japan did not take its existence into consideration.

Once the atomic bomb became available, General Marshall envisioned using it to support the invasion if sufficient numbers could be produced in time. Throughout the Pacific War, the Allies were unable to agree on a single Commander-in-Chief. Allied command was divided into regions: by 1945, for example, Chester Nimitz was the Allied C-in-C Pacific Ocean Areas, while Douglas MacArthur was Supreme Allied Commander, South West Pacific Area, Admiral Louis Mountbatten was the Supreme Allied Commander, South East Asia Command. A unified command was deemed necessary for an invasion of Japan. Interservice rivalry over who it should be was so serious; the Navy conceded, MacArthur was to be given total command of all forces, if circumstances made it necessary. The primary considerations that the planners had to deal with were time and casualties—how they could force Japan's surrender as as possible with as few Allied casualties as possible. Prior to the Quebec Conference, 1943, a joint British–American planning team produced a plan which did not call for an invasion of the Japanese home islands until 1947–48.

The American Joint Chiefs of Staff believed that prolonging the war to such an extent was dangerous for national morale. Instead, at the Quebec conference, the Combined Chiefs of Staff agreed that Japan should be forced to surrender not more than one year after Germany's surrender; the United States Navy urged the use of a airpower to bring about Japan's capitulation. They proposed operations to capture airbases in nearby Shanghai and Korea, which would give the United States Army Air Forces a series of forward airbases from which to bombard Japan into submission; the Army, on the other hand, argued that such a strategy could "prolong the war indefinitely" and expend lives needlessly, therefore that an invasion was necessary. They supported mounting a large-scale thrust directly against the Japanese homeland, with none of the side operations that the Navy had suggested; the Army's viewpoint prevailed. Physically, Japan made an imposing target, distant from other landmasses and with few beaches geographically suitable for sea-borne invasion.

Only Kyūshū and the beaches of the Kantō plain were realistic invasion zones. The Allies decided to launch a two-stage invasion. Operation Olympic would attack southern Kyūshū. Airbases would be established, which would give cover for Operation Coronet, the attack on Tokyo Bay. While the geography of Japan was known, the U. S. military planners had to estimate the defending forces. Based on intelligence available early in 1945, their assumptions included the following: "That operations in this area will be opposed not only by the available organized military forces of the Empire, but by a fanatically hostile population." "That three hostile divisions will be disposed in Southern KYUSHU and an additional three in Northern KYUSHU at initiation of the OLYMPIC operation." "That total hostile forces committed against KYUSHU operations will not exceed eight to ten divisions and that this level will be speedily attained." "That twenty-one hos

Portage Township, Mackinac County, Michigan

Portage Township is a civil township of Mackinac County in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the township population was 1,055. Curtis is an unincorporated village in the township, located on an isthmus between Manistique and South Manistique lakes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 72.2 square miles, of which 55.4 square miles is land and 16.8 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,055 people, 462 households, 312 families residing in the township; the population density was 19.0 per square mile. There were 1,060 housing units at an average density of 19.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 94.31% White, 0.28% African American, 3.41% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.19% from other races, 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population. There were 462 households out of which 18.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.4% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families.

28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.61. In the township the population was spread out with 16.9% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 19.8% from 25 to 44, 35.8% from 45 to 64, 22.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.0 males. The median income for a household in the township was $27,037, the median income for a family was $31,103. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $30,000 for females; the per capita income for the township was $15,435. About 11.5% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.4% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over

Louder (Neon Jungle song)

"Louder" is a 2014 song by Neon Jungle from their 2014 album Welcome to the Jungle. It is their fourth single; the band said the song discussed feelings and emotions and not being able to control the way someone feels towards another, wanting to increase the volume of everything else around one to block it out. The song is different from the group's previous singles in that it is slower and not a dance track. Releasing such a track had always been Neon Jungle's intention, to surprise people; this song has gained comparisons to The Saturdays' "Lies" from their debut album Chasing Lights. A music video was produced for the song which featured the group performing intensely in a massive metal dome structure, it was directed by Colin Tilley. The song has received general acclaim from music critics. Meggie Morris of Renowned for Sound praised the song, stating that this less processed release enables us to recognise the talent behind such young voices, appreciate why their individual tones work so well together...

"Louder" retains the edginess and energy we've come to expect from the four-piece pop mega-outfit... whilst expanding their range to captivate additional devotees. Morris gave the song 4 out of 5 stars. Sugarscape.com called it "well snazzy". Mistreemagazine.co.uk noted that the song "has been defined as a raw number which sees the band strip themselves of their pop hooks and dance beats" whilst commending it for being "emotionally raw" and "not without a pop hook or a contagious beat that keeps you hitting replay", concluding that it was "a pop-fuelled track and it's bloody brilliant. Electronically fuelled, the combination of diverse vocals, hard-hitting percussion and the addictive melody during the chorus will make you turn the volume up louder."